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 Forensic Medicine.ca

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  Forensics (93)  


Forensic Medicine.ca

Ever wanted to learn about forensic medicine and how law enforcement labs process information that they received from the field


Forensics

Crimes
Forensic medicine is also called Medical Jurisprudence or Legal Medicine, and includes all questions which bring medical matters int...

Medical Evidence
On being called, the medical witness enters the witness-box and takes the oath. This is very generally done by uplifting the right h...

Personal Identity
It is but seldom that medical evidence is required with regard to the identification of the living, though it may sometimes be so, a...

Examination Of Persons Found Dead
When a medical man is called to a case of sudden death, he should carefully note anything likely to throw any light on the cause of ...

Modes Of Sudden Death
There are three modes in which death may occur: (1) Syncope; (2) asphyxia; (3) coma. 1. =Syncope= is death beginning at the heart...

Signs Of Death
(1) Cadaveric appearance; ashy white colour. (2) Cessation of the circulation and respiration, no sound being heard by the stethosco...

Death From AnÆsthetics Etc
The coroner in England and Wales and Ireland must inquire into every case of death during the administration of an anæsthetic. The ...

Presumption Of Death; Survivorship
=Presumption of Death.=--If a person be unheard of for seven years, the court may, on application by the nearest relative, presume d...

Assault Murder Manslaughter Etc
=Assault.=--This is an attempt or offer to do violence to another person; it is not necessary that actual injury has been done, but ...

Wounds And Mechanical Injuries
A wound may be defined as a 'breach of continuity in the structures of the body, whether external or internal, suddenly occasioned b...

Contused Wounds And Injuries Unaccompanied By Solution Ofcontinuity
If a blow be inflicted with a blunt instrument, there is produced a bruise, or ecchymosis, of which it is unnecessary here to descri...

Incised Wounds And Those Accompanied By Solution Of Continuity
These comprise incised, punctured, and lacerated wounds. In a recent incised wound inflicted during life there is copious hæmorrhage...

Gunshot Wounds
These may be punctured, contused, or lacerated. Round balls make a larger opening than those which are conical. Small shot fired at ...

Wounds Of Various Parts Of The Body
1. =Of the Head.=--Wounds of the scalp are likely to be followed by (1) erysipelatous inflammation; (2) inflammation of the tendinou...

Detection Of Blood-stains Etc
Stains may require detection on clothing, on cutting instruments, on floors and furniture, etc. The following are the distinctive ch...

Death By Suffocation
Signs and Symptoms.--There are usually three stages: 1. Exaggerated respiratory activity; air hunger; anxiety; congested appearan...

Death By Hanging
In hanging, death occurs by asphyxia, as in drowning. Sensibility is soon lost, and death takes place in four or five minutes. The e...

Death By Strangulation
This differs from hanging in that the body is not suspended. It may be effected by a ligature round the neck, or by direct pressure ...

Death By Drowning
Death by drowning occurs when breathing is arrested by watery or semi-fluid substances--blood, urine, etc. The fluid acts mechanical...

Death From Starvation
The post-mortem appearances in death from starvation are as follows: There is marked general emaciation; the skin is dry, shrivelled...

Death From Lightning And Electricity
The signs of death from lightning vary greatly. In some cases there are no signs; in others the body may be most curiously marked. W...

Death From Cold Or Heat
=Cold.=--The weak, aged, or infants, readily succumb to low temperatures. The symptoms are increasing lassitude, drowsiness, coma, ...

Pregnancy
The signs of the existence of pregnancy are of two kinds, uncertain and certain, or maternal and foetal. Amongst the former class ar...

Delivery
The signs of recent delivery are as follows: The face is pale, with dark circles round the eyes; the pulse quickened; the skin soft,...

Foeticide Or Criminal Abortion
This consists in giving to any woman, or causing to be taken by her, with intent to procure her miscarriage, any poison or other nox...

Infanticide
Infanticide, or the murder of a new-born child, is not treated as a specific crime, but is tried by the same rules as in cases of fe...

Evidences Of Live Birth
The signs of live birth prior to respiration are negative and positive. A negative opinion may be formed when evidence is found of t...

Cause Of Death In The Foetus
The death of the foetus may be due to--(1) Immaturity or intra-uterine malnutrition, or simply from deficient vitality; (2) complica...

Duration Of Pregnancy
The natural period of gestation is considered as forty weeks, ten lunar months, or 280 days. A medical witness would have to admit t...

Viability Of Children
A child may be born alive, but may not be viable, by which is meant that it is not endowed with a capacity of maintaining its life. ...

Legitimacy
A child born in wedlock is presumed to have the mother's husband for its father. This may, however, be open to question upon the fol...

Superfoetation
By superfoetation is meant the conception, by a woman already pregnant, of a second embryo, resulting in the birth of two children a...

Inheritance
In order to inherit, the child must be born alive, must be born during the lifetime of the mother, and must be born capable of inher...

Impotence And Sterility
In the male, impotence may arise from physical or mental causes. The physical causes may be--too great or too tender an age; malform...

Rape
Rape is the carnal knowledge of a woman by force and against her will. The resistance of the woman must be to the utmost of her powe...

Unnatural Offences
Trials for =sodomy= and =bestiality= are common at the assizes, but, as they are rarely reported, they fail to attract attention. So...

Blackmailing
There are in London and every large city scores of men and women who live by blackmailing or chantage. There are many different form...

Marriage And Divorce
Marriage may be accomplished in many ways: (1) By the publication of banns; (2) by an ordinary licence; (3) by a special licence; (4...

Feigned Diseases
Malingering in its various forms is by no means uncommon, and by many is regarded as a disease in itself. It is necessary, however, ...

Mental Unsoundness
The presumption in law is in favour of a person's sanity, even though he may be deaf, dumb, or blind. The terms 'insanity,' 'luna...

Idiocy Imbecility Cretinism
=Idiocy= is not a disease, but a congenital condition in which the intellectual faculties are either never manifested or have not be...

Dementia: Acute Chronic Senile And Paralytic
In dementia the mental aberration does not occur until the mind has become fully developed, thus differing from amentia, which is co...

Mania
Under the term 'mania' are included all those forms of mental unsoundness in which there is undue excitement. It is divided into ge...

Examination Of Persons Of Unsound Mind
The following hints with regard to the examination of patients supposed to be insane will be useful: The general appearance and shap...

The Inebriates Acts
It is somewhat difficult to define an inebriate, but for the moment the following will suffice, and will ultimately, in all probabil...

Definition Of A Poison
Though the law does not define in definite terms what a poison really is, it lays stress on the malicious intention in giving a drug...

Sale Of Poisons; Scheduled Poisons
The sale of poisons is regulated by various Acts, but chiefly by the Pharmacy Act, 1868, and by the Poisons and Pharmacy Act, 1908. ...

Action Of Poisons; Classification Of Poisons
=Action of Poisons.=--They may act either locally or only after absorption into the system. 1. Local Action, as seen in (a) corro...

Evidence Of Poisoning
It may be inferred that poison has been taken from consideration of the following factors: Symptoms and post-mortem appearances, exp...

Symptoms And Post-mortem Appearances Of Different Classes Of Poisons
Whilst recognizing the fact that toxic agents cannot be accurately classified, the following grouping may for descriptive purposes b...

Duty Of Practitioner In Supposed Case Of Poisoning
If called to a case supposed or suspected to be one of poisoning, the medical man has two duties to perform: To save the patient's l...

Treatment Of Poisoning
The modes of treatment may be ranged under three heads: (1) To eliminate the poison; (2) to antagonize its action; (3) to avert the ...

Detection Of Poisons
Notice the smell, colour, and general appearance, of the matter submitted for examination. The odour may show the presence of prussi...

The Mineral Acids
These are sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids. Symptoms of Poisoning by the Mineral Acids.--Acid taste in the mouth, with v...

Sulphuric Acid
=Sulphuric Acid=, or oil of vitriol, may be concentrated or diluted. It is frequently thrown over the person to disfigure the featur...

Nitric Acid
=Nitric Acid=, or aqua fortis, is less frequently used as a poison than sulphuric acid. The fumes from nitric acid have caused death...

Hydrochloric Acid
=Hydrochloric Acid=, muriatic acid, or spirit of salt, is not uncommonly used for suicidal purposes, being fifth in the list. Met...

Oxalic Acid
=Oxalic Acid= is used by suicides, though not often by murderers. The crystals closely resemble those of Epsom salts or sulphate of ...

Carbolic Acid
=Carbolic Acid, Phenic Acid, or Phenol=, is largely employed as a disinfectant, and is often supplied in ordinary beer-bottles witho...

Potash Soda And Ammonia
=Caustic Potash= occurs in cylindrical sticks, is soapy to the touch, has an acrid taste, is deliquescent, fusible by heat, soluble ...

Inorganic Irritants
=Nitrate of Potassium (Nitre, Saltpetre)--Bitartrate of Potassium (Cream of Tartar)--Alum (Double Sulphate of Alumina and Potassium)...

Chlorate Of Potassium Etc
=Chlorate of Potassium= produces irritation of stomach and bowels; hæmaturia; melæna; cyanosis, weakness, delirium, and coma. Pos...

Barium Salts
=Chloride of Barium= occurs crystallized in irregular plates, like magnesium sulphate, soluble in water and bitter in taste. =Carbon...

Iodine--iodide Of Potassium
=Iodine= occurs in scales of a dark bluish-black colour. It strikes blue with solution of starch, and stains the skin and intestines...

Phosphorus
=Phosphorus= is usually found in small, waxy-looking cylinders, which are kept in water to prevent oxidation. It may also occur as t...

Arsenic And Its Preparations
=Arsenic= is the most important of all the metallic poisons. It is much used in medicine and the arts. It occurs as metallic arsenic...

Antimony And Its Preparations
=Tartar Emetic= (tartarized antimony, potassio-tartrate of antimony) occurs as a white powder, or in yellowish-white efflorescent cr...

Mercury And Its Preparations
The most important salt of mercury, toxicologically, is corrosive sublimate. Other poisonous preparations are red precipitate, white...

Lead And Its Preparations
=Acetate of Lead= (Sugar of Lead).--A glistening white powder or crystalline mass. Soluble in water, with a sweetish taste. It is p...

Copper And Its Preparations
Poisoning with copper salts is rare. The most important are the sulphate, subacetate, and arsenite. =Sulphate of Copper= (bluesto...

Zinc Silver Bismuth And Chromium
The salts of zinc requiring notice are the sulphate and chloride. =Sulphate of Zinc= has been taken in mistake for Epsom salts. In...

Gaseous Poisons
=Carbon Dioxide.=--Carbon dioxide is a product of combustion and respiration, and is generated in many ways during fermentation. It ...

Vegetable Irritants
The chief vegetable purgatives are aloes, colocynth, gamboge, jalap, scammony, seeds of castor-oil plant, croton-oil, elaterium, the...

Opium And Morphine
=Opium.=--The inspissated juice of the unripe capsules of the Papaver somniferum. As a poison it is generally taken in the form of t...

Belladonna Hyoscyamus And Stramonium
=Belladonna.=--The root, leaves, and berries, of the Atropa belladonna are poisonous from the presence of alkaloid atropine. Symp...

Cocaine
=Cocaine.=--Any dose above 1/2 grain applied to a mucous membrane or injected hypodermically may give rise to alarming symptoms. The...

Camphor
The liniment, oil, and spirit have been poisonous in large dose. Symptoms.--Odour of breath, languor, giddiness, faintness, dimnes...

Tetrachlorethane Etc
=Tetrachlorethane= ('Cellon').--Acetylene tetrachloride; vapour has caused poisoning in aeroplane ('dope') and cinema film works. ...

Alcohol Ether And Chloroform
Alcohol, ether, and chloroform, induce general anæsthesia, often preceded by delirious excitement, and followed by nausea and vomiti...

Chloral Hydrate
It was formerly largely used as a hypnotic, and many fatal consequences ensued. It is prepared from alcohol and chlorine. Symptom...

Petroleum And Paraffin-oil
Cases of poisoning by petroleum and paraffin are common, and occur chiefly in children. =Petroleum= is a natural product, and is ...

Antipyrine Antifebrin Phenacetin And Aniline
Many of the synthetical coal-tar products now so largely employed as analgesics are powerful toxic agents. =Phenazone, Antipyrine...

Sulphonal Trional Tetronal Veronal Paraldehyde
These are dangerous drugs. The ordinary symptoms of the group are noises in the ears, headache, vertigo, inability to stand or to wa...

Conium And Calabar Bean
=Conium Maculatum= (Spotted Hemlock).--All parts of the plant are poisonous, often mistaken for parsley. Contains the poisonous prin...

Tobacco And Lobelia
=Tobacco.=--Nicotiana tabacum owes its poisonous properties to its alkaloid nicotine, a volatile, oily, amber-coloured liquid, with ...

Hydrocyanic Acid
=Prussic Acid= is the most active of poisons. The diluted hydrocyanic acid of the Pharmacopoeia contains 2 per cent. of hydrocyanic ...

Aconite
=Aconite= (Aconitum Napellus, monkshood).--Root and leaves. Poisonous property depends upon an alkaloid, aconitine. Aconite is one o...

Digitalis
All parts of the plant Digitalis purpurea (purple foxglove) are poisonous. Contains the glucoside digitalin and other active princip...

Nux Vomica Strychnine And Brucine
=Nux Vomica= consists of the seeds of the Strychnos nux vomica. From these strychnine and brucine are obtained. The symptoms, post-m...

Cantharides
=Cantharides.=--Spanish fly, or blistering beetle, is the basis of most of the blistering preparations. It is sometimes taken as an ...

Abortifacients
Emmenagogues are remedies which have the property of exciting the catamenial flow; ecbolics, or abortives, are drugs which excite c...

Poisonous Fungi And Toxic Foods
=Fungi.=--Of the poisonous mushrooms, the Amanita phalloides and the fly agaric, or Agaricus muscarius, are the most potent. The act...

Ptomaines Or Cadaveric Alkaloids
Every medical man, before presenting himself to give evidence in a case of suspected poisoning, should make himself thoroughly acqua...

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  Forensics  


Most Popular Content 2017-10-23

Forensic Medicine.ca
Signs Of Death
Forensic Medicine.ca
Modes Of Sudden Death
Forensic Medicine.ca
Foeticide Or Criminal Abortion
Forensic Medicine.ca
Nux Vomica Strychnine And Brucine
Forensic Medicine.ca
Infanticide
Forensic Medicine.ca
Death By Suffocation
Forensic Medicine.ca
Action Of Poisons; Classification Of Poisons
Forensic Medicine.ca
Wounds And Mechanical Injuries
Forensic Medicine.ca
Crimes
Forensic Medicine.ca
Impotence And Sterility