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 Breeds.ca

Information on dog breeds, mules, ducks and other animals.




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  Bee Hunting (13)    Guinea Pigs (10)    Dog Breeds (21)    Dogs (71)    Ducks (37)    Mules (32)    Bee Keeping (438)    Cattle (77)    Birds (16)    Fur Animals (15)    Fish (12)    Cats (102)  


Breeds.ca

Information on dog breeds, mules, ducks and other animals.


Bee Hunting

An Old Bee Hunter
The bee hunters in my early days used one of two methods in hunting the bee. The hunter would select a clear day, generally during bu...

Early Spring Hunting
Bees are very fond of salt in the early spring, and, in fact, in all parts of the season when brood rearing is in progress. Now we wi...

Bees Watering How To Find Them
As soon as the bees begin to stir in the spring they go searching around for water, for this is one essential element in brood-rearin...

Hunting Bees From Sumac
Sumac begins to bloom about the first of July and continues through the month. It is unquestionably the greatest source of honey in th...

Hunting Bees From Buckwheat
During buckwheat bloom, which occurs in the month of August and early part of September, many bees are found. Some hunters line them ...

Fall Hunting
The main sources of the honey supply are now over, and if the methods given in the preceding chapters are followed it is necessary fo...

The Latest Improved Method Of Burning
We now come to the time of the year when all flowers, by the laws of nature, cease to bloom. Indian summer is here with its nice balm...

Some Facts About Line Of Flight
You have all heard the term "bee line" used, and naturally infer that it means a straight line. This was what I believed it to be in ...

Baits And Scents
In rambling through the woods and over the mountains I have seen bee hunters using bait with the oil of anise in it, or perhaps a bai...

Cutting The Tree And Transferring
I hope those who read this book may find something in its pages that will be beneficial. In your excursions through the forests you a...

Customs And Ownership Of Wild Bees
There are customs in vogue among sportsmen that have been handed down from generation to generation, that have almost become laws. In...

Some Of Our Benefactors And Their Inventions
Bee keeping as a source of revenue dates far back in ancient history. With the advent of the movable frame hive and the increased dem...

Beekeeping For Profit
It is not generally known that beekeeping is quite an industry in the United States and that this country maintains a lead over all o...


Guinea Pigs

Introduction
The Guinea Pig or Cavy belongs to the rabbit family and is a native of South America. Why they are called Guinea Pigs, no one seems ...

Varieties
English. There are several varieties of Cavies, distinguished mainly by their fur. The ones most commonly raised and most widely ...

Uses Of Guinea Pigs
There are three main uses to which Guinea Pigs are put, as food, as pets and for experimental purposes in laboratory and medical res...

Food And Feeding
The feeding of Guinea Pigs is a very simple matter. Their main food is good hay or dried grass. This should be before them all the t...

Housing
Guinea Pigs do not require either large or elaborate quarters and the average man or boy can easily prepare a suitable place for the...

Breeding
Guinea Pigs are very prolific, having about five litters a year, and from two to five at a litter. Three is a safe average. The f...

Exhibiting Cavies
The showing or exhibiting of Guinea Pigs is rapidly becoming more popular and in nearly all pet stock and poultry shows you will fin...

Selling And Shipping
Guinea Pigs are in such wide demand that it is not a hard matter to sell them if you let people know you have them. There are dealer...

Diseases
Guinea Pigs are singularly free from disease and the breeder has little to fear along this line. Of course improper food, irregular ...

Profits In Cavy Raising
This industry in America is in its infancy. There are in several sections of the country large Cavy farms but they raise nothing lik...


Dog Breeds

The Boston Terrier
Who and what is this little dog that has forced his way by leaps and bounds from Boston town to the uttermost parts of this grand co...

The Boston Terrier Club
...

The Boston Terrier Clubits History Constitution By-laws And Official Standard
In 1890 a club was formed in Boston by a comparatively small body of men who were very much interested in the dog then known as the ...

The Boston Terrier Club Order Of Business
1. Calling meeting to order. 2. Roll call. 3. Reading of minutes. 4. Reports of officers. 5. Repor...

The Boston Terrier Club Constitution
ARTICLE I. NAME. This Association shall be known as and called the Boston Terrier Club. ARTICLE II. ...

The Boston Terrier Club By-laws
ARTICLE I. DUTIES OF OFFICERS. SECTION 1. President.--The president shall discharge the usual duties of his of...

The Boston Terrier Club The Revised Boston Terrier Standard
The present Boston terrier standard was adopted by the Boston Terrier Club on October 7, 1914, as a result of a revision recommended b...

The Boston Terrier Cluban Early Standard
The following standard adopted when the dog was known as the Round-Headed Bull and Terrier Dog, will be of interest here. Sku...

Kenneling
It goes without saying that any place is not good enough for a dog, although when one considers the way some dogs are housed in smal...

General Hints On Breeding
Having become possessed of suitable kennels to house his stock, the breeder is confronted with the great question: How and where sha...

Rearing Of Puppies
Assuming that the bitch has successfully whelped and all goes well, there is practically nothing to do beyond seeing that the mother...

Breeding For Size
When I joined the Boston Terrier Club in 1895, there were two classes for weight--the light weight, from 15 to 23 pounds, and the he...

Breeding For Good Disposition
This, to my mind, is the most important feature in the breeding of the dog that demands the most careful attention. If the dispositi...

Breeding For A Vigorous Constitution
I think there never was a time in the history of the breed when this particular feature needed more thoughtful, systematic and scien...

Breeding For Color And Markings
Every one who has a Boston terrier for sale knows that a handsome seal or mahogany brindle with correct markings, with plenty of lus...

Sales
Every person who has bred Bostons for any length of time knows that a good dog sells himself. I do not imagine there is practically ...

Boston Terrier Type And The Standard
The standard adopted by the Boston Terrier Club in 1900 was the result of earnest, sincere, thoughtful deliberations of as conservat...

Picture Taking
It would seem at the first glance that to write on this subject was only a waste of time and energy, and yet I know that no one feat...

Notes
There are several features of vital import in Boston terrier breeding that the passing years have disclosed to the writer the impera...

Conclusion
I was sitting by an open fire the other evening, and there passed through my mind a review of the breed since I saw a great many yea...

Technical Terms Used In Relation To The Boston Terrier And Their Meaning
A Crackerjack--A first class, typical dog. A Mutt--A worthless specimen. A Flyer--A dog capable of winning in any c...


Dogs

General History Of The Dog
There is no incongruity in the idea that in the very earliest period of man's habitation of this world he made a friend and companio...

The English Mastiff
Of the many different kinds of dogs now established as British, not a few have had their origin in other lands, whence specimens hav...

The Bulldog
The Bulldog is known to have been domiciled in this country for several centuries. Like the Mastiff, of which it is a smaller form, ...

The Miniature Bulldog
Fifty or sixty years ago, Toy--or, rather, as a recent edict of the Kennel Club requires them to be dubbed, Miniature--Bulldogs were...

The French Bulldog (bouledogue Francais)
There appears to be no doubt that the French Bulldog originated in England, and is an offshoot of the English miniature variety Bull...

The St Bernard
The history of the St. Bernard dog would not be complete without reference being made to the noble work that he has done in Switzer...

The Newfoundland
The dogs which take their name from the island of Newfoundland appeal to all lovers of animals, romance, and beauty. A Newfoundland ...

The Great Dane
The origin of the Great Dane, like that of many other varieties of dogs, is so obscure that all researches have only resulted in sp...

The Dalmatian
Before the Kennel Club found it necessary to insist upon a precise definition of each breed, the Dalmatian was known as the Coach Do...

The Collie
The townsman who knows the shepherd's dog only as he is to be seen, out of his true element, threading his confined way through crow...

The Old English Sheepdog
Intelligent and picturesque, workmanlike and affectionate, the Old English Sheepdog combines, in his shaggy person, the attributes a...

The Chow Chow
The Chow Chow is a dog of great versatility. He is a born sportsman and loves an open-air life--a warrior, always ready to accept ba...

The Poodle
The Poodle is commonly acknowledged to be the most wisely intelligent of all members of the canine race. He is a scholar and a gentl...

The Schipperke
The Schipperke may fitly be described as the Paul Pry of canine society. His insatiate inquisitiveness induces him to poke his nose ...

The Bloodhound
The Bloodhound was much used in olden times in hunting and in the pursuit of fugitives; two services for which his remarkable acuten...

The Otterhound
The Otterhound is a descendant of the old Southern Hound, and there is reason to believe that all hounds hunting their quarry by nos...

The Irish Wolfhound
It is now some thirty years since an important controversy was carried on in the columns of The Live Stock Journal on the nature and...

The Deerhound
The Deerhound is one of the most decorative of dogs, impressively stately and picturesque wherever he is seen, whether it be amid th...

The Borzoi Or Russian Wolfhound
Of the many foreign varieties of the dog that have been introduced into this country within recent years, there is not one among the...

The Greyhound
The Greyhound is the oldest and most conservative of all dogs, and his type has altered singularly little during the seven thousand ...

The Whippet
For elegance of style, cleanliness of habit, and graceful movement, few dogs can equal the Whippet, for which reason his popularity ...

The Foxhound
There is plenty of proof that Foxhounds were the very first of the canine races in Great Britain to come under the domination of sc...

The Harrier And The Beagle
The Harrier is a distinct breed of hound used for hunting the hare--or rather it should be said the Association of Masters of Harrie...

The Pointer
It has never been made quite clear in history why the Spaniards had a dog that was very remarkable for pointing all kinds of game. T...

The Setters
I. THE ENGLISH SETTER.--In some form or other Setters are to be found wherever guns are in frequent use and irrespective of the prec...

The Retrievers
It is obviously useless to shoot game unless you can find it after it has been wounded or killed, and from the earliest times it has...

The Curly-coated Retriever
The curly-coated Retriever is commonly believed to be of earlier origin than his flat-coated relative, and he is of less pure descen...

The Labrador
Within recent years the original smooth-coated Labrador dog has taken its place as a recognised variety of the Retriever and become ...

The Sporting Spaniel
I. THE SPANIEL FAMILY.--The Spaniel family is without any doubt one of the most important of the many groups which are included in t...

The Basset-hound
The Basset was not familiarly known to British sportsmen before 1863, in which year specimens of the breed were seen at the first ex...

The Dachshund
Persons unfamiliar with the sporting properties of this long-bodied breed are apt to refer smilingly to the Dachshund as the dog tha...

The Old Working Terrier
There can hardly have been a time since the period of the Norman Conquest when the small earth dogs which we now call terriers were ...

The White English Terrier
This dog, one would think, ought, by the dignified title which he bears, to be considered a representative national terrier, forming...

The Black And Tan Terrier
The Black and Tan, or Manchester, Terrier as we know him to-day is a comparatively new variety, and he is not to be confounded with ...

The Bull-terrier
The Bull-terrier is now a gentlemanly and respectably owned dog, wearing an immaculate white coat and a burnished silver collar; he ...

The Smooth Fox-terrier
To attempt to set forth the origin of the Fox-terrier as we know him to-day would be of no interest to the general reader, and would...

The Wire-hair Fox-terrier
The wire-hair Fox-terrier is, with the exception of its coat, identical with the smooth Fox-terrier--full brother in fact to him. T...

The Airedale Terrier
There is perhaps no breed of dog that in so short a time has been improved so much as the Airedale. He is now a very beautiful anima...

The Bedlington Terrier
This gamest of all the terriers has been known as a distinct and thoroughly British breed for over a century, which is, I think, a ...

The Irish Terrier
The dare-devil Irish Terrier has most certainly made his home in our bosom. There is no breed of dog more genuinely loved by those w...

The Welsh Terrier
This breed is near akin to the wire-hair Fox-terrier, the principal differences being merely of colour and type. The Welsh Terrier i...

The Scottish Terrier
The Scottish Terrier as a show dog dates from about 1877 to 1879. He seems almost at once to have attained popularity, and he has p...

The West Highland White Terrier
Man, being a hunting animal, kills the otter for his skin, and the badger also; the fox he kills because the animal likes lamb and g...

The Dandie Dinmont
The breed of terrier now known as the Dandie Dinmont is one of the races of the dog which can boast of a fairly ancient lineage. Tho...

The Skye And Clydesdale Terriers
That the Skye Terrier should be called the Heavenly Breed is a tribute to the favour in which he is held by his admirers. Certainly ...

The Yorkshire Terrier
The most devout lover of this charming and beautiful terrier would fail if he were to attempt to claim for him the distinction of de...

The Pomeranian
Long before the Pomeranian dog was common in Great Britain, this breed was to be met with in many parts of Europe, especially in Ger...

The King Charles Spaniels
In the fourth chapter of Macaulay's History of England we read of King Charles II. that he might be seen before the dew was off the ...

The Pekinese And The Japanese
Few of the many breeds of foreign dogs now established in England have attained such a measure of popularity in so short a time as t...

The Maltese Dog And The Pug
No doubt has been cast upon the belief that the small, white, silky Canis Melitaeus is the most ancient of all the lap dogs of the ...

The Brussels Griffon
Away back in the 'seventies numbers of miners in Yorkshire and the Midlands are said to have possessed little wiry-coated and wiry-...

The Miniature Breeds
Except in the matter of size, the general appearance and qualifications of the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier should be as nearly l...

Practical Management
Many people are deterred from keeping dogs by the belief that the hobby is expensive and that it entails a profitless amount of trou...

Breeding And Whelping
The modern practice of dog-breeding in Great Britain has reached a condition which may be esteemed as an art. At no other time, and ...

Some Common Ailments Of The Dog And Their Treatment
The experienced dog-owner has long ago realised that cleanliness, wholesome food, judicious exercise and a dry, comfortable and wel...

Distemper
Although more than one hundred years have elapsed since this was first imported to this country from France, a great amount of misund...

Bronchitis
Dogs that have been exposed to wet, or that have been put to lie in a damp or draughty kennel with insufficient food, are not less lia...

Diarrhoea
or looseness of the bowels, or purging, is a very common disease among dogs of all ages and breeds. It is, nevertheless, more common a...

Constipation
more commonly called costiveness, is also a very common complaint. It often occurs in the progress of other diseases, but is just as o...

Fits
Whatever be the cause, they are very alarming. In puppies they are called Convulsions, and resemble epileptic fits. Keep the dog very ...

Skin Diseases
In the whole range of dog ailments included in the term canine pathology there are none more bothersome to treat successfully nor mor...

Worms
We have, roughly speaking, two kinds of worms to treat in the dog: (1) the round, and (2) the tape. (1) Round-worms--They are in sh...

Fleas
Washing with Spratts' medicated soap. Extra clean kennels. Dusting with Keating, and afterwards washing. This may not kill the fleas, ...

Ticks
I have noticed these disagreeable bloodsuckers only on the heads and bodies of sporting or Collie dogs, who had been boring for some t...

Lice
The lice are hatched from nits, which we find clinging in rows, and very tenaciously too, to the hairs. The insects themselves are mor...

Privileges Of First Bite
It is popularly, but rather erroneously, supposed that every dog is entitled to one bite. Perhaps it would be more accurate to state t...

Licences
Every dog owner must annually take out a licence for each dog he keeps. The licence, which is obtainable at all post-offices at the c...

Muzzling Regulations
Under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Acts, 1878-1894, local authorities (i.e., county, borough, or district councils) were empower...

Stray Dogs
The Dogs Act, 1906, has some important sections dealing with seizure of stray dogs, and enacts that where a police officer has reason ...

Importation Of Dogs
The power of making Orders dealing with the importation of dogs is vested in the Board of Agriculture, who have absolute authority in ...

Motor Cars And Dogs
Unquestionably the greatest enemy that the dog possesses at the present time is the motor car. Presuming the owner of the dog is fo...


Ducks

Identification Is Important
Identifying waterfowl gives many hours of enjoyment to millions of people. This guide will help you recognize birds on the wing--it ...

What To Look For
Differences in size, shape, plumage patterns and colors, wing beat, flocking behavior, voice, and habitat--all help to distinguish o...

Eclipse Plumage
Most ducks shed their body feathers twice each year. Nearly all drakes lose their bright plumage after mating, and for a few weeks r...

Puddle Ducks
Puddle ducks are typically birds of fresh, shallow marshes and rivers rather than of large lakes and bays. They are good divers, but...

Mallard
Length--24 Weight--2 lbs. The mallard is our most common duck, found in all flyways. The males are often called greenheads. The...

Pintail
Length--26 Weight--1 lbs. These ducks use all four flyways, but are most plentiful in the west. They are extremely graceful a...

Gadwall
Length--21 Weight--2 lbs. Gadwalls are most numerous in the Central Flyway, but not too common anywhere. They are often called g...

Wigeon
Length--21 Weight--1 lbs. These are nervous birds, quick to take alarm. Their flight is fast, irregular, with many twists and t...

Shoveler
Length--19 Weight--1 lbs. Shovelers, 'spoonbills' to many, are early migrants, moving out at the first frost. The largest numb...

Blue-winged Teal
Length--16 Weight--15 oz. Their small size and twisting turning flight gives the illusion of great speed. The small, compact flo...

Cinnamon Teal
In the Pacific Flyway, cinnamon teal are far more common than blue-wings. The hens look alike and the habits of both species are si...

Green-winged Teal
Length--15 in. Weight--14 oz. Quite hardy--some birds stay as far north as open water is found. The smallest and one of the mo...

Wood Duck
Length--18 in. Weight--1 lbs. Found in all flyways; most numerous in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways and fewest in the Ce...

Black Duck
Length--24 in. Weight--2 lbs. A bird of the eastern States, primarily the Atlantic Flyway and, to a lesser extent, the Mississi...

Diving Ducks
Diving ducks frequent the larger, deeper lakes and rivers, and coastal bays and inlets. The colored wing patches of these birds l...

Canvasback
Length--22 in. Weight--3 lbs. Normally late to start south, canvasbacks migrate in lines and irregular V's. In feeding areas,...

Redheads
Length--20 in. Weight--2 lbs. Range coast to coast, with the largest numbers in the Central Flyway. Migratory flocks travel in ...

Ringneck
Length--17 in. Weight--2 lbs. Similar in appearance to scaups, but more often found in fresh marshes and wooded ponds. In fligh...

Scaup
Greater--Length--18 in. Weight--2 lbs. Lesser--Length--17 in. Weight--1-7/8 lbs. Except for the wing marks,...

Goldeneye
Common--Length--19 in. Weight--2 lbs. Barrow's--Length--19 in. Weight--2 lbs. These are active, strong-wi...

Bufflehead
Length--14 in. Weight--1 lb. Stragglers migrate south in mid-fall, but the largest numbers move just ahead of freezeup. Most fl...

Ruddy
Length--15 in. Weight--1-1/3 lbs. The ruddy duck often dives or swims away from danger rather than flying. When flying, their s...

Red-breasted Merganser
Length--23 in. Weight--2 lbs. These birds winter most abundantly in coastal waters, including the Gulf of Mexico, and to a less...

Common Merganser
Length--25 in. Weight--2 lbs. This species is larger than the red-breasted merganser, and is one of the largest of our ducks. ...

Hooded Merganser
Length--18 in. Weight--1 lbs. Often seen in pairs, or very small flocks. Short rapid wingstrokes create an impression of great ...

Whistling Ducks
Length--18-19 in. Weight--1 lbs. The trailing legs and rounded wings of these slow flying ducks makes them look bigger than the...

White-winged Scoter
Length--21 in. Weight--3 lbs. The three scoters on these two pages are sea ducks, wintering on open coastal waters. White-wing...

Surf Scoter
Length--19 in. Weight--2 lbs. Like all scoters, these birds move along our coasts in loose flocks, stringing into irregular, wa...

Black Scoter
Length--19 in. Weight--2 lbs. In flight, drakes appear all black except for the flash of the slight gray underwing and the bri...

Common Eider
Length--23 in. Weight--5 lbs. Thick-necked stocky birds, alternately flapping and sailing in flight; flocks string out in a lin...

Oldsquaw
Length--20 in. Weight--2 lbs. A slim, brightly plumaged sea duck. Smaller than the scoters or eiders. Flight is swift and low...

Harlequin
Length--17 in. Weight--1 lbs. Glossy slate-blue plumage enlivened by white stripes and spots give the adult male harlequin a st...

Swans
Trumpeter--Length--59 in. Weight--28 lbs. Whistling--Length--52 in. Weight--16 lbs. Once thought to be ...

Canada Geese
Numerous and popular, Canada geese are often called honkers. Includes several races varying in weight from 3 to over 12 pounds. All ...

Brant
Length--24-25 in. Weight--3 - 3 lbs. These are sea geese, the blacks wintering south to Baja, California, in the Pacific. The ...

Snow Geese
Length--29-31 in. Weight--6-7 lbs. Two races of snow geese are recognized: greater snows along the Atlantic Coast, and lesser ...

White-fronted Geese
Length--29 in. Weight--6 lbs. Migrates chiefly in the Central and Pacific flyways but also present in the Mississippi. Rare in ...


Mules

How Mules Should Be Treated In Breaking
I have long had it in contemplation to write something concerning the mule, in the hope that it might be of benefit to those who had t...

The Disadvantages Of Working Mules That Are Too Young
A great many of the mules purchased by the Government during the war were entirely too young for use. This was particularly so in th...

Color Character And Peculiarities Of Mules
After being in command of the upper corral, I was ordered, on the 7th of September, 1864, to take charge of the Eastern Branch Wagon...

Diseases Mules Are Liable To--what He Can Draw Etc Etc
The committee also say that the mule is a more steady animal in his draft than the horse. I think this the greatest mistake the comm...

Physical Construction Of The Mule
I now propose to say something on the mule's limbs and feet. It will be observed that the mule has a jack's leg from the knee down, ...

Something More About Breeding Mules
Before I close this work, I desire to say something more about breeding mules. It has long been a popular error that to get a good m...

Ancient History Of The Mule
The mule seems to have been used by the ancients in a great variety of ways; but what should have prompted his production must for e...

Pictures Of Some Of Our Most Celebrated Army Mules
I have had photographs taken of some of our mules. A number of these animals performed extraordinary service in connection with the Ar...

Diseases Common To The Mule And How They Should Be Treated
The mule does not differ materially from the horse in the diseases he is afflicted with. He however suffers less from them, owing to l...

Distemper In Colts
This disease is peculiar to young mules. Its symptoms develop with soreness and swelling of the glands of the throat, a cough, difficu...

Catarrh Or Colds
This disease seldom attacks the mule. We have had many thousands of them in camp, and out of the whole number, I do not recollect of a...

Glanders
This is one of the most destructive of diseases with which the horse family is afflicted, and one that has set the best veterinary ski...

Teething
As mules seldom change hands to any great extent until two or three years old, it is not deemed necessary here to say any thing of the...

Diseases Of The Teeth
There are few if any diseases to which the mule's teeth are subject, after the permanent teeth are developed; but during the time of t...

The Eye
Mules are remarkable for having good eyes. Occasionally they become inflamed and sore. In such cases the application of cold water, an...

The Tongue
Mules suffer much from injury to the tongue, caused by the bad treatment of those who have charge of them, and also from sore month, p...

Poll-evil
This is a disease the mule more than all other animals is subject to. This is more particularly so with those brought into the service...

Fistula
This is a disease the mule is more subject to than any other animal in Government use. And this, on account of his being used as a bea...

Collar-galls
Sore necks, saddle-galls, and stilfasts, are a species of injury and sore, which are in many cases very difficult of cure, especially ...

Thrush
This is another trouble with which the mule is afflicted. Cut away the parts of the frog that seem to be destroyed, clean the parts we...

Chest Founders
Mules are not subject to this disease. Some persons assert that they are, but it is a mistake. These persons mistake for founder in th...

Bleeding
It was always a subject of inquiry with me, who originated the system of bleeding; and why it was that all kinds of doctors and physic...

Colic
The mule is quite subject to this complaint. It is what is commonly known as belly-ache. Over doses of cold water will produce it. The...

Physicking
This is another of those imaginary cures resorted to by persons having charge of mules. Very many of these persons honestly believe th...

Stringhalt
This sometimes occurs in the mule. It is a sudden, nervous, quick jerk of either or both of the hind legs. In the mule it frequently s...

Cramp
I have now under my charge several mules that are subject to this complaint. It does not really injure them for service, but it is ver...

Spavin
It is generally believed that the mule does not inherit this disease. But this is not altogether true. Small, compact mules, bred afte...

Ringbone
These appear on the same kind of large, bony mules as referred to in cases of spavin, and are incurable. They can, however, be relieve...

Mange
Mules are subject to this disease when kept in large numbers, as in the army. This is peculiarly a cuticle disease, like the itch in t...

Grease-heel
Clean the parts well with castile-soap and warm water. As soon as you have discovered the disease, stop wetting the legs, as that only...

Shoes Shoeing And The Foot
The foot, its diseases, and how to shoe it properly, is a subject much discussed among horsemen. Nearly every farrier and blacksmith h...

Advice To Blacksmiths
Let me enjoin you, for humanity's sake, that when you first undertake to shoe a young animal, you will not forget the value of kind tr...


Bee Keeping

Three Kinds Of Bees
Every prosperous swarm, or family of bees, must contain one queen, several thousand workers, and, part of the year, a few hundred dron...

Queen Described
The queen is the mother of the entire family; her duty appears to be only to deposit eggs in the cells. Her abdomen has its full size ...

Description And Duty Of Workers
As all labor devolves on the workers, they are provided with a sack, or bag, for honey. Basket-like cavities are on their legs, where ...

Description Of Drones
When the family is large and honey abundant, a brood of drones is reared; the number, probably, depends on the yield of honey, and siz...

Most Brood In Spring
In spring and first of summer, when nearly all the combs are empty, and food abundant, they rear brood more extensively than at any ot...

Their Industry
Industry belongs to their nature. When the flowers yield honey, and the weather is fine, they need no impulse from man to perform thei...

Hives To Be Thoroughly Made
Hives should be constructed of good materials, boards of good thickness, free from flaws and cracks, well fitted and thoroughly naile...

Different Opinions About Them
One is in favor of the old box, and the cruel practice of killing the bees to obtain the honey, as the only means to obtain "luck;" "t...

The Author Has No Patent To Recommend
To remove from the mind of the reader all apprehension that I am about condemning one patent to recommend another, I would say in the ...

Speculators Supported Long Enough
We have faithfully supported a host of speculators on our business for a long time; often not caring one straw about our success, afte...

Prefix Of Patent A Bad Recommendation
This has been done until the very prefix of patent, or premium, attached to a hive, renders it almost certain that there must be some...

Ignorance Of Officers And Committees
Thus it appears to be with granting patents and premiums, if we take what has been patented and praised by our committees and officers...

Opposition To Simplicity
I am aware that among the thousands whose direct interest is opposed to my simple, plain manner of getting along, many will be ready t...

By Gaining One Point Produce Another Evil
I think it will be an easy matter to show that every departure from simplicity to gain _one_ point, is attended in another by a corre...

First Delusion
Probably the first delusion in the patent line originated with the idea, that to obtain surplus honey, it was absolutely necessary to ...

Chamber Hive
The chamber hive is made with two apartments; the lower and largest is for the permanent residence of the bees, the upper or chamber f...

Mrs Griffith's Hive
Mrs. Griffith, of New Jersey, is said to have invented the suspended chamber hive with the inclined bottom-board. One would suppose th...

Weeks' Improvement
Yet Mr. Weeks makes an alteration, calls it an improvement, the expense is but a trifle more; it is sufficient to be sanctioned by a p...

Inclined Bottom-boards Do Not Throw Out All The Worms
Inclined bottom-boards form the basis of one or two patents, said to be good to roll out the worms. I can imagine a pea rolling off su...

Objections To Suspended Hives
All suspended hives _must be objectionable_ to any one who wishes to know the _true_ condition of his bees at all times. Only think of...

See Bees Often
"_See your bees often_," is a choice recipe,--it is worth five hundred dollars at interest, even when you have but few stocks. How nec...

Hall's Patent
Mr. Hall has added a lower section to his hive, about four inches deep, with two boards inside, like the roof of a house, to discharge...

Jones' Patent
Jones' dividing hive was probably suggested by this instinctive principle of the bee, viz.: when a stock by any accident loses its qu...

An Experiment
Several years ago, I thought I had obtained a principle that would revolutionize the whole system of bee management. In 1840 I constru...

Reasons Of Failure In Dividing Hives
The greatest difficulty with dividing hives, appeared to be here. It must be constructed with a partition or division to keep the comb...

Cause Of Starving In Such Hives
I said one apartment would be filled with brood-combs; this will be occupied, at least partially, with brood as long as the yield of h...

Advantages Of The Changeable Hive Considered
The value of changeable hives is based upon the following principle:--Each young bee when it first hatches from the egg, is neither m...

Variation Of These Hives
First, then, the sectional hive of various patterns has been patented; it consists generally of about three boxes, one above another; ...

Expense In Constructing Changeable Hives
It is as much work to construct each separate section, as a common hive; consequently, it is three times the expense to begin with. It...

Surplus Honey Will Contain Bee-bread
Also pollen, or bee-bread, is always stored in the vicinity of the young brood; some of this will remain mixed with the honey, to plea...

Description Of Cutting's Changeable Hive
"The size of the changeable hive most used in this section, has an outside shell, made of inch boards, about two feet high and sixteen...

First Objection Cost Of Construction
The first obstacle in the way (after the right is obtained) is the construction. Let's see; we want inch boards to make the shell, th...

Hives Can Be Made With Less Expense
The one I shall recommend, without paint, will not cost, or need not, over 37-1/2 cents, with cover, etc. Now, if we wish hives for or...

Old Breeding Cells Will Last A Long Time
These old cells do not need renewing half as often as has been represented. It is the interest of these patent-venders to sell rights;...

Cells Larger Than Necessary At First
The bees seem to make a provision for this emergency, the sheets of comb are farther apart than actually necessary at first, the diame...

Expense Of Renewing Combs
One important item should be considered in this matter, by those who are so eager for new combs. It is doubtful whether one in 500 eve...

Best To Use Old Combs As Long As They Will Answer
I am satisfied of this much, from actual experience, that every time the bees have to renew their brood-combs in a hive, they would ma...

Method For Pruning When Necessary
But when the combs do actually need removing, I prefer the following method of pruning, to driving the bees out entirely, as has been ...

Use Of Tobacco Smoke
"I would not do it for fifty dollars, the bees would sting me to death." Stop a moment, if you never tried the efficacy of tobacco sm...

Further Objections To A Sectional Hive
I can see no other way but to break the box, look her up, and help the helpless thing home, (the chances of being stung may be here to...

Non-swarmers
Here I will endeavor to be brief; I feel anxious to get through with this disagreeable part, where every word I say will clash with s...

Contrast Of Profit
The swarming hive, we suppose, will throw off one swarm annually, and make us one dollar's worth of surplus honey, (we will not reckon...

Principle Of Swarming Not Understood
But many of these non-swarmers, 'tis said, can be changed to swarmers to suit the convenience of the apiarian--Colton's is one. It is ...

Not To Be Depended Upon
Further, these non-swarmers are not always to be depended upon as such. They will sometimes throw off swarms when there is abundant ro...

Hives Not Always Full Before Swarming
I know Weeks, Colton, Miner and others, tell us the hive _must be full_ before we need expect a swarm; but experience is against them....

Size Of Hives Needed
But if such hive is only half full, or 2,000 inches, it is very common for them to swarm without adding any new comb; proving very co...

An Experiment 2
In the spring of '47, I placed under five full hives, containing 2,000 solid or cubic inches, as many empty ones, the same size, witho...

Bees Do Not Increase If Full After The First Year In Same Hive
I only will notice the fact, that the bees somehow disappear, and there is no more at the end of five years than at the end of one. A ...

Gillmore's System Doubted
Now this fact is not known by a recent patentee from the State of Maine, (else he supposes others do not,) as he recommends placing be...

Utility Of Moth-proof Hives Doubted
As for moth-proof hives, I have but little to say, as I have not the least faith in one of them. When I come to speak of that insect, ...

Instincts Of The Bee Always The Same
Let us fully understand that the nature of the bee, when viewed under any condition, climate, or circumstance, is the same. Instincts ...

Profit The Object
To give the bees all necessary advantages, and obtain the greatest possible amount of profit, with the least possible expense, has bee...

Common Hive Recommended
I would not exchange the hive I have used for the last ten years for any patent I ever saw, if furnished gratis. I will guarantee that...

Size Important
After deciding what kind of hive we want, the next important point is the size. Dr. Bevan, an English author, recommends a size "eleve...

Small Hives More Liable To Accidents
At all events, I think it too small for our Yankee bees in any place. We must remember, that the queen needs room for all her eggs, an...

Apt To Deceive
Yet I can imagine how one can be deceived by such a small hive, and recommend it strongly; especially if patented. Suppose you locate ...

Unprofitable If Too Large
If too large, more honey will be stored than is required for their winter use. It is evident a portion might have been taken, if it ha...

Correct Size Between Two Extremes
Between the two extremes, like most other cases, is found the correct place. A hive twelve inches square, each way, inside, has been ...

Size For Warm Latitudes
This size will also do in this latitude (42 degrees,) in some seasons, but not at all in others.[3] Not one swarm in fifty will consum...

Larger Hive More Safe For Long Winters Or Backward Spring
About the first of April they commence collecting pollen and rearing their young; by the middle of May all good stocks will occupy nea...

2000 Inches Safe For This Section
I am satisfied that 2,000 inches in the clear, is the proper size for safety in this section, and consequently, profit. On an average,...

Kind Of Wood Width Of Board Etc
Of the kinds of wood for hives, pine is preferable, still other kinds will do; I have no faith in bees liking one kind better than ano...

Shape Of No Consequence
Boards should be selected, if possible, that will be the proper width to make the hive about square, of the right size. Say twelve inc...

Directions For Making Hives
If hives are not desired of the cheapest possible construction, the outside may be planed and painted; but it is doubtful whether stri...

Size Of Cap And Boxes
A box for a cover or cap, that size inside, will fit any hive. The height of this box should be seven inches. Of course other sizes wi...

Miner's Hive
Miner's Equilateral Hive has a cap somewhat smaller than this in diameter; consequently, if we have the requisite room, it must be in ...

Directions For Making Holes
After the top is got out as directed, strike a line through the centre, three and a quarter inches from this, make another on each sid...

A Suggestion
Mr. Miner's cross-bar hive is intended to make the bees construct all straight combs, and probably will do it. But the disadvantage of...

Glass Boxes Preferred
Having told how I make a hive, I will now give some reasons for preferring a particular kind of boxes. I have taken great quantities o...

Glass Boxes How To Make
_Directions for making._--Select half-inch boards of pine or other soft light wood, cut the length twelve and three-quarters inches, w...

Guide-combs Necessary
It will be found a great advantage, previous to nailing on the top, to stick fast to it some pieces of guide-combs in the direction yo...

Wood Boxes
For home consumption, the wood-box will answer equally well for all purposes of obtaining the honey, but will give no chance to watch ...

Cover For Hives
I have termed the cap or box a cover; but this should also be covered with a board laid on, if nothing else. A good roof for each hive...

Jars And Tumblers How Prepared
When jars, tumblers, or other vessels, that are all glass, are used, it is _absolutely necessary_ to fasten as many pieces of combs as...

Perfect Observatory Hive Described
There are many things pertaining to bees that cannot be properly examined and understood, without a glass hive of some sort. Yet a pe...

One Like Common Hive Preferred
If we expect to know what bees are doing in ordinary hives, we must have one similar in every respect, in size, shape, number of bees,...

What May Be Seen
Now instead of having one piece or pane of glass in the side of several hives, I would recommend having one or more with glass on ever...

Directions For Making Glass Hive
My method of making them is as follows: The top is like those for other hives, fifteen inches square, adapted to boxes and cover. This...

Imperfectly Understood
The time that bees commence raising their young brood is but imperfectly understood by most people. Many persons that have kept them ...

Good Stock Seldom Without Brood
I once removed the bees from a hive on the tenth of January, and found brood amounting to about five hundred, sealed over, and others ...

How Small Stocks Commence
The first eggs are deposited in the centre of the cluster of bees, in a small family; it may not be in the centre of the hive in _all_...

Different With Larger Ones
But with very large families, their proceedings are different: as any part of the cluster of bees is warm enough for breeding, there i...

How Pollen Is Stored In The Breeding Season
But in the height of the breeding season, a circle of cells nearly all bee-bread, an inch or two wide, will border the sheets of comb ...

Operation Of Laying And The Eggs Described
When a cell is in a condition to receive the egg, on withdrawing her head she immediately curves her abdomen, and inserts it a few sec...

Time From The Egg To The Perfect Bee
In about six days it is sealed over with a convex waxen lid. It is now hidden from our sight for about twelve days, when it bites off ...

Rough Treatment Of The Young Bee
Now, if you expect to see anything of this, you must watch a little closer than I have. I have seen hundreds when biting their way out...

Guess Work
The time before it is ready to leave the hive for honey, I might guess would be two or three days. Others have said "it would leave _t...

Terms Applied To Young Bees
The young bee, when it first leaves the egg, is termed grub, maggot, worm, or larva; from this state it changes to the shape of the pe...

Discrepancy In Time In Rearing Brood As Given By Huber
We are told by most writers, the period of time necessary to perfect from the egg, the three different kinds of bees. Huber leads the ...

The Number Of Eggs Deposited By The Queen Guessed At
The number of eggs that a queen will deposit is often another point of guess-work. When the estimate does not exceed 200 per diem, I h...

A Test For The Presence Of A Queen
If you have a hive that you suspect has lost a queen at this season, her presence can be ascertained nine times in ten by this method....

When Drones Are Reared
Whenever the hive is well supplied with honey, and plenty of bees, a portion of eggs are deposited in the drone-cells, which three or ...

When Queens Are Reared
Also, when the combs become crowded with bees, and honey plenty, the preparations for young queens commence: as the first step towards...

Liability Of Being Destroyed
In any stage from the egg to maturity these royal insects are liable to be destroyed;--if honey fails from any cause sufficient to mak...

Drones Destroyed When Honey Is Scarce
When an occurrence like the above happens, the drones next fall victims to the failure of honey. A brief existence only is theirs; suc...

Old Queen Leaves With The First Swarm
The old queen leaves with the first swarm; as soon as cells are ready in the new hive she will deposit her eggs in them, at first for ...

A Young Queen Takes The Place Of Her Mother In The Old Stock
In ordinary circumstances, when a swarm has left a stock, the oldest of the young queens is ready to emerge from her cell in about eig...

Other Theories
Theories differing materially from the foregoing, are advanced by nearly all writers. One says, "In spring the queen lays about 2,000 ...

Subject Not Understood
I am not anxious to establish a new theory, but to get at facts. If we pretend to understand natural history, it is important that we ...

Necessity For Further Observation
Cannot some experiments, practicable to all, be instituted that will throw more light on this subject? The old hypothesis of limiting ...

Two Sides Of The Question
If we suppose that the eggs are all alike, and the subsequent treatment makes either workers, drones, or queens, and look to analogy f...

Bee Pasturage
In some seasons the earth is covered with snow much later than others. When this occurs, a greater number of warm days are necessary to ...

Substitute For Pollen
During these warm days, while waiting for the flowers, the bees are anxious to do something. It is then interesting to watch them, and...

Manner Of Packing It
The particular manner of obtaining pollen has been witnessed by but very few persons, as it is generally brushed from their bodies and...

Alder Yields The First
The first material gathered from flowers is pollen. Candle-alder (_Alnus Rubra_)[9] yields the first supply. The time of flowering va...

Fruit Flowers Important In Good Weather
In good weather, sometimes a gain of twenty lbs. is added to their stores, during this period of apple-tree blossoms. But we are seldo...

Red Raspberry A Favorite
The red raspberry (_Rubus Strigosus_) next presents the stamens as the most conspicuous part of the flower, soliciting the embrace of ...

Catnip Mother-wort And Hoarhound Are Sought After
Catnip, (_Nepeta Cataria_,) Mother-wort, (_Leonurus Cardiaca_,) and Hoarhound, (_Marrubium Vulgare_,) about the middle of June, put fo...

Singular Fatality Attendant On Silkweed
Silkweed (_Asclepias Cornuti_) is also another honey-yielding perennial, but a singular fatality attends many bees while gathering it...

Large Yield From Basswood
During the time this tree is in bloom, a period of two or three weeks in many sections, astonishing quantities are obtained. A person ...

Garden Flowers Unimportant
In passing along I have not mentioned garden flowers, because the amount obtained here is a small item, compared to the forest and fi...

Honey-dew
Honey-dew is said to be a source from whence large collections are made in some places. When or where it appears or disappears is more...

Singular Secretion
I once discovered bees collecting a secretion unconnected with flowers; but was not honey-dew, as it has been described. I was passing...

Secretions Of The Aphis
The liquid ejected by the aphis, (plant louse,) when feeding or sucking the juices of tender leaves, and received by the ants that are...

Advantages Of Buckwheat
Under some circumstances, clover will continue to bloom through this part of the season; also, a few other flowers; but I find by weig...

Amount Of Honey Collected From It
Swarms issuing as late as the 15th July, when they commence on buckwheat, sometimes contain not over five pounds of stores, and yet m...

Do Bees Injure The Crop?
Many people contend that bees are an injury to this crop, by taking away the substance that would be formed into grain. The best reaso...

Are Not Bees An Advantage To Vegetation?
Vegetable physiology seems to indicate a similar necessity in that department. The stamens and pistils of flowers answer the different...

A Test For The Presence Of Queen Doubted
It is further asserted that if a hive loses its queen "no pollen is collected." Also, "that such quantities are sometimes collected, a...

An Extra Quantity Of Pollen Not Always Detrimental
To test whether this extra quantity of bee-bread was so _very_ detrimental, I have introduced into such hive in the fall a family with...

Manner Of Packing Stores
In a glass hive, the bees may be seen depositing their load of pollen; the legs holding the pellets are thrust into the cell, (not the...

Philosophy In Filling A Cell With Honey
To witness the operation of depositing honey, a glass hive or box is requisite; the edges of the combs will be attached to the glass--...

Long Cells Sometimes Turned Upward
When storing honey in boxes, cells of this size are usually much longer, in which case they are crooked, the ends turning upward, som...

Is A Dry Or Wet Season Best For Honey?
The inquiry is often made, "What kind of season is best for bees, wet or dry?" This point I have watched very closely, and have found ...

How Many Stocks Should Be Kept
"What number of stocks can there be kept in one place?" is another question often asked. This is like Mr. A. asking farmer B. how many...

Three Principal Sources Of Honey
There are three principal sources of honey, viz.:--clover, basswood, and buckwheat. But clover is the only universal dependance; as th...

Wax
The careless, unreflecting observer, when seeing the bees enter the hive with a pellet of pollen on each of their posterior legs, is v...

Is Pollen Converted Into Wax?
As for pollen being converted into wax or comb, a simple question will show its fallacy. Do not the bees belonging to a hive that is f...

How Is Wax Obtained?
The inquiry is now made, "Where do they get it from, if not from pollen?" I might with propriety answer, they don't get it at all. "S...

Huber's Account Of A Commencement Of Comb
Huber, it is said, "having provided a hive with honey and water, it was resorted to in crowds by bees, who, having satisfied their app...

Best Time To Witness Comb-making
The only time when I have witnessed the process with any degree of satisfaction is when the combs approach the glass, and but few bees...

Manner Of Working Wax
Transferring the swarms to different hives from one to forty-eight hours after being hived, will show their progress. I have found tha...

Crooked Combs A Disadvantage
These few irregular cells have been considered a great disadvantage. It is thought, or pretended, that there is a vast difference betw...

Uncertainty In Weight Of Bees
A large swarm will probably carry with them some five or six pounds of honey from the parent stock. I only guess at this, because I am...

Some Wax Wasted
When constructing comb, they are constantly wasting wax, either accidentally or voluntarily. The next morning after a swarm is located...

Water Necessary To Comb-making
Whenever bees are engaged making comb, a supply of water is absolutely necessary. Some think it requisite in rearing brood. It may be ...

Remarks
The exact and uniform size of their cells is perhaps as great a mystery as anything pertaining to them; yet, we find the second wonder...

What Used For
This substance is first used to solder up all the cracks, flaws, and irregularities about the hive. A coat is then spread over the ins...

Is It An Elaborate Or Natural Substance?
No modern observer has ever been able to detect the bees in the act of gathering it. HUBER'S OPINION. Huber tells us, that "ne...

Its Location
In the location of the apiary, one important consideration is, that it is convenient to watch in the swarming season; that the bees ma...

Decide Early
Whatever location is chosen, it should be decided upon as early in the spring as possible; because, when the chilling winds of winter ...

Bees Mark Their Location On Leaving The Hive
They rise on the wing, but do not leave in a direct line, but immediately turn their heads towards the entrance of their tenement, de...

Changing Stand Attended With Loss
After a few excursions, when surrounding objects have become familiar, this precaution is not taken, and they leave in a direct line f...

Can Be Taken Some Distance
When bees are taken beyond their knowledge of country, some two miles or more, the case seems to be somewhat different, but not always...

Danger Of Setting Stocks Too Close
A case in point occurred in the spring of '49. I sold over twenty stocks to one person. He had constructed a bee-house, and his arran...

Space Between Hives
As regards the distance between hives generally, I would say let it be as great as convenience will allow. Want of room makes it neces...

Small Matters
The reader who is accustomed to doing things on gigantic principles, will consider this long "yarn" about saving a few bees in spring,...

Economy
If we keep bees for ornament, it would be well to build a bee-house, paint the hives, &c.; but as I expect the majority of readers wil...

Canal Bottom-board Discarded
I used what is termed a canal bottom-board, until I found out it did not pay expense, and have now discarded it, and succeed just as w...

Some Advantage In Being Near The Earth
I am aware that I go counter to most apiarians, in recommending the stands so near the earth; less than two or three feet between the ...

Utility Of Bee-houses Doubted
I have used bee-houses, but they will not pay, and are also discarded. They are objectionable on account of preventing a free circulat...

Robberies
Robbing is another source of occasional loss to the apiarian. It is frequent in spring, and at any time in warm weather when honey i...

Not Properly Understood
A person keeping many hives must expect to be accountable for all losses in his neighborhood, whether they are lost by mismanagement o...

Improper Remedies
Notwithstanding it is common to hear remarks like this, "I had a _first-rate_ hive of bees," (when the fact was he had not looked par...

Difficulty In Deciding
There is nothing about the apiary more difficult to determine, nothing more likely than to be deceived. It is generally supposed, when...

Weak Families In Most Danger
It is weak families, that show no resistance, where we find the most danger. In seasons of scarcity, all _good_ stocks maintain or kee...

Their Battles
I will here describe some of their battles. I have in the spring frequently seen the whole front side of the hive covered with the co...

Bad Policy To Raise The Hives
A great many apiarians raise their hives an inch from the board early in spring. They seem to disregard the chance it gives robbers to...

Indications Of Robbers
We will now notice the appearance about a weak hive that makes no resistance, and show the result to be a total loss of the stock, wi...

A Duty
It is the duty of every bee-keeper, who expects to succeed, to know which his weak stocks are; an examination some cool morning, can b...

A Test
But while you are learning this nice distinction, your bees may be ruined. We will, therefore, give some other means of protection. ...

Robbing Usually Commences On A Warm Day
Unless it should be cool, they will continue their operations till evening. Very often some are unable to get home in the dark, and ar...

Remedies
As for remedies, I have tried several. The least trouble is to remove the weak hive in the morning to the cellar, or some dark, cool p...

Common Opinion
There is an opinion prevalent that robbers often go to a neighboring stock, kill off the bees first, and then take possession of the ...

A Case In Point
I have a case in point. Having been from home a couple of days, I found, on my return, a swarm of medium strength, that had been care...

Common Cause Of Commencing
After all, bees being robbed is like being destroyed by worms; a kind of secondary matter; that is, not one strong stock in a hundred ...

Spring The Worst Time
As I before remarked in the commencement of this chapter, bees will plunder and fight at any time through the summer, when honey canno...

No Necessity To Have The Bees Plundered In The Fall
The apiarian having his bees plundered in the fall, is not fit to have charge of them; their efforts are seldom as strong as in spring...

Should Be A Last Resort
Feeding bees in spring is sometimes absolutely necessary; but in ordinary seasons and circumstances, it is somewhat doubtful if it is ...

Care Needed
Considerable care is requisite, and but few know how to manage it properly. Honey fed to bees, is almost certain to get up quarrels am...

Apparent Contradiction When Feeding Causing Starvation
It is possible that feeding a stock of bees in spring, may cause them to starve! whereas, if let alone, they might escape. Notwithstan...

How Long It Will Do To Wait Before Feeding
If it is wished to wait as long as possible, and not lose the bees, a test will be necessary to decide how long it will do to delay fe...

Directions For Feeding
Those among the combs may be able to move, though feebly. When this is the condition of things, invert the hive, gather up all the sca...

Whole Families May Desert The Hive
When you have the means to keep up a supply of food, and time requisite to make feeding secure, perhaps it would not be advisable to w...

Objections To General Feeding
I have known it recommended, and practised by some apiarians, to feed bees all at once in the open air, in a large trough; but whoever...

Arrangement For Feeding
I got a tinman to make some dishes, two inches deep, 10x12 inches square, and perpendicular sides. A board was then got out, fifteen ...

Feeding To Induce Early Swarms
If the object in feeding is to induce early swarms, of course the best stocks should be chosen for the purpose; but some care is neces...

What May Be Fed
Inferior honey may be used for this purpose; Southern or West India is good, and costs but little. Even molasses sugar mixed with it w...

Is Candied Honey Injurious?
There has an idea been advanced, that candied honey is injurious to bees, even said to be fatal. I never could discover any thing furt...

Destruction Of Worms
I shall not give a full history of the moth in this chapter, as spring is not the time they are most destructive. It will be further n...

Some In The Best Stocks
You will probably find some in your best stocks; but don't be frightened; this is not the season when they often destroy your stocks, ...

How Found
In the morning, when cool, raise the hive, and you will find them on the board. You must not suppose that these chaps are bred outside...

A Tool For Their Destruction
I have used a simple tool, made in a few minutes, and very convenient in this business. Any one can make it. Get a piece of narrow hoo...

Mistaken Conclusions
It is supposed by many, when these worms are found on the board, they get there by accident, having dropped from the combs above. They...

Objections To Suspended Bottom-board
Suppose, if you please, that the worm has no thread attached above, and your board is far enough from the bottom of the hive to preven...

Advantage Of The Hive Close To The Board
An inch hole in the side of the hive, a few inches from the bottom, as a passage for the bees, is needed, as I shall recommend letting...

Objection Answered
You object to this, and tell me, "the worms will get between the bottom of the hive and the board." Well, I think they will, and what ...

Insufficiency Of Inclined Bottom-board
Now do not be deceived in this matter, and through indolence be induced to get those hives with descending bottom-boards, to throw out...

A Moth Can Go Where Bees Can
A hive that is proof against the moth, is yet to be constructed. We frequently hear of them, but when they come to be tested, somehow ...

Trap To Catch Worms
You may now raise it, but you may still catch the worms by laying under the bees a narrow shingle, a stick of elder split in two lengt...

Box For Wren
If you would take the trouble to put up a cage or two for the wren to nest in, he would be a valuable assistant in this department of ...

Putting On And Taking Off Boxes
Putting on boxes may be considered a duty intermediate between spring and summer management. I cannot recommend putting them on as ear...

Advantage Of The Patent Vender
Here is where the patent vender has taken the advantage of our ignorance, by pretending that no other hive but _his ever obtained such...

Time Of Putting On Rule
It is probable a great many readers will need the necessary observation to tell precisely when the hive is full of honey; it may be fu...

Making Holes After The Hive Is Full
Whenever it is required to put boxes on a hive that has no holes through the top, it need not prevent your getting a few pounds of the...

Advantage Of Proper Arrangement
Two inches being nearly the right distance, each one will be so made that a bee arriving at the top of the hive between any two sheets...

Directions For Boring Holes In Full Stocks
_To make holes in the top after the combs are made_,--Mark out the top as directed for making hives and boxes. A centre bit or an auge...

To Be Taken Off When Filled
This advantage attends glass boxes: while being filled, the progress can be watched till finished, when they should be taken off to pr...

Time Taken To Fill A Box
Two weeks is the shortest time I ever had any filled and finished. This, of course, depends on the yield of honey, and size of the swa...

When To Take Off Boxes Part Full
It can be ascertained by occasionally raising the cover to your glass boxes. When no more is being added, all boxes that are worth the...

Tobacco Smoke Preferred To Slides
When boxes are to be taken off, if a slide of tin, zinc, &c., is used to close the holes, some of the bees are apt to be crushed, othe...

Manner Of Disposing Of The Bees In The Boxes
Arouse the bees by striking the box lightly four or five times. If all the cells are finished, and honey is still obtained, turn the b...

Bees Disposed To Carry Away Honey
When boxes are taken off at the end of the honey season, a different method of getting rid of the bees must be adopted, or we lose our...

Not Disposed To Sting
They seldom offer to sting during this part of the operation, even when the box is taken off without tobacco smoke, and carried away f...

Rule
During a yield of honey, take off boxes as fast as they are filled, and put on empty ones. At the end of the season take all off. Not ...

Two Things To Be Prevented
When the boxes are free from the bees, two things are to be prevented, if we wish to save our honey till cold weather. One is to keep ...

Apt To Be Deceived About The Worms
But the worms, you can surely keep them out, you think, since you can seal up the boxes perfectly close, preventing the moth or even t...

Their Progress Described
In a few days, I could see at first a little white dust, like flour, on the side of the combs, and on the bottom of the jar. As the wo...

Method Of Killing Worms In Boxes
Now, whether you are satisfied or not with the foregoing, we will proceed with the remedy. Perhaps you may find one box in ten that wi...

Freezing Destroys Them
Boxes taken off at the end of warm weather, and exposed in a freezing situation through the winter, appear to have all the worms as we...

Objection To Using Boxes Before The Hive Is Full
Some put on boxes at the time of hiving the bees. In such cases the box is often filled first, and nearly as often will contain brood....

Time To Expect Them
The season for regular swarms in this section, I have known to commence the 15th of May, and in some seasons the 1st of July. The end ...

All Bee-keepers Should Understand It As It Is
As a guide in many cases, it is important that the practical apiarian should understand this matter _as it is_, and not as said to be ...

Means Of Understanding It
This is another case of "when doctors disagree, who shall decide?" You, reader, are just the person. There is no need of a doctor at a...

Inverting A Stock Rather Formidable At First
To a person that has never inverted a hive full of bees, even to overflowing, or never has seen it done, it appears like a great unde...

Requisites Before Preparation Of Queen's Cells
I have found the process for all regular swarms something like this: before they commence, two or three things are requisite. The comb...

State Of Queen's Cell When Used
They are about half finished, when they receive the eggs; as these eggs hatch into larvae, others are begun, and receive eggs at diffe...

State When Swarms Issue
But when there is nothing precarious about the honey, the sealing of these cells is the time to expect the first swarm, which will gen...

Clustering Outside Not Always To Be Depended Upon
The clustering out of the bees I find but a poor criterion to judge from, further than full hives do swarm--many such do not. EXA...

Conflicting Theories
I find many theories conflicting with these views, which appear to call for some remarks. It is generally supposed that a young queen ...

Both Old And Young Leave With Swarms
It is probable that no rule governs the issue of workers. Old and young come out promiscuously. That old bees come out may be known so...

Cause Of The Queen's Inability To Fly Suggested
The old queen often gets down in the same way; but I would assign another cause for her inability to fly; that is, I would suggest it ...

Evidence Of The Old Queen's Leaving
That the old queen does leave with the first swarm is indicated by several things: one is, eggs may often be found on the board the ne...

Mr Weeks' Theory Not Satisfactory
Mr. J. M. Weeks, in his work on bees, says, "Two causes and two only can be assigned why bees ever swarm: the first, the crowded state...

Mr Miner Not Correct
Mr. T. B. Miner, in his work, has allowed the preparation of queen cells previous to swarming, but he has put off the time of the swar...

Particular Directions For Testing The Matter
I will now give more minute directions for an examination. Full hives require a little more care than those containing fewer bees. Don...

Empty Hives To Be Ready
We will now suppose that some of your stocks are ready to cast their swarms: we will also presume that your empty hives for the recept...

Bottom-boards For Hiving
You will want also a number of bottom-boards, expressly for hiving; get a board a little larger than the bottom of the hive, nail stri...

Description Of Swarm Issuing
When the day is fair and not too much wind, first swarms generally issue from ten o'clock till three; if you are on the lookout, the f...

Manner Of Hiving Can Be Varied
It makes but little difference what way they are put in the hive, providing they are all made to go in. Proceed as is most convenient;...

Usual Method
Cut off the branch with the bees, if it can be done as well as not, and shake it in front of the hive, a portion will discover it, and...

When Out Of Reach
I have gone up a ladder fifteen feet, got the bees in the hive in this way, and backed down without difficulty. After putting the hive...

When They Cannot Be Shaken Off
Swarms will sometimes get in places where it is impossible to jar them off, or cut off a branch, such as the trunk of a tree, or a lar...

All Should Be Made To Enter
In all cases be sure to get them all to enter; a cluster outside of it may contain the queen, unconscious of a home so near; and the p...

Should Be Taken To The Stand Immediately
When all are in, except a few that will be flying, let the hive down close to the board; take hold of this and carry it at once to the...

Protection From The Sun Necessary
Another thing is very important; _swarms should be protected from the sun for several days, in hot weather_, from nine o'clock till th...

Clustering Bushes
If there are no large trees in the vicinity of your apiary, all the better, as there will then be no danger of your swarms lighting on...

How Swarms Are Generally Managed That Leave For The Woods
Some of my neighboring bee-keepers lose a quarter or half of their swarms by flight, and how do they manage? When the word is given ou...

Nothing But Bees Needed In A Hive
Now I cannot say positively that these things do harm, yet I am quite sure they do no good, as nothing but bees is needed in a hive. I...

Seldom Go Off Without Clustering
Perhaps one swarm in three hundred will depart for the woods without first clustering. I have had three times that number, not one of ...

Do Swarms Choose A Location Before Swarming?
The inquiry is often made, Do all swarms have a place looked out before leaving the parent stock? The answer to this must ever be gues...

Means Of Arresting A Swarm
I have had three swarms that were exceptions to general rules, giving me some trouble by swarming out after being hived; the third and...

Some Compulsion
After getting them in the hive for the fourth time, I resolved not to be baffled or have much more such trouble, and perhaps go to the...

How Far Will They Go In Search Of A Home?
How far they will travel in search of a home, is also uncertain. I have heard of their going seven miles, but could not learn how the ...

Two Or More Swarms Liable To Unite
If we expect to keep many stocks, the chances are that two or more may issue at one time; and when they do, they nearly always cluster...

Disadvantage
One first swarm, if of the usual size, will contain bees enough for profit, yet two such will work together without quarrelling, and w...

Can Often Be Prevented
"Prevention is better than cure." We can, if we keep a good lookout, often prevent more than one issuing at a time. This depends on ou...

Indications Of Swarming Inside The Hive
These glass boxes are usually filled with bees; before leaving they may be seen in commotion, long before any unusual stir is visible ...

Preventing A Swarm Issuing For A Time
But should you discover the bees running to and fro in great commotion, although there may be but few about the entrance, you should l...

To Prevent Swarms Uniting With Those Already Hived
When any of the subsequent swarms were disposed to unite with those already hived, a sheet was thrown over to keep them out. I had fou...

When Two Have United The Method Of Separating
Two or more swarms will cluster together, and not quarrel, if put in one hive; I have already told you the disadvantages. Unless busin...

No Danger Of A Sting By The Queen
No danger of her sting need be apprehended, as she will not demean herself to use that for a common foe; she must have a _royal_ anta...

Some Precautions In Hiving Two Swarms Together
If you are disposed to separate them, but are afraid to work among them to this extent in the middle of the day, or if there is danger...

How To Find Queen When Two Strangers Are Together
First, look into the lower hive for a dead queen, and, if none is found there, look thoroughly, as far as possible, for a little compa...

Boxes For Double Swarms Immediately
It should then be taken out, and boxes immediately put on, which should be changed for empty ones, as fast as they are filled. Yet, th...

Returning A Part To The Old Stock
Separate one-third or more of the two swarms, being sure there is no queen with this part, (by the test given of setting them at a dis...

Method Of Uniting
The manner of doing it is very simple; get them in a hive as before directed, and jar them out in front of the one you wish them to en...

When Care Is Necessary
Except on the day of swarming, care is necessary not to introduce a small number with a large swarm; they are liable to be destroyed. ...

Swarm-catcher
There is another method of keeping swarms separate, contrived and used by a Mr. Loucks, of Herkimer Co., N.Y. He calls it a swarm-catc...

Swarms Sometimes Return
Occasionally a swarm will issue, and in a few minutes return to the old stock. Mr. Miner gives a cause for this, very ingenious, and r...

Repetition Prevented
Sometimes a swarm will issue and return three or four days in succession, but this I generally remedy, as it is often owing to some i...

Liability To Enter Wrong Stocks
In all cases, whether you set a new hive in place of the old one or not, whenever a swarm returns, if other stocks stand close on each...

First Issues Generally Choose Fair Weather
First swarms are commonly more particular as to weather than after swarms. They have several days from which to choose, after these ro...

After Swarms
After swarms are second and third issues (or all after the first) from a stock; and quite a different affair from the first, as also ...

Time After The First
Whenever the first swarm in a prosperous season _was not kept back by foul weather_, the first of the young queens in the old stock is...

Piping Of The Queen
On the Monday evening previous, or on Tuesday morning, by putting your ear close to the hive, and listening attentively five minutes, ...

May Always Be Heard Before And After Swarm
I _never failed to hear it_, previous to a second swarm, or any after the first, whenever I listened; and whenever I have listened and...

Time Of Continuance Varies
The time of commencing will be later than this rule in some stocks, if the weather is cool, or not many bees left; it may be ten or tw...

Time Between Second And Third Issues
Piping for third swarms (when they issue) may usually be heard the evening after the second has left, though one day commonly interven...

Not Always To Be Depended Upon
One stock in fifteen may commence piping, yet send out no swarm. The bees will change their minds about coming out, and kill their que...

A Rule For The Time Of These Issues
This may be put down as a rule, that all after swarms _must_ be out by the eighteenth day from the first. I never found an exception, ...

When It Is Useless To Expect More Swarms
Therefore, bee-keepers having but few stocks, will find it unnecessary to watch their bees when the last of the first swarms came out ...

Plurality Of Queens Destroyed
When the bees, queens, or all together, decide that no more swarms are to issue, the plurality of queens is destroyed, and but one is ...

The Manner
After the first queen was matured, and had left her cell, I caught her within six hours, taking advantage of her younger sisters, whic...

After Swarms Different In Appearance From The First When About To Issue
Another thing, when after swarms start, the appearance about the entrance is altogether different from first ones, unless there is an ...

Time Of Day Weather Etc
These after swarms are not very particular about the weather; heavy winds, a few clouds, and sometimes a slight sprinkling of rain, wi...

Swarms Necessary To Be Seen
It is essential that you see them, that you may know where they cluster, otherwise it might be difficult to find them. They are apt to...

Returning After Swarms To The Old Stock
Much has been said about returning all after swarms to the old stock; the advantages of which will depend on the time of issuing; whet...

When They Should Be Returned
It is always best, if possible, to have good strong families. When after swarms are late it is safest to return them, as the old stock...

Method Of Doing It
But the process of returning such requires some little patience and perseverance. I have said there may be a dozen young queens in the...

More Care Needed By After Swarms When Hived
Should it be thought best to hive after swarms, and risk the chances, they should receive a little extra attention after the first wee...

Two May Be United
Whenever these swarms issue near enough together, it is best to unite them. I have said second swarms were generally half as large as ...

Of Swarms That Lose Their Queen
Swarms that lose their queen the first few hours after being hived, generally return to the parent stock; with the exception that they...

A Disputed Question
We now approach another disputed point in natural history, relative to the queen leaving at any time except when leading out a swarm. ...

A Multitude Of Drones Needed
Instinct teaches the bee to make the matters left to them as nearly _sure_ as possible. When they want one queen, they raise half a do...

The Queen Liable To Be Lost In Her Excursions
This excursion of the queen, whenever I have witnessed it, always took place a little after the middle of the day, when the drones wer...

The Time When It Occurs
Thus we see that queens are lost on these occasions from some cause, and part of them by entering the wrong hive, perhaps most of them...

Indications Of The Loss
The next morning after a loss of this kind has occurred, and occasionally at evening, the bees may be seen running about in the great...

Age Of Bees Indicated
Hundreds of bee-keepers lose some of their stocks in this way, and can assign no reasonable cause. "Why," say they, "there wasn't twen...

Necessity Of Care
As this tumult cannot be seen but a few days at most, it is well--yes, it is necessary--to make it a duty to glance at the hives at th...

Mark The Date Of Swarms On The Hive
Should you have so many stocks that you cannot remember the date of each swarm without difficulty, it is a good plan to mark the date ...

Obtaining A Queen From Worker Brood
There is yet another method to be adopted, and that is, to obtain a piece of brood-comb containing workers' eggs, or larvae very young...

They Are Poor Dependence
Therefore I would recommend getting a royal cell whenever it is practical. There is yet another advantage; you will have a queen ready...

Principles Should Be Understood
Artificial swarms can be made with safety at the proper season. To the bee-keeper who wishes to increase his stocks, it will be an adv...

A Successful Method
When you are all ready, take a stock that can spare a swarm; if bees are on the outside, raise the hive on wedges, and drive them in w...

Artificial Swarms Only Safe Near The Swarming Season
By what I have said about artificial swarms, it would appear that it is unsafe at any time but the swarming season; that is my opinion...

Natural And Artificial Swarms Equally Prosperous
I can see no difference in artificial or natural swarms of equal size, at the same time. By taking the matter in time into our own han...

Is The Age Of The Queen Important?
There is another object effected in this way, considered by some apiarians as very important. It is the change of the queens in the ol...

Different Opinions As To Time
The month of March has been recommended by several; others prefer April, August, or September. Here, as usual, I shall have to differ ...

Another Time Preferred
There is but one period from February till October, when prosperous stocks are free from young brood in the combs. If combs are taken ...

Should Not Be Delayed
Should this operation be put off for a time much longer than three weeks, the young queen will so fill the combs again as to make it a...

Objection To Pruning
The objection to this mode of renewing combs generally, will be the fear of getting stung. But I can assure you there is but little da...

Stocks Pruned Now Are Better For Winter
Besides the advantage of saving a large brood by pruning at this season, such stocks will usually refill before fall, and are much be...

Not Generally Understood
This disease is probably of recent origin. Mr. Miner, it appears, knew nothing of it until he moved from Long Island to Oneida County,...

My Own Experience
My first experience will probably go back to a date beyond many others; it is almost twenty years since the first case was noticed. I ...

Description Of Disease
A "_post mortem_" examination revealed the following circumstances: Nine-tenths of the breeding-cells were found to contain young bees...

The Cause Uncertain
But when I attempted the next link in the chain (to wit) What caused the death of this brood just at this stage of development? I was ...

Remedial Experiments
As for remedies, I tried pruning out all those combs containing brood, leaving only such as contained honey, and let the bees construc...

Public Inquiry And Answers
I had so many cases of the kind, that I became somewhat alarmed, and made inquiry through the Cultivator, (an agricultural paper,) as ...

Answers Not Satisfactory
Had I no experience further than this, I should, perhaps, rest satisfied as to the cause, and should endeavor to apply the remedy. Se...

A Cause Suggested
We are all familiar to some extent with the contagious diseases of the human family, such as small-pox, whooping-cough, and measles, a...

Reasons For The Opinion
For instance, I had all the bees of a good swarm leave the hive in March; after flying a time, they united with another good stock, ma...

Cause Of Its Spreading
Suppose one stock has caught the infection, but a small portion of the brood is dead. In the heat of the hive, it soon becomes putrid;...

Not Easily Detected At First
It is very difficult to detect the first hundred or two that die in a stock. But when nine-tenths of the breeding cells hold putrid la...

Symptoms To Be Observed
As no part of the breeding season is exempt, the stocks should be carefully observed during spring, and fore part of summer, relative ...

Scalding The Honey To Destroy The Poison For Feeding
The honey from the old hive may be used, if you will only first destroy the virus. This, I have ascertained, may be done by scalding: ...

When To Examine Stocks That Have Swarmed
Three weeks from the first swarm, will be the time to examine them. I make it a rule to inspect all my stocks at this period. It is ea...

Care In Selecting Stock Hives For Winter
Again, after the breeding season is over, in the fall, _every stock should be thoroughly inspected, and all diseased ones condemned fo...

Accusations Not Always Right
Careless bee-keepers, when their hives are thus robbed, feel regret, or are more often vexed at somebody--at the result of their carel...

Irritability Of Bees
Keeping bees good-natured, offers a pretty fair subject for ridicule: it seems rather too absurd to teach _a bee_ anything! Neverthe...

Their Means Of Defence
Nature has armed them with means to defend their stores, and provided them with combativeness sufficient to use them when necessary. T...

Time Of Greatest Irritability
The season of their greatest caution, in this section, is August, during the flowers of buckwheat. It is then their stores are greates...

Proper Conduct
First, all quick motions, such as running, striking, &c., about them, are noticed. If our movements among them are slow, cautious, hum...

How To Proceed When Attacked
Striking them down renders them ten times more furious. Not in the least daunted, they return to the attack. Not the least show of fea...

A Person's Breath Offensive And Other Causes
The breath of a person inside the hive, or among them, when clustered outside, is considered in the tribunals of their insect wisdom a...

Their Manner Of Attack
I must disagree with any one who says we always have warning before being stung. I have been stung _a few times_ myself. Two-thirds of...

Smoker Described
Get a tube of tin about five-eighths of an inch diameter, five or six inches in length; make stoppers of wood to fit both ends, two an...

Effect Of Tobacco Smoke
We can now subdue these combative propensities, or render them harmless; turn their anger to submission, and make them yield their tr...

Sting Described
Their sting, as it appears to the naked eye, is but a tiny instrument of war; so small, indeed, that its wound would pass unheeded by ...

Does Its Loss Prove Fatal?
It is said "to the bee itself this mutilation proves fatal." This last is another assertion for fact, so often repeated, that perhaps ...

Means Of Protection
The face and hands are most exposed; for the latter, thick woollen mittens or gloves are best; the sting is generally left when thrust...

Remedies For Stings
Concerning the remedies for stings, it is a hard matter to tell which is the best. There is so much difference in the effect in differ...

Enemies Of Bees
Among the enemies of bees, there are included rats, mice, birds, toads, and insects. ...

Are They All Guilty?
But some of these are probably clear of any actual mischief. I strongly suspect that the spirit of destructiveness with many people is...

Rats And Mice
Rats and mice are never troublesome, except in cold weather. The entrances of all hives standing out are too small to admit a rat. It ...

Are All The Birds Guilty?
But for some of the birds accused of preying upon bees, I would say a word. ...

King-bird One Word In His Favor
The king-bird stands at the head of the list of depredators! With a fair trial he will be found guilty, though not so heinously crimin...

Cat-bird Acquitted
The cat-bird also comes in for a share of censure. It is said "they will get right down by the hive, and pick up bees by the hundred."...

Toad Got Clear
A toad is discovered near the hives, and forthwith he is executed as a bee-eater. "He ought to be killed for his looks, if nothing els...

Wasps And Hornets Not Favored
As for the frequent visits of the black-wasp in the sunny days of spring, but little can be said in their favor--they seem to have no ...

Ants A Word In Their Favor
Ants come in for a share of condemnation. This little industrious insect shall have my endeavors for a fair hearing; I think I can un...

Spider Condemned
Spiders are a source of considerable annoyance to the apiarian, as well as to the bees; not so much on account of the number of bees c...

Indications Of Their Presence
Sometimes a half dozen young bees, nearly mature, will be removed alive, all webbed together, fastened by legs, wings, &c. All their ...

Management
Should the apiarian now give them a little assistance for a few days, they will soon be in a prosperous condition. The hive should be ...

Care In Turning Over Hives
When a hive is full of combs, the edges are usually attached sufficient to steady them, and it is of less consequence which way it is ...

Other Symptoms Of Worms
But when the bees make no effort to dislodge the enemy or his works in old stocks, the case is somewhat desperate! Instead of the fore...

When They Grow Larger Than Usual
In a hive thus left without bees to interfere, the worms will increase to one-half or two-thirds larger than where their right to the ...

Time Of Growth
When first hatched from the egg, it requires very close inspection to see them with the naked eye. The rapidity of growth depends on t...

Time Of Transformation
The worm, after spinning its cocoon, soon changes to a chrysalis, and remains inactive for several days, when it makes an opening in o...

Freezing Destroys Worms Cocoon And Moth
It is pretty well demonstrated that the moth, its eggs, larvae and chrysalis cannot pass the winter without warmth of some kind to pre...

How They Pass The Winter
But it is altogether a different thing with our hives in which bees are wintered; they are seldom or never entirely exempt! Perhaps it...

Stocks More Liable To Be Destroyed Last Of Summer
But in July and August it is different in this respect; a single moth may enter the hive when exposed, and deposit her whole burden of...

When Bees Are Safe
The only condition when we can rest and feel safe is when _we know all our stocks are full of bees_. Even the "moth-proof" hive contai...

Means To Destroy Them
At this season, (July and August), it is a good plan to put a few pieces of old dry combs near the hives, in a box, or other place, as...

Making Them Drunk And Their Execution By Chickens
Mix with water just enough molasses and vinegar to make it palatable; this is to be put in white saucers or other dishes, and set amon...

The Cause
When extreme hot weather occurs immediately after the bees have been gathering from a plentiful harvest for two or three weeks, or eve...

First Indications
The first indications of such an accident will be, the bees outside in clusters, when the hive is perhaps only half or two-thirds full...

Prevention
To prevent such occurrences as far as possible, ventilate by raising the hives on little blocks at the corners, and _effectually prote...

First Care
When the flowers fail at the end of the season, the first thing necessary is to ascertain which are the weakest stocks, and all that ...

Strong Stocks Disposed To Plunder
Strong stocks, that during a yield have occupied every cell with brood and honey, when it fails, will soon have empty cells left by th...

Bees Changeable
Bees are so changeable, especially in the summer and swarming season, that we can seldom be certain what they are, by what they have b...

Requisites For Good Stocks
The proper requisites for a good stock are a full hive of proper shape and size, (viz., 2,000 inches,) well stored with honey; a large...

Great Disadvantage Of Killing The Bees
Those rustic bee-keepers who are in the habit of making their hives very large, such as will hold from 100 to 140 lbs., and killing th...

Section Of Country May Make A Difference In What Poor Stocks Need
The kind of requisite to be supplied to our deficient stocks, will probably depend on the section of country. Where the principal sour...

When Bees Are Needed
I have frequently had stocks with stores amply sufficient to carry a good family through the winter, and yet too few bees to last till...

Caution
Whenever we make additions in this manner, it would be well first to ascertain what was the cause of a scarcity of bees; if it was ov...

Principal Difficulty
The greatest difficulty in uniting two families or more in this manner, is where they have to be taken from different places in the sa...

How Avoided
I like the plan of bringing them a mile or more for this purpose, and have no after trouble about it. Two neighbors being that distanc...

Advantages Of Making One Good Stock From Two Poor Ones
This making one good stock out of two poor ones, cannot be too highly recommended; aside from its advantages, it relieves us from all ...

Two Families Together Will Not Consume As Much As If Separate
Even when a stock already contains bees enough to make it safe for winter, another of the same number of bees may be added, and _the ...

An Experiment
Notwithstanding all this, I cannot recommend making a _good_ stock better by adding the bees from another good one as a source of prof...

Season For Operating
The season for operating is, generally, when all the brood has matured and left the cells. The exceptions are when there are not bees ...

The Fumigator
I am indebted to a communication from J. M. Weeks, published on page 151 of the Cultivator for 1841, for this method. The description ...

Directions For Uniting Two Families
The hive to receive the bees is inverted, the other set over it right end up, all crevices stopped to prevent the escape of the smoke....

Uniting With Tobacco Smoke
By the use of tobacco smoke, bees may be united with nearly the same success. First, smoke the two to be united, thoroughly; disturb t...

Condition Of Stocks In 1851
The latter part of the summer of 1851 was very dry and cold; the yield of buckwheat honey was not a tenth of the usual quantity; the ...

How They Were Managed
I had about twenty old stocks with diseased brood, and but few bees, yet _honey enough_. Now this honey appears healthy enough for the...

Cause Of Their Superior Thrift
One cause of superior thrift may be found in the circumstance, that all moth eggs and worms are frozen to death, and the bees are not ...

Swarms Partly Filled Pay Better Than To Cut Out The Honey
Any person wishing to increase his stocks to the utmost, will find this plan of saving all part-filled hives, of much more advantage t...

Advantages In Transferring
I would now like to show the advantages I derived in transferring the twenty swarms before mentioned. We will suppose that each family...

Another Method Of Uniting Two Families
I have occasionally adopted yet another method of making a good stock from two poor ones, which the reader may prefer. When all your o...

Uniting Comb And Honey As Well As Bees
The process of uniting them is simple. Smoke both the stocks or swarms thoroughly, and turn them over. Choose the one with the straigh...

When Feeding Should Be Done For Stock Hives
In some sections of country the _honey_ is more frequently wanting than bees, or comb, and some seasons in this; in such cases, it wil...

Different Methods Have Been Adopted
One will tell you to keep them warm, another to keep them cold; to keep them in the sun, out of the sun, bury them in the ground, put ...

The Idea Of Bees Not Freezing Has Led To Errors In Practice
By close observation we shall probably discover that the assertion so often repeated, that bees have never frozen except when without ...

Appearance Of Bees In Cold Weather
We will first endeavor to examine the condition of a stock left to nature, without any care, and see if it affords any hints for our ...

How Part Of The Swarm Is Frozen
A good family will form a ball or circle about eight inches in diameter, generally about equal every way, and must occupy the spaces ...

How A Small Family May All Freeze
Suppose a quart of bees were put in a box or hive where all the cells were filled and lengthened out with honey; the spaces between t...

Frost And Ice Sometimes Smother Bees
Besides freezing, there are other facts to be observed in stocks which stand in the cold. If we examine the interior of a hive contain...

Frost And Ice In A Hive Accounted For
Physiologists tell us "that innumerable pores in the cuticle of the human body are continually throwing off waste or worn out matter; ...

The Effect Of Ice Or Frost On Bees And Comb
When the bees are not smothered, this water in the hive is the source of other mischief. The combs are quite certain to mould. The wat...

Frost May Cause Starvation
This frost is frequently the cause of medium or small families starving in cold weather, even when there is plenty of honey in the hiv...

Other Difficulties
Should they escape starving, there is another difficulty often attending them in continued cold weather. I said that small families e...

Further Illustrations
A neighbor who wished to purchase some stock hives in the fall, requested my assistance in selecting them. We applied to a perfect st...

Accumulation Of Faeces Described By Some Writers As A Disease
This accumulation of faeces is considered by many writers as a disease--a kind of dysentery. It is described as affecting them towards...

The Author's Remedy
For a time, I supposed that this moisture on the combs gradually mixed with the honey, making it thin, and that the bees eating so muc...

Burying Bees
Burying bees in the earth below the frost, has been recommended as a superior method of wintering, for small families. I have known it...

Experiments Of The Author To Get Rid Of The Frost
I wished to keep them warm, and save the bees as well as honey, and at the same time, get rid of the moisture. I found that a large fa...

Success In This Matter
The following suggestion then came to my relief. If this hive was bottom up, what would prevent all this vapor as it arises from the b...

Bees When In The House Should Be Kept Perfectly Dark
When not kept perfectly dark, a few would leave the hives in either case. I have found it much better to make the room dark to keep th...

A Room Made For Wintering Bees
In the fall of 1849 I built a room for this purpose; the frame was eight by sixteen feet square, and seven high, without any windows. ...

Manner Of Stowing Away Bees
Shelves to receive the hives were arranged in tiers one above the other; they were loose, to be taken down and put up at pleasure. Su...

Temperature Of Room
The temperature of such a room will vary according to the number and strength of the stocks put in; 100 or more would be very sure to ...

Too Much Honey May Sometimes Be Stored
After the flowers fail, and all the brood has matured and left the combs, it sometimes happens that a stock has an opportunity of plu...

Management Of Room Towards Spring
A few warm days will often occur, towards spring, before we can get our bees out. In these cases, a bushel or two of snow or ice pound...

Time For Setting Out Bees
The time for carrying out bees is generally in March, but some seasons later. A warm pleasant day is the best, and one quite cold, bet...

Not Too Many Stocks Taken Out At Once
When too many are taken out at once, the rush from all the hives is so much like a swarm, that it appears to confuse them. Some of the...

Families May Be Equalized
By taking advantage of this immediately, or before the scent has again changed, and each hive has something peculiar to _itself_, you ...

Snow Need Not Always Prevent Carrying Out Bees
I am not particular about the snow being gone--if it has only lain long enough to have melted a part of it, it is "terra firma" to a b...

Does Not Analogy Prove That Bees Should Be Kept Warm In Winter?
Opposition to this method of wintering will arise with those who have always thought that bees must be kept cold; "the colder the bett...

The Next Best Place For Wintering Bees
A _dry_, warm cellar is the next best place for wintering them; the apiarian having one perfectly dark, with room to spare, will find ...

Evils Of Winterings In The Open Air Considered
As a great many bee-keepers will find it inconvenient, or be unable to avail themselves of my method of wintering, it will be well eno...

But Little Risk With Good Stocks
All _good stocks_ may be wintered in this way, with but little risk in most situations. Whether in the bleak north-wind, buried in a ...

Effect Of Keeping Second-rate Stocks Out Of The Sun
It has been strongly urged, without regard to the strength of the stock, to keep them all out of the sun; because an occasional warm d...

Effects Of Snow Considered
As for bees getting on the snow, I apprehend that not many more are lost there, than on the frozen earth; that is, in the same kind of...

Stocks To Be Protected On Some Occasions
The worst time for them to leave the hive is immediately after a new snow has fallen, because if they light on it then, it does not su...

Do The Bees Eat More When Allowed To Come Out Occasionally In Winter?
Besides the loss of bees on the snow when standing in the sun, and taking an airing occasionally, there are some economical bee-keeper...

Are Not Bees Directed Alone By Instinct?
On this subject I have but little to say, as I have failed to discover anything uncommonly remarkable, separate and distinct in one sw...

What They Do With Propolis
"A snail had entered the hive and fixed itself against the glass side. The bees, unable to penetrate it with their stings, the cunning...

Mending Broken Combs
Where two combs do not touch, and yet are close together, a small bar is constructed from one to the other, preventing any nearer appr...

Making Passages To Every Part Of Their Combs
Should nearly all the combs in the hive become detached from any cause, and lie on the bottom in one "grand smash of ruin," their firs...

Straining Honey And Wax
When about to remove the contents of a hive, I have never found it necessary to use all the precautions often recommended to prevent...

Methods Of Removing Combs From The Hive
The most convenient way to remove combs from the hive is to take off one of its sides, but this is apt to split the boards, if it was ...

Different Methods Of Straining Honey
Such combs as are taken from the middle or vicinity of brood-cells, are generally unfit for the table; such should be strained. There ...

Getting Out Wax Different Methods
Several methods have been adopted for separating the wax. I never found any means of getting out the _whole_. Yet I suppose I came as ...

Purchasing Stock And Transporting Bees
If the reader has no bees, and yet has had interest or patience to follow me thus far, it is presumptive evidence that he would poss...

Rule In Taking Bees For A Share
The rule generally adopted for taking bees is this. One or more stocks are taken for a term of years, the person taking them finding h...

First-rate Stocks Recommended To Begin With
For a beginning then, I would recommend purchasing none but first-rate stocks; it will make but little difference in the risk, whether...

Old Stocks Are Good As Any If Healthy
When it appears that all are exempt, (by a thorough examination, if not satisfied without,) you need not object to stocks two or three...

Caution Respecting Diseased Brood
When no apiary from which to purchase can be found, but where the disease _has made_ its appearance, and you are necessitated to purch...

Result Of Ignorance In Purchasing
A neighbor purchased thirteen stock-hives; six were old ones, the others swarms of the last season. As the old hives were heavy, he of...

Sizes Of Hives Important
Another point is worthy of consideration: endeavor to get hives as near the right size as possible, _viz._, 2,000 cubic inches; better...

How Large Hives Can Be Made Smaller
A short time after, I attended, on a cold day, with a sharp saw, square, &c. I found his hives fourteen inches square inside, and eig...

Moderate Weather Best To Remove Bees
In transporting your bees, avoid if possible the two extremes of very cold, or very warm weather. In the latter the combs are so nearl...

Preparations For Transporting Bees
To prepare for moving them, pieces of thin muslin about half a yard square is as good as anything, secured by carpet tacks. ...

Securing Bees In The Hive
The hive is inverted, and the cloth put over, neatly folded, and fastened with a tack at the corners, and another in the middle. The ...

Best Conveyance
Probably the best conveyance is a wagon with elliptic springs. But a wagon without springs is bad, especially for young stocks. Yet I ...

Hive To Be Inverted
Whatever conveyance is employed, the hive should be inverted. The combs will then all rest closely on the top, and are less liable to ...


Cattle

History And Breeds Ox
It is quite certain that the ox has been domesticated and in the service of man from a very remote period. We are informed in the fo...

The British Ox
In the earliest and most reliable accounts which we possess of the British Isles--the Commentaries of Caesar--we learn that the ancien...

American Cattle
The breeds of cattle which stock the farms of the United States are all derived from Europe, and, with few exceptions, from Great Brit...

The Ayrshire
This breed is justly celebrated throughout Great Britain and this country for its excellent dairy qualities. Though the most recent in...

The Jersey
These cattle are now widely known in this country. Many of them have been imported from an island of the same name in the British Chan...

The Short Horns
No breed of cattle has commanded more universal admiration during the last half century than the improved short horns, whose origin ca...

The Dutch
This short horned race, in the opinion of many--as has been previously remarked--contributed largely, about a century ago, to build up...

The Hereford
These cattle derive their name from a county in the western part of England. Their general characteristics are a white face, sometimes...

The North Devons
This beautiful race of middle horned cattle dates further back than any well established breed among us. It goes generally under the s...

Native Cattle
The foregoing comprise the pure-bred races in America; for, though other and well-established breeds--like the Galloways, the long hor...

The Natural History Of Cattle
1. The upper jaw-bone. 2. The nasal bone, or bone of the nose. 3. The lachrymal bone. 4. The malar, or cheek bone. 5. The frontal bone...

Gestation
The usual period of pregnancy in a cow is nine calendar months, and something over: at times as much as three weeks. With one thousand...

Formation Of Teeth
It is of the utmost importance to be able to judge of the age of a cow. Few farmers wish to purchase a cow for the dairy after she has...

Points Of A Good Cow
After satisfaction is afforded touching the age of a cow, she should be examined with reference to her soundness of constitution. A go...

The Milk-mirror
The discovery of M. Guenon, of Bordeaux, in France--a man of remarkable practical sagacity, and a close observer of stock--consisted i...

Crossing And Breeding
The raising of cattle has now become a source of profit in many sections,--to a greater extent, at least, than formerly--and it beco...

Pregnancy
The symptoms of pregnancy in its early stage were formerly deemed exceedingly unsatisfactory. The period of being in season--which co...

Treatment Before Calving
Little alteration needs to be made in the management of the cow for the first seven months of pregnancy; except that, as she has not o...

Feeding And Management
No branch of dairy farming can compare in importance with the management of cows. The highest success will depend upon it, whatever ...

Soiling
Of the advantages of soiling milch cows--that is, feeding exclusively in the barn--there are yet many conflicting opinions. As to its ...

Culture Of Grasses For Fodder
As has been already stated, the grasses in summer, and hay in winter, form the most natural and important food for milch cows; and, wh...

The Barn
The farm barn, next to the farm house, is the most important structure of the farm itself, in the Northern and Middle States; and even...

Milking
The manner of milking exerts a more powerful and lasting influence on the productiveness of the cow than most farmers are aware. That ...

The Raising Of Calves
It has been found in practice that calves properly bred and raised on the farm have a far greater intrinsic value for that farm, other...

Points Of Fat Cattle
Whatever theoretical objections may be raised against over-fed cattle, and great as may be the attempts to disparage the mountains of ...

Driving And Slaughtering
It is necessary that cattle which have been disposed of to the dealer or butcher, or which are intended to be driven to market, should...

Abortion
The cow is, more than any other animal, subject to abortion, or slinking, which takes place at different periods of pregnancy, from ha...

Apoplexy
This is a determination of blood to the head, causing pressure upon the brain. Animals attacked with this disease are generally in a p...

Black Water
This is simply an exaggerated stage of the disease known as Red Water,--to which the reader is referred in its appropriate place,--the...

Bronchitis
The trachea and bronchial tubes are frequently the seat of inflammation, especially in the spring of the year,--the symptoms of which ...

Consumption
This affection--technically known as phthisis pulmonalis--is the termination of chronic disease of the lungs. These organs become fill...

Coryza
In the spring, and late in the fall, catarrhal affections are quite common, occurring frequently in a epizooetic form. Coryza, or nasa...

Cow-pox
Two varieties of sore teats occur in the cow, in the form of pustular eruptions. They first appear as small vesicles containing a puru...

Diarrhoea
Cattle are frequently subject to this disease, particularly in the spring of the year when the grass is young and soft. Occasionally i...

Dysentery
This disease is very frequently confounded with the foregoing. A distinction, however, exists,--since inflammation appears in this di...

Enteritis
This is an inflammation of the external or internal coat of the intestines, sometimes attended with violent purging, especially when i...

Epizooetics
Diseases of this class have the same relation to the inferior animals that epidemic diseases have to man. Of course, they assume a ver...

Epizooetic Catarrh
Catarrh frequently assumes an epizooetic form of a very virulent character, originating spontaneously and extending over a large secti...

Fardel
This disease is properly known by the name of clue-bound. The manyplus, or omasum (third stomach), frequently becomes so choked up wit...

Foul In The Foot
This is caused by hard or irritating substances making their way in between the claws of the foot, causing inflammation, and sometimes...

Garget
This is a hard, knotty condition of the udder, which sometimes follows calving, in consequence of the sudden distention of the bag wit...

Gastro-enteritis
This disease--otherwise known as wood-evil, or moor-ill--arises from eating the buds of oak, young ash, and other trees, which are of ...

Hoose
This disease--known also as catarrh--is occasionally the sequence of coryza, but more frequently it arises from an impure atmosphere; ...

Hoove
Hoove, or blown, so common, and often so speedily fatal in cattle, is the result of fermentation in the rumen, or paunch, in consequen...

Hydatids
Worms in the brain occasionally occur, causing great uneasiness to the animal and generally proving fatal. The symptoms are, loss o...

Inflammation Of The Bladder
Inflammation of the bladder generally accompanies inflammation of the kidneys, though it is sometimes found disconnected and alone. It...

Inflammation Of The Haw
The ox, like the horse, has a membrane of semilunar form in the inner corner of the eye, which is capable of being thrown over the ent...

Inflammation Of The Kidneys
This disease--sometimes called nephritis--occurs occasionally in cattle in consequence of their eating bad or unwholesome food, or of ...

Inflammation Of The Liver
Diseases of the liver are of very common occurrence,--a fact with which all beef-butchers are familiar. Perhaps no organ in the animal...

Laryngitis
This disease is of rare occurrence in cattle. In it, the mucous membrane lining the larynx is in a very irritable condition; the least...

Lice
Cattle are very subject to lice, particularly when they are neglected, half-starved, and in poor condition. Good care and good feeding...

Mange
Mange, or leprosy, is one of the most unpleasant and difficult diseases to manage of all the ailments to which cattle are subject requ...

Murrain
This is one of the most malignant diseases to which cattle are liable. Fortunately, however, true murrain is comparatively rare in thi...

Navel-ill
Inflammation of the navel in calves occasionally occurs, causing redness, pain, and sudden swelling in the part affected. This disease...

Obstructions In The Oesophagus
Choking in cattle is of common occurrence, in consequence of turnips, potatoes, carrots, or other hard substances, becoming lodged in ...

Open Joints
Opening of the joint generally results from accidents, from puncturing with sharp substances, from kicks, blows, etc. These injuries c...

Parturition
In natural labor--as has been suggested in a former part of this work--the aid of man is rarely required in bringing away the calf. Bu...

Phrenitis
Inflammation of the brain is one of those dreadful diseases to which all animals are liable. It is known to the farmer as frenzy, mad ...

Pleurisy
This is an inflammation of the pleura, or the serous membrane which lines the cavity of the chest, and which is deflected over the lun...

Pleuro-pneumonia
This disease, as its name implies, is an inflammatory condition of the lungs and the pleura, or the enveloping membrane of the lungs a...

Pneumonia
There are two conditions of the lungs known as pneumonia,--one, the inflammatory, and the other, the congestive stage. The former may ...

Protrusion Of The Bladder
This sometimes occurs during the throes in difficult cases of parturition in cows, and the aid of a skillful veterinary surgeon is re...

Puerperal Fever
This disease--milk fever, or dropping after calving--rarely occurs until the animal has attained mature age. The first symptoms make t...

Quarter Evil
In some sections of the country, this disease--known by the other names of black quarter, and joint murrain--is quite common among you...

Rabies
Hydrophobia in cattle is the result of the bite of a rabid dog, from which bite no animal escapes. The effects produced by the wound m...

Red Water
This disease derives its name from the color of the urine voided in it. It is one of the most common complaints of horned cattle, and ...

Rheumatism
This is a constitutional inflammatory affection of the joints, affecting the fibrous tissue and serous, or synovial membrane. It is ca...

Strangulation Of The Intestines
This disease in cattle,--popularly styled Knot, or Gut-tie,--in consequence of the peculiar arrangement of the abdominal viscera, is o...

Thrush In The Mouth
Aptha, or thrush in the mouth, is a vesicular disease of the mouth, sometimes occurring as an epizooetic. It is often mistaken for bl...

Tumors
These enlargements so common in cattle, have been so admirably described, in the Veterinarian for 1843, by John Ralph, V.S.,--who has ...

Ulcers About The Joints
Occasionally, the joints assume a tumefied appearance, generally ulcerating, and causing painful wounds. Treatment.--The applicatio...

Warbles
It has been a prevalent opinion among farmers, that warbles are so many evidences of the good condition of their cattle. It must, howe...

Worms
Cattle are not so subject to worms proper as are the other domestic animals; nor, when these parasites do exist, is any injurious effe...

Worms In The Bronchial Tubes
Inflammation of the bronchial tubes is often caused by worms of the strongylus species. Upon examination after death, the bronchial p...

Castration
The period most commonly selected for this operation is between the first and third months. The nearer it is to the expiration of the ...

Tracheotomy
In consequence of the formation of tumors about the throat in cattle, from inflammation of the parotid gland, blain, etc., so characte...

Spaying
To secure a more uniform flow and a richer quality of milk, cows are sometimes spayed, or castrated. The milk of spayed cows is pretty...


Birds

The Eagle
The Eagle is often called the King of Birds, and therefore it is of him that we ought to speak first. Very likely you have often see...

The Duck
There is so much that is interesting to tell you about the duck, that I scarcely know where to begin. Most of you know something of ...

The Quail
The quail is the smallest of the poultry tribe, and is a pretty little bird, something like a partridge, but not so large. I dare sa...

The Robin Redbreast
Every little boy and girl well knows this pretty little bird. His bright eyes and rosy breast delight us even before we hear his lov...

The Bullfinch
Look at the bright colours of this beautiful little bird: you can scarcely find one with prettier plumage or a sweeter note. His nat...

The Albatross
This is the largest of all sea-birds, and you are not very likely to make acquaintance with him except in a picture. For though the ...

The Owl
This solemn looking bird is seldom to be seen by day. It is strictly a night bird. Its eyes are unable to endure the glare of sunshi...

The Goose
Have you not often heard people say "as silly as a goose"? Now I am going to tell you that the goose is one of the most sensible bir...

[illustration: The Goose]
Amongst the Romans this bird was held sacred to Juno, their supreme heathen goddess; indeed, it appears to have been looked upon with ...

The Magpie
The Magpie is a very pretty and cunning bird. It is easy to teach it to speak, and it may be rendered very tame. Where high trees ab...

The Pheasant
This beautiful bird comes originally from the East, and takes its name from the river Phasis, in Colchis, Asia Minor, whence it was ...

The Flamingo
Is not this a beautiful bird, though rather singular in its appearance? To see it in perfection we should have to travel at least as...

The Swan
You are no doubt well acquainted with this beautiful bird, and have perhaps fed some of its species, by the ornamental waters of the...

The Kestrel
This picture represents the kestrel, one of the smallest and most beautiful of hawks. The hawk is a bird of prey, feeding on small b...

The Vulture
This strange looking bird is also a bird of prey; but it feeds generally on dead carcases or offal. There are several kinds of vultu...

The Lapwing
This little bird which is often called the Pewit, from its uttering frequently a cry resembling the sound of this word, builds its n...


Fur Animals

Squirrels
Walking through the early October woods one day, I came upon a place where the ground was thickly strewn with very large unopened ch...

The Chipmunk
The first chipmunk in March is as sure a token of the spring as the first bluebird or the first robin, and is quite as welcome. Some...

The Woodchuck
In the Middle and Eastern States our woodchuck takes the place, in some respects, of the English rabbit, burrowing in every hillside...

The Rabbit And The Hare
With us the hare is of the remote northern woods, the rabbit is of the fields and bushy margins of the woods. One retreats before ma...

The Muskrat
It sometimes looks as if the muskrat were weather-wise and could forecast the coming season. I doubt if a long series of observation...

The Skunk
In February a new track appears upon the snow, slender and delicate, about a third larger than that of the gray squirrel, indicating...

The Fox
It has been many a long day since I heard a fox bark, but in my youth among the Catskills I often heard the sound, especially of a s...

The Weasel
My most interesting note of the season of 1893 relates to a weasel. One day in early November, my boy and I were sitting on a rock a...

The Mink
In walking through the woods one day in early winter, we read upon the newly fallen snow the record of a mink's fright the night bef...

The Raccoon
In March that brief summary of a bear, the raccoon, comes out of his den in the ledges, and leaves his sharp digitigrade track upon ...

The Porcupine
Among our wild animals there are three that are slow-moving, dull-witted, and almost fearless,--the skunk, the opossum, and the por...

The Opossum
A new track has appeared upon the snow in my neighborhood here on the Hudson within the past few years. It is a strange track, and s...

Wild Mice
One of the prettiest and most abundant of our native mice is the deer mouse, also called the white-footed mouse; a very beautiful cr...

Glimpses Of Wild Life
So fond am I of seeing Nature reassert herself that I even found some compensation in the loss of my chickens that bright November n...

A Life Of Fear
As I sat looking from my window the other morning upon a red squirrel gathering nuts from a small hickory, and storing them up in hi...


Fish

Introductory
Fish culture of a certain kind dates from very early times, but its scientific development has only come about quite recently. Most ...

Stocking Waters With Food
It may seem somewhat superfluous to say that fish cannot live in any water unless that water contains the food supply necessary for ...

Suitable Fish And Suitable Waters
Having stocked his water with suitable vegetation and food, the next matter which should engage the attention of the amateur, is wha...

Trout Preliminary Hints And Advice
The amateur who is beginning trout culture had better by all means buy eyed ova from a fish cultural establishment. There are many o...

Trout Rearing Ponds Boxes And Hatching Trays
Having decided upon a suitable spot, the amateur must now proceed to make his ponds. Whether he derive his water supply from a sprin...

Trout Management Of The Ova And Alevins
Everything should now be ready for the reception of the ova. The rearing boxes are resting upon stones placed at the bottom of the p...

Trout Management Of The Fry
A greatly varying period of time having elapsed and the yolk-sacs of the alevins being nearly absorbed, the fish culturist will see ...

Trout The Friends And Enemies Of The Fish Culturist
The creatures which are sometimes found in and around rearing ponds containing ova or young fish are very numerous, and it is advisa...

Trout Management Feeding And Turning Out Of Yearlings
As I pointed out to my readers in Chapter VIII., the young trout have after August passed the critical period of their existence, an...

The Rearing Of The Rainbow Trout American Brook Trout And Char
As the methods used in hatching out the ova and rearing the young fish are very similar in the case of different species of trout to...

Salmon And Sea-trout
In many ways nature is apparently very wasteful, and in nothing is this more marked than in the case of the salmon. Probably not mor...

Coarse Fish
Compared to what is known about the early part of the life history of the _Salmonidae_, our knowledge of coarse fish is small. Fortu...


Cats

Introductory
After a Cat Show at the Crystal Palace, I usually receive a number of letters requesting information. One asks: "What is a true tort...

The First Cat Show
On the day for judging, at Ludgate Hill I took a ticket and the train for the Crystal Palace. Sitting alone in the comfortable cushi...

Habits
Before attempting to describe the different varieties, I should like to make a few remarks as to the habits and ways of "the domesti...

Trained Cats
That cats may be trained to respect the lives of other animals, and also birds on which they habitually feed, is a well-known fact. ...

Long-haired Cats
These are very diversified, both in form, colour, and the quality of the hair, which in some is more woolly than in others; and they...

The Angora
The Angora cat, as its name indicates, comes from Angora, in Western Asia, a province that is also celebrated for its goats with long ...

The Persian Cat
This differs somewhat from the Angora, the tail being generally longer, more like a table brush in point of form, and is generally s...

The Russian Long-haired Cat
The above is a portrait of a cat given me many years ago, whose parents came from Russia, but from what part I could never ascertain...

The Tortoiseshell Cat
I now come to the section of the short-haired domestic cat, a variety possessing sub-varieties. Whether these all came from the same...

The Tortoiseshell-and-white Cat
This is a more common mixture of colouring than the tortoiseshell pure and simple without white, and seems to be widely spread over ...

The Brown Tabby Cat
The tabby cat is doubtless one of, if not the most common of colours, and numbers many almost endless varieties of both tint and mar...

The Abyssinian
I now come to the last variety of the tabby cat, and this can scarcely be called a tabby proper, as it is nearly destitute of markin...

The Short-haired White Cat
This of all, as it depends entirely on its comeliness, should be graceful and elegant in the outline of its form and also action, th...

The Black Cat
It is often said "What's in a name?" the object, whatever it is, by any other would be the same, and yet there is much in a name; bu...

The Blue Cat
This is shown often under a number of names. It was at first shown as the Archangel cat, then Russian blue, Spanish blue, Chartreuse...

The Black-and-white Cat
This is distinct from the white-and-black cat, the ground colour being black, marked with white; while the other is white, marked wi...

The White-and-black Cat
This differs entirely from the black-and-white cat, as just explained, and is the opposite as regards colour, the ground being white...

Siamese Cat
Among the beautiful varieties of the domestic cat brought into notice by the cat shows, none deserve more attention than "The Royal ...

The Manx Cat
The Manx cat is well known, and is by no means uncommon. It differs chiefly from the ordinary domestic cat in being tailless, or nea...

Various Colours
Those who have had much to do with breeding, and crossing of animals, birds, or plants, well know that with time, leisure, and patie...

Usefulness Of Cats
In our urban and suburban houses what should we do without cats? In our sitting or bedrooms, our libraries, in our kitchens and stor...

General Management Feeding
Adult cats require less food in proportion than kittens, for two reasons. One is this: a kitten is growing, and therefore extra bone...

Sleeping Places
I much prefer a round basket filled with oat straw to anything else; some urge that a box is better; my cats have a basket. It is well...

Washing
Most cats have a dislike to water, and as a rule, and under ordinary conditions, generally keep themselves clean, more especially the ...

Mating
Yet nature is made better by no mean, But nature makes that mean: so, o'er that art, Which, you say, adds to nature, is a...

Tortoiseshells
I place these first on the list because, being an old pigeon fancier and somewhat of a florist, I deem these to be the breed wherein t...

Tortoiseshell-and-white
If tortoiseshell-and-white are desired, then a black-and-white male may be selected, being bred in the same way as those recommended f...

Black
The best black, undoubtedly, are those bred from tortoiseshell mothers or females. The black is generally more dense, and less liable ...

Blues
Blue in cats is one of the most extraordinary colours of any, for the reason that it is the mixture of black which is no colour, and w...

Brown Tabby
For the purpose of breeding rich brown black-striped tabbies, a male of a rich dark rufous or red tabby should be selected, the bands ...

White
Of English, or short-haired cats, the best white are those from a tortoiseshell mother, and as often some of the best blacks. These wh...

Abyssinian
To breed these true, it is well to procure imported or pedigree stock, for many cats are bred in England from ordinary tabbies, that s...

Abyssinian Crosses
Curiously coloured as the Abyssinian cat is, and being a true breed, no doubt of long far back ancestry, it is most useful in crossing...

White And Black
For white and black choose evenly marked animals, in which white predominates. I have seen three differently bred cats, white, with bl...

Black And White
A deep brown, dense black ground, with a blaze up the face, white nose and lips, should be chosen--white chest and white feet. Get a f...

Blue Tabby
A slate colour, or a blue male cat, mated with a strongly black-marked, though narrow-banded blue or gray tabby, is the best for dark ...

Spotted Tabby
For spotted tabby the best brown are those got by mating a spotted red tabby, the darker the better, and a brown and black spotted fem...

Fancy Colours
By other odd and fanciful combinations, many beautiful mottles and stripes may be secured, and strange, quaint, harmonious arrangement...

Cat And Kittens
Care and attention is necessary when the cat is likely to become a mother. A basket or box, half filled with sweet hay, or clean oat...

Kittens
Kittenhood, the baby time especially of country cats, is with most the brightest, sprightliest, and prettiest period of their existe...

Of Kittens In General
Kittens usually shed their first teeth from five to seven months old, and seldom possess even part of a set of the small, sharp dent...

Management Of Kittens And Cats
These require quiet and kindly treatment. Do nothing quickly or suddenly, so as in any way to scare or frighten, but when speaking to ...

The Tortoiseshell
POINTS HEAD ...

Tortoiseshell And White
POINTS HEAD ...

White Short-hair
POINTS HEAD ...

Self-colour Black Blue Gray Or Red Short-hair
POINTS HEAD ...

Brown And Ordinary Tabby Striped Short-hair
POINTS HEAD ...

Chocolate Chestnut Red Or Yellow Tabby Striped Short-hair
POINTS HEAD ...

Blue Silver Light Gray And White Tabby Striped Short-hair
POINTS HEAD ...

Short-haired Spotted Tabbies Of Any Colour
These to be the same in all points of head, eyes, fur, form, colours, tail, size and condition as those laid down for the judging of ...

Abyssinian
POINTS HEAD ...

Royal Cat Of Siam
POINTS HEAD ...

Manx Or Short-tailed Cat
POINTS HEAD ...

White Long-haired Cat
POINTS HEAD ...

Black Blue Gray Red Or Any Self Colour Long-haired Cats
POINTS HEAD ...

Brown Blue Silver Light Gray And White Tabby Long-haired Cats
POINTS HEAD ...

Diseases Of Cats
Cats, like many other animals, both wild and domestic, are subject to diseases, several being fatal, others yielding to known curati...

Catarrhal Fevers
"Cats are, like some other of the domesticated animals, liable to be attacked by two kinds of Catarrhal Fever, one of which is undoubt...

Worms
For a full-grown cat give 3 grains of santonine every night for a week or 10 days; it might be administered in milk, or given in a sma...

Colds
The symptoms are twofold, usually there is constant sneezing and discharge from the nose. Aconite, 1^{x} tincture, 1 drop given every ...

Coughs
The short, hard, dry cough will always give way to treatment with belladonna, 3^{x} trituration, 3 grains every 3 or 4 hours. For t...

Distemper
Early symptoms should be noted and receive prompt attention; this will often cut short the duration of the malady. The first indicatio...

Canker Of Ear
When internal, drop into the affected ear, night and morning, 3 or 5 drops of the following mixture: Tincture of Hydrastis Canadens...

Aperient
Get a chemist to rub down a medium-size croton bean with about 40 grains of sugar of milk, and divide into four powders. One of these ...

Remedies And Strengthening Medicines
Aconite, 1^{x} tincture. Arsenicum, 2^{x} trituration. Antimonium tartaricum, 2^{x} trituration. Belladonna, 3^{x} tri...

Distemper
Take yellow basilicon, 1 oz.; flowers of sulphur, 1/2 oz.; oil of juniper, 3 drachms. Mix for ointment. Then give sulphide of mercury,...

Purgative
Nothing like castor oil for purgation; half the quantity of syrup of buckthorn, if necessary, may be added. ...

Worms
Two or three grains of santonine in a teaspoonful of castor oil, for two or three days. ...

Catarrh
Cold in the eyes and sneezing may be relieved by sweet spirits of nitre, 1 drachm; minocrerus spirit, 3 drachms; antimony wine, 1 drac...

Fleas And Irritation Of Skin
Two drachms pure carbolic acid to 6 oz. of water well mixed for a lotion, and apply night and morning. ...

Eye Ointment
Red oxide of mercury, 12 grains; spermaceti ointment, 1 oz. Mix. The above prescription was given to me many years ago by the late D...

For Mange
In the early stages of mange, flowers of sulphur mixed in vaseline, and rubbed in the coat of the cat, is efficacious, giving sulphur ...

Poison
It is not generally known that the much-admired laburnum contains a strong poison, and is therefore an exceedingly dangerous plant. Al...

The Wild Cat Of Britain
The wild cat is said to be now extinct in England, and only found in some of the northern parts of Scotland, or the rocky parts of t...

Concerning Cats
CAT.--Irish, Cat; French, Chat; Dutch, Kat; Danish, Kat; Swedish, Katt; German, Katti or Katze; Latin, Catus; Italian, Gatto; Portu...

Cat Proverbs
A BLATE cat makes a proud mouse (Scotch). An idle, or stupid, or timid foe is never feared. A cat has nine lives, a woman has nin...

The Cat Of Shakespeare
Shakespeare mentions the cat forty-four times, and in this, like nearly all else of which he wrote, displayed both wonderful and acc...

Superstition And Witchcraft
A very remarkable peculiarity of the domestic cat, and possibly one that has had much to do with the ill favour with which it has be...

Weather Notions
"Signs of Foul Weather," by Dr. Erasmus Darwin. In a poem, the well-known relative of the eminent Charles Darwin describes the vario...

A Cat-clock
The following curious incident is to be found in Huc's "Chinese Empire": "One day, when we went to pay a visit to some famili...

Puss In Boots Le Chat Botte
Is from the "Eleventh Night" of Straparola's Italian fairy tales, where Constantine's cat procures his master a fine castle and the ...

Signs
D'Urfey, in his poem on Knole, speaks of "The Cats" at Sevenoaks. "The Cat" or "Cats" is by no means a common sign. The subject is...

The Law On Cat Killing
An "Articled Clerk," writing to The Standard with regard to the illegality of killing cats, states: "It is clearly laid down in 'Add...

Dead Cats
Lifeless cats have been from time immemorial suggestive of foolish hoaxing, a parcel being made up, or a basket with the legs of a h...

The Cat As A Tormentor
Shakespeare, in "Lucrece," says: "Yet foul night-waking cat, he doth but dally, While in his holdfast foot the weak mouse...

Heraldry Etc
A cat (hieroglyphically) represents false friendship, or a deceitful, flattering friend. The cat (in heraldry) is an emblem of li...

Performing Cats
Cats, unlike dogs, are not amused by, nor do they in any way take an interest in what are termed "tricks." Performing dogs will sit ...

Cat-racing In Belgium
"On festival days, parties of young men assemble in various places to shoot with cross-bows and muskets, and prizes of considerable ...

Cat Images
Those with long memories will not have forgotten the Italian with a board on his head, on which were tied a number of plaster casts,...

Lovers Of Cats
"The Turks greatly admire Cats; to them, their alluring Figure appears preferable to the Docility, Instinct, and Fidelity of the Dog...

Cat's Cradle Or Catch Cradle
Dr. Brewer, in his "Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," thinks this "the corrupt for cratch cradle or manger cradle, in which the infant ...

Cat-trap Bat And Ball[l]
With the form of the trap our readers are, doubtless, acquainted; it will only be necessary for us to give the laws of the game. Two ...

Puss In The Corner[l]
[L] The Boy's Own Book. This is a very simple, but, at the same time, a very lively and amusing game. It is played by five only; an...

Cat And Mouse
This is a French sport. The toys with which it is played consist of two flat bits of hard wood, the edges of one of which are notched....

Cat And Mouse-hunting
The game of "Hunt the Slipper" used frequently to be called "Cat and Mouse-hunting." It is generally played with a slipper, shoe, or e...

Tip-cat
Is a game played with sticks of a certain length and a piece of wood sharpened off at each end, which is called the "cat." A ring is m...

Cat I' The Hole[m]
[M] Jamieson's "Scottish Dictionary." The name of a game well known in Fife, and perhaps in other counties. If seven boys are to pl...

Nursery Rhymes And Stories
These are as plentiful as blackberries, and are far too numerous to be treated of here. Some are very old, such as "Puss in Boots," ...

Fishing Cats
Having just come across a communication made to The Kelso Mail, in 1880, by a correspondent giving the signature of "March Brown," b...

Cats And Horses
From time immemorial cats have been kept in stables, and when this is the case there is generally a friendly feeling between one or ...

Grammer's Cat And Ours
BY JOHN TABOIS TREGELLAS. John Tabois Tregellas (1792-1865), born at St. Agnes. The greatest master of the niceties of the Cornis...

Lost
How beautiful she was in her superb calmness, so graceful, so mild, and yet so majestic! Ah! I was a younger man then, of course, th...

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Animals



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