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 Fogs.ca

Learn about weather from a world and scentific point of view. Extreme storms, mild rain, blisting sun and whipping wind are all elements of weather. Discover how they work.




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Content

+:
  Storms (10)    Weather Folklore (26)    Barometer Guide (8)    Meteorological Instruments (104)  


Fogs.ca

Learn about weather from a world and scentific point of view. Extreme storms, mild rain, blisting sun and whipping wind are all elements of weather. Discover how they work.


Storms

Phenomena Of Revolving Storms
It is the object of the following pages to exhibit, so far as observation may enable us, and in as brief a manner as possible, ...

Lower Latitudes
NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. Axis line, wind N.E., barometer falling, first half of storm. Axis line, wind S.W., barometer rising, last...

Phenomena Of Atmospheric Waves
Professor Dove of Berlin has suggested that in the temperate zones the compensating currents of the atmosphere necessary to pre...

Observations
In sketching out a system of observation having especial reference to atmospheric waves and rotatory storms, regard has been had--_f...

Times Of Observation
There can be no question that the greatest amount of information, the accuracy of the data supplied, and in fact every meteorologica...

Localities For Additional Observations
In sketching out a system of barometric observation having especial reference to the acquisition of data from which the _barometric c...

Storms Hurricanes And Typhoons
The solution of the question--How far and in what manner are storms connected with atmospheric waves?--must be extremely interesting t...

Seasons For Extra Observations
In reference to certain desiderata that have presented themselves in the course of my researches on this subject (see Report of the Br...

Avoiding The Centres Of Rotating Storms
Figures 1 and 2, enlarged and printed on narrow rings of stiff cardboard, are employed for this purpose. The letters outside the thi...

Appendix
TABLE I.--Correction to be added to Barometers for Capillary Action. +--------------------+---------------------------------+ ...


Weather Folklore

If The Sun Rise Red And Firey Wind And Rain
THE Reason of this Appearance is, because the Sun shines through a large Mass of Vapours, which occasions that red Colour that has bee...

If Cloudy And It Soon Decrease Certain Fair Weather
I Conceive the Reason of this to be, that the Vapours being then specifically lighter than the Air, are still rising upwards, in which...

Clouds: Small And Round Like A Dappley-grey With A North-wind Fair Weather For 2 Or 3 Days
THIS is differently expressed by other Authors. My Lord Bacon tells us, that if Clouds appear white, and drive to the N. W. it is a Si...

Clouds Large Like Rocks Great Showers
IN the old Almanacks we have this Sign of the Weather thus expressed. When Clouds appear like Rocks and Towers, The Earth's...

If Small Clouds Increase Much Rain
THIS and the following Observation cannot well be understood, without giving some Account of Clouds in general. The Atmosphere is supp...

If Large Clouds Decrease Fair Weather
THE same kind of Reasoning accounts very clearly for this Prognostick, since it shews, that the Vapours are either exhaled by the Sun'...

Mists If They Rise In Low Ground And Soon Vanish } Fair Weather
THIS is a sure Sign and very well expressed, that is, clearly, and, in few Words, which is the Excellency of such Aphorisms. In order ...

Mists If They Rise To The Hill-tops } Rain In A Day Or Two
WHEN Mists are very, heavy in themselves, and rise only by the Action of that protrusive Force, exerted by the subterranean Fire, they...

Mists A General Mist Before The Sun Rises Near The Full Moon Fair Weather
THIS is a general and a very extensive Observation, which enables us to judge of the Weather for about a Fortnight, and there is very ...

If In The New Moon Rain In The Old
WHEN Exhalations rise copiously from the Earth into the Region of the Air, and the Air itself is in a proper Disposition, they ascend ...

If In The Old Rain In The New
BUT as it is observed not only in this Climate, but all the World over, that great Changes of Weather happen near the Change of the Mo...

Winds Observe That In Eight Years' As Many Wet Years As Dry
THIS must be allowed a very extraordinary Aphorism from a Country Shepherd, but at the same Time it is very agreeable to the Observati...

When The Wind Turns To North East
When the Wind turns to North East, and it continues two Days without Rain, and does not turn South the third Day, nor Rain the third ...

If It Turn Out Again Out Of The South
If it turn out again out of the South to the North East with Rain, and continues in the North East two Days without Rain, and neither ...

S W Winds
After a northerly Wind for the most Part two months or more, and then coming South, there are usually ...

If It Return To The South Within A Day Or Two Without Rain
If it return to the South within a Day or two without Rain, and turn Northward with Rain, and return to the South, in one or two Days,...

Fair Weather For A Week
Fair Weather for a Week, with a Southern Wind, is like to produce a great Drought, if there has been much Rain out of the South befor...

Clouds In Summer Or Harvent
In Summer or Harvest, when the Wind has been South two or three Days, and it grows very hot, and you see Clouds rise w...

If Two Such Clouds Arise One On Either Hand It Is Time To Make Haste To Shelter
AS this Observation is of the same Nature with the former, we shall continue our Remarks. The Reason why it seldom thunders in Winter ...

If You See A Cloud Rise Against The Wind Or Side Wind
When that Cloud comes up to you, the Wind will blow the same Way that the Cloud came. And the same Rule holds of a clear Place, when a...

Sudden Rains Never Last Long:
But when the Air grows thick by Degrees, and the Sun, Moon, and Stars shine dimmer and dimmer, then it is like to rain six Hours usu...

If It Begins To Rain From The South
If it begin to Rain from the South, with a high Wind for two or three Hours, and the Wind falls, but the Rain continues, it is like t...

If It Begins To Rain An Hour Or Two Before Sun Rising
If it begins to rain an Hour or two before Sun-rising, it is like to be fair before Noon, and so continue that Day, but if the Rain b...

Spring And Summer
If the last eighteen Days of February and ten Days of March be for the most part rainy, ...

Winter Time
If the latter End of October and Beginning of November be for the most Part warm and rainy, then January and Februa...

If October And November Are Full Of Snow And Frost
If October and November be Snow and Frost, then January and February are like to be open and mild. AS this Observation stands on th...


Barometer Guide

Reading Barometers
A contraction of rules for foretelling weather--in accordance with the following pages--is submitted, for scales of common baromet...

How To Foretell Weather
Familiar as the practical use of weather-glasses is, at sea as well as on land, only those who have long watched their indications, ...

How To Foretell Weather With A Barometer Part 2
In this part of the world, towards the higher latitudes, the quicksilver ranges, or rises and falls, nearly three inches--namely, betw...

Expert Details Foretelling Weather Part 3
Although the preceding remarks are probably sufficient for their principal purpose--these pages may fall into the hands of persons fa...

Other Types Of Barmeters Fortelling Weather Part 4
In the previous observations, general reference has been made to mercurial barometers of the ordinary kind; but, excepting the constr...

Foretelling Weather Important Observations Final Part
The daily movement of the barometer may be noted (in a form or table of double entry) at the time of each observation, by a dot at the...

Marine Barometer Adopted By Her Majesty's Government
On the recommendation of the Kew Observatory Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. This instrument...

Testing Barometers Hydrometers And Thermometers
In the year 1853 a conference of maritime nations was held at Brussels, on the subject of meteorology at sea. The report of this confe...


Meteorological Instruments

Principle Of The Barometer
Fig. 1. The first instrument which gave the exact measure of the pressur...

2 Construction Of Barometers
In order that the instrument may be portable, it must be made a fixture and mounted on a support; and, further, to render it scientific...

Fortin&rsquos Barometer
Fortin’s plan of constructing a barometer cistern is shown in fig. 2. The cistern is formed of a glass cylinder, which allows o...

Standard Barometer
Fig. 3 represents a Standard Barometer on Fortin’s principle. The barometer tube is enclosed and protected by a tube of brass e...

The Barometer Vernier
The vernier, an invaluable contrivance for measuring small spaces, was invented by Peter Vernier, about the year 1630. The b...

Self-compensating Standard Barometer
This barometer has been suggested to Messrs. Negretti and Zambra by Wentworth Erk, Esq. It consists of a regular barometer; but attac...

Barometer With Electrical Adjustment
This barometer is useful to persons whose eyesight may be defective; and is capable of being read off to greater accuracy than ordina...

The Words On The Scale
The following words are usually engraved on the scales of these barometers, although they are not now considered of so much importanc...

Public Barometers
Since the increased attention paid to the signs of forthcoming weather of late years, and the good which has resulted therefrom to far...

Fishery Or Sea-coast Barometers
Fig. 12. Fig. 12 gives a representation of these coast and fishery baro...

Admiral Fitzroy&rsquos Scale Words
The directions given on the scales of these barometers were drawn up by Admiral FitzRoy, F.R.S. They appear to be founded on the foll...

Instructions For The Sea-coast Barometer
The directions for fixing the barometer, and making it portable when it has to be removed, should be attended to carefully. The barom...

French Sea-coast Barometer
The French have imitated this form of barometer for coast service, and have translated Admiral FitzRoy’s indications for the sc...

The Common Formthe Barometer Is Of Great Use To The Mariner Who By Using It As A &ldquoweather Glass&rdquo Is Enabled To Fores
Other forms of barometer (to be immediately described) have superseded this in the British Marine, but the French still give the pref...

The Kew Marine Barometer
The form of barometer so-called, is that recommended by the Congress of Brussels, held in 1853, for the purpose of devising a systema...

Method Of Verifying Marine And Other Barometers
“In nearly all the barometers which had been employed at sea till recently the index correction varied through the range of sca...

The Fitzroy Marine Barometer
Admiral FitzRoy deemed it desirable to construct a form of barometer as practically useful as possible for marine purposes. One that ...

Admiral Fitzroy&rsquos Words For The Scale
The graduation of inches and decimals are placed in this barometer on the right-hand side of the tube; and on a similar piece of porc...

Trials Of The Fitzroy Marine Barometer Under Fire Of Guns
Some of the first barometers made by Messrs. Negretti and Zambra on Admiral FitzRoy’s principle were severely tried under the h...

Negretti And Zambra&rsquos Farmer&rsquos Barometer And Domestic Weather-glass
It is a well-known fact that the barometer is as much, or even more affected by a change of wind as it is by rain; and the objection ...

Rules For Foretelling The Weather
A RISING BAROMETER. A “Rapid” rise indicates unsettled weather. A “Gradual”...

Causes Which May Bring About A Fall Or A Rise In The Barometer
As heat produces rarefaction, a sudden rise of temperature in a distant quarter may affect the weight of the atmosphere over our head...

Use Of The Barometer In The Management Of Mines
The inflammable and suffocating gases, known to coal-miners as fire-damp and choke-damp, are specifically heavier than air; and as th...

Use Of The Barometer In Estimating The Height Of Tides
The pressure of the atmosphere affects the height of the tide, the water being in general higher as the barometer is lower. The expre...

Principle Of
If some mercury, or any other fluid, be poured into a tube of glass, bent in the form of ∪, and open at both ends, ...

Dial Or Wheel Barometers
The familiar household “Weather Glasses” are barometers on the syphon principle. The portions of the two limbs through wh...

Standard Syphon Barometer
Fig. 24 represents the most accurate form of the Gay Lussac barometer. The short limb is closed at the top, after the mercury is intr...

Milne&rsquos Self-registering Barometer
For a long time a good and accurate self-recording barometer was much desired. This want is now satisfactorily supplied, not by one, bu...

Modification Of Milne&rsquos Barometer
The great difficulty to be overcome in Milne’s barometer, is to adjust the mechanism for obtaining registration so that the act...

King&rsquos Self-registering Barometer
Fig. 27. Mr. Alfred King, Engineer of the Liverpool Gas-light Company, ...

Syphon With Photographic Registration
A continuous self-registering barometer has been constructed, in which photography is employed. Those who may wish to adopt a similar...

The Syphon Tube Mountain Barometer On Gay Lussac&rsquos Principle
The Syphon Tube Mountain Barometer, on Gay Lussac’s principle is fixed in a metallic tubular frame, forms a simple and light trave...

Mountain Barometer On Fortin&rsquos Principle
This barometer, with Fortin’s cistern, as arranged by Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, is an elegant, manageable, and very accurate...

Newman&rsquos Mountain Barometer
Fig. 29. Fig. 29 is an illustration of the mountain barometer known as ...

Method Of Calculating Heights By The Barometer
The pressure of the atmosphere being measured by the barometer, it is evident that as the instrument is carried up a high mountain or...

Desirability Of Magnifying The Barometer Range
The limits within which the ordinary barometric column oscillates, do not exceed four inches for extreme range, while the ordinary ra...

Howson&rsquos Long Range Barometer
Fig. 31. Very recently quite a novel design has been patented by Mr. Ho...

Mcneild&rsquos Long Range Barometer
A barometer designed by a gentleman named McNeild is on a directly opposite principle to the one just described. The tube is made to ...

Sympiesometer
Fig. 32. Nevertheless the instrument now about to be described, depending upon...

Aneroids
The beautiful and highly ingenious instrument called by the name Aneroid, is no less remarkable for the scientific principles...

Small Size Aneroids
The patent for the Aneroid having expired, Admiral FitzRoy urged upon Messrs. Negretti & Zambra the desirability of reducing the ...

Watch Aneroid
Subsequently the aneroid has been further reduced in size and it can now be had from an inch and a quarter to six inches in diameter....

Measurement Of Heights By The Aneroid
For measuring heights not exceeding many hundred feet above the sea-level by means of the aneroid, the following simple method will s...

Metallic Barometer
This instrument, the invention of M. Bourdon, has a great resemblance to the aneroid, but is much simpler in arrangement. The invento...

Temperature Is The Energy With Which Heat Affects Our Sensation Of Feeling
Bodies are said to possess the same temperature, when the amounts of heat which they respectively contain act outwardly with the same...

Thermometric Substances
Thermometers for meteorological and domestic purposes are constructed with liquids, and generally either mercury or alcohol, because ...

Description Of The Thermometer
The ordinary thermometer consists of a glass tube of very fine bore, having a bulb of thin glass at one extremity, and closed at the ...

Standard Thermometer
Fig. 36 The peculiarities in the construction of thermometers will be be...

Methods Of Ascertaining The Exact Boiling Temperature
The normal boiling temperature of water all nations have tacitly agreed to fix under a normal barometric pressure of 29·922 inches o...

Displacement Of The Freezing Point
Either the prolonged effect of the atmospheric pressure upon the thin glass of the bulbs of thermometers, or the gradual restoration ...

The Scale
The two fixed points having been determined, it is necessary to apply the scale. The thermometers in general use in the United Kingdo...

Varieties Of Thermometers
Fig. 37 is an illustration of boxwood scale thermometers for general use and common purposes. Fig. 38, Negretti and Zambra&rs...

Earth Thermometer
The Earth Thermometer is for ascertaining the temperature of the soil at various depths. It is protected by a brass frame, pointed an...

Marine Thermometer
Fig. 52. This instrument is a special construction to meet the requirements of...

Importance Of Self-registering Thermometers
Heat being apparently the most effective agent in producing meteorological phenomena, the determination of the highest temperature of...

Maxima Thermometers
70. Rutherford’s Maximum Thermometer.—The maximum thermometer, invented by Dr. John Rutherford, diff...

Phillip&rsquos Maximum Thermometer
A maximum thermometer, better perhaps in its action than Rutherford’s, has been suggested by Professor John Phillips, of Oxford...

Negretti And Zambra&rsquos Patent Maximum Thermometer
consists of a glass tube containing mercury fitted on an engraved scale, as shown in fig. 54. The part of the thermometer tube above ...

Minima Thermometers
73. Rutherford’s Alcohol Minimum Thermometer, fig. 55, consists of a glass tube, the bulb and part of ...

Horticultural Minimum Thermometer
This instrument, represented in fig. 56, is a special construction of Rutherford’s minimum thermometer to meet the requirements...

Baudin&rsquos Alcohol Minimum Thermometer
This instrument resembles Rutherford’s thermometer in appearance; its indications are given by the expansion and contraction of...

Mercurial Minima Thermometers Desirable
Alcohol does not expand equally for equal increments of heat, consequently errors are likely to exist in the scale indications unless...

Negretti & Zambra&rsquos Second Patent Mercurial Minimum Thermometer
In this thermometer a principle is used that has been long known to scientific men, viz. the affinity of mercury for platinum. If mer...

Casella&rsquos Mercurial Minimum Thermometer
The general form and arrangement of this instrument is shown in fig. 60. A tube with large bore, a, has at the end a fla...

Maxima And Minima Thermometers
80. Rutherford’s arrangement for obtaining a complete instrument for the registration of heat and cold...

Solar And Terrestrial Radiation Considered
The surface of the earth absorbs the heat of the sun during the day, and radiates heat into space during the night. The envelope of g...

Solar Radiation Thermometer
“As the interchange of heat between two bodies by radiation depends upon the relative temperature which they respectively posse...

Vacuum Solar Radiation Thermometer
In order that the heat absorbed by the blackened bulb of the solar radiation thermometer may not in part be carried off by the curren...

Athrioscope
The celebrated experimental philosopher, Sir John Leslie, was the inventor of this instrument, the purpose of which is to give a com...

Pouillet&rsquos Pyrheliometer
Fig. 67. This instrument is composed of a shallow cylinder of steel, ...

On Sixe&rsquos Principle
Thermometers for ascertaining the temperature of the sea at various depths are constructed to register either the maximum or minimum ...

Johnson&rsquos Metallic Deep-sea Thermometer
The objection to the employment of mercurial thermometers for ascertaining the temperature of the ocean at depths, arising from the c...

Ebullition
The temperature at which a fluid boils is called the boiling-point of that particular fluid. It is different for diff...

Mountain Thermometer Sometimes Called Hypsometric Apparatus
We have now to examine the construction of the boiling-point thermometer, and its necessary appendages, as adapted for the determinat...

Precautions To Ensure Correct Graduation
Those who possess a boiling-point thermometer should satisfy themselves that it has been correctly graduated. To do this, it is advis...

Method Of Calculating Heights From Observations With The Mountain Thermometer
Having considered how to make observations with the proper care and accuracy, it becomes necessary to know how to deduce the height b...

Thermometers For Engineers
1st. Salinometer.—Under the circumstances at which fresh water boils at 212°, sea water boils at 213°·2. The boiling te...

Hygrometric Substances
The instruments devised for the purpose of ascertaining the humidity of the atmosphere are termed hygrometers. The earliest ...

Leslie&rsquos Hygrometer
This instrument consists of a glass syphon tube, terminated with a bulb or ball at each end, turned outwards from each other, as in f...

Daniel&rsquos Hygrometer
Fig. 77. This instrument was invented about the year 1820, by Professor Daniel...

Regnault&rsquos Condenser Hygrometer
Fig. 78. (Fig. 78) consists of a tube, C, made of silver, ve...

Mason&rsquos Hygrometer
The Dry and Wet Bulb Hygrometer, or Psychrometer, known also as Mason’s hygrometer (fig. 79), consists...

Howard&rsquos Rain-gauge
It consists of a copper funnel, a stout glass or stone bottle, and a measuring glass. The bottle is to be placed upon the ground, wit...

Admiral Fitzroy&rsquos Rain-gauge
A form of rain-gauge, very well adapted for expeditious observation at any time, has been designed by Admiral FitzRoy, and extensivel...

Self-registering Rain-gauge
The rain-gauge can be combined with clock-work and other mechanism so as to be self-recording of the amount of rain, the time, and du...

Position For Rain-gauge &c
Rain gauges should be placed on the ground, in any position exposed to a free fall of rain, snow, or hail, where neither walls, build...

Causes Of Rain
When the invisible vapour which is diffused in the atmosphere becomes sufficiently cooled, it appears visible as mist or cloud, and a...

Laws Of Rain-fall
Tropical countries have a dry and a wet season during the year: dry, when the sun is at the opposite side of the equator; ...

The Vane
Fig. 86. The instrument by which the wind’s direction is most g...

Robinson&rsquos Anemometer
Dr. Robinson, of Armagh, is the inventor of a very successful anemometer, which determines the horizontal velocity of the wi...

Whewell&rsquos Anemometer
This apparatus, the invention of the celebrated Dr. W. Whewell, registers the horizontal motion of the air with the direction. Its me...

Osler&rsquos Anemometer And Pluviometer
Mr. Follet Osler is the inventor of a self-recording apparatus which registers the direction and pressure of the wind, and the amount...

Beckley&rsquos Anemometer
Mr. R. Beckley, of the Kew Observatory, has devised a self-registering anemometer, which consists of three principal parts: Robinson&...

Atmospheric Electroscope
Fig. 90. The simplest instrument for ascertaining at any time the elect...

Thomson&rsquos Electrometer
Professor W. Thomson, of Glasgow, has devised an atmospheric electrometer, which is likely to become eminently successful, in the han...

Fundamental Facts Regarding Atmospheric Electricity
The general electrical condition of the atmosphere is positive in relation to the surface of the earth and ocean, be...

Lightning Conductors
;The line of danger, whether from the burning or lifting power of lightning, is the line of strong and obstructed currents of air, of...

Nature Of Ozone
During the action of a powerful electric machine, and in the decomposition of water by the voltaic battery, a peculiar odour is perce...

Distribution And Effects Of Ozone
Mr. Glaisher has found that “the amount of ozone at stations of low elevation is small; at stations of high elevation, it is al...

Chemical Weather Glass
This curious instrument appears to have been invented more than a hundred years ago, but the original maker is not known. It is simpl...

Leslie&rsquos Differential Thermometer
Fig. 93. A glass tube having a large bulb at each extremity, and bent t...

Thermometer Screen For Use At Sea
This screen, or shade, was designed by Admiral FitzRoy, and has been in use for several years on board H.M. vessels and many merchant...

Set Of Portable Instrument
In a small box, 8 in. by 8 in. by 4 in., a complete set of meteorological instruments have been packed. The lid of the box, by an ing...

Hydrometer
Fig. 96. Fig. 97. ...

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Topics

  Storms  
  Weather Folklore  
  Barometer Guide  
  Meteorological Instruments  


Most Popular Content 2017-10-23

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Ebullition
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Phenomena Of Atmospheric Waves
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Daniel&rsquos Hygrometer
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Small Size Aneroids
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Storms Hurricanes And Typhoons
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How To Foretell Weather With A Barometer Part 2
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