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Camping

What The Outdoor World Can Do For Girls.
There is a something in you, as in every one, every man, woman, girl, and boy, that requires the tonic life of the wild. You may n...

When You Strike The Trail
For any journey, by rail or by boat, one has a general idea of the direction to be taken, the character of the land or water to be cro...

Blazing The Trail
A woodsman usually blazes his trail by chipping with his axe the trees he passes, leaving white scars on their trunks, and to follow s...

To Know An Animal Trail
To know an animal trail from one made by men is quite important. It is easy to be led astray by animal trails, for they are often well...

Lost In The Woods
We were in the wilderness of an Adirondack forest making camp for the day and wanted to see the beaver-dam which, we were told, was on...

Footprints Or Tracks
In trailing animals look for footprints in soft earth, sand, or snow. The hind foot of the muskrat will leave a print in the mud like ...

Trees
While on the trail you will find a knowledge of trees most useful, and you should be able to recognize different species by their mann...

Balsam-fir
One of the most important trees for the trailer to know is the balsam-fir, for of this the best of outdoor beds are made. In shape the...

Spruce
The spruce, red, black, and white, differs in many respects from the balsam-fir: the needles are sharp-pointed, not blunt, and instead...

Hemlock
This tree is good for thatching a lean-to when balsam-fir is not to be found, and its bark can be used in the way of shingles. The ...

Pine
The pine-tree accommodates itself to almost any kind of soil, high, low, moist, or dry, often growing along the edge of the water. ...

How To Chop Wood
Trailing and camping both mean wood-chopping to some extent for shelters, fires, etc., and the girl of to-day should understand, as di...

How To Chop Logs
Practise on small, slender logs, chopping them in short lengths until you understand something of the woodsman's art of "logging up a ...

How To Fell A Tree
Content yourself with chopping down only slender trees, mere saplings, at first, and as you acquire skill, slightly heavier trees can ...

Etiquette Of The Wild
Translated this means "_hands off_." The unwritten law of the woods is that personal property cached in trees, underbrush, beneath sto...

Finding Your Way By Natural Signs And The Compass
An important phase of woodcraft is the ability to find your way in the wilderness by means of natural signs as well as the compass. If...

Sunlight And Shadow
Bearing in mind that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, it will be comparatively easy to keep your right course by consul...

Wind
The wind generally blows in the same direction all day, and if you learn to understand its ways, the wind will help you keep the right...

Use Of Compass
Should you be on the trail and sudden storm-clouds appear, the sun cannot help you find your way; the shadows have gone. Moss on tree...

Make A Compass Of Your Watch
Besides keeping you company with its friendly nearness, its ticking and its ready answers to your questions regarding the time, a watc...

Mountain Climbing
The campers should go together to climb the mountain, never one girl alone. Before starting, find a strong stick to use as a staff;...

Lost In The Woods
It is not at all probable that you will lose your way while on the trail, but if you should find yourself lost in the woods or in the ...

To Find Your Way By The North Star
At night you will have the same reliable guide that has ever been the mariner's friend, and if you do not know this star guide, lose n...

Information
Whether your camp is to be for one day, one week, or a longer period of time, the first question to be decided is: "Where shall we go?...

Location
Wherever you go, choose a dry spot, preferably in an open space near wooded land. Avoid hollows where the water will run into your she...

Water
Pure drinking water you _must_ have, it is of _vital_ importance, so be sure to pitch your camp within near walking distance of a good...

Companions
Because your companions can make or mar the happiness in camp, it is safer to have in your party only those girls who will take kindly...

Safeguarding
You should also count among your companions two or more camp directors--possibly mothers of the girls, teachers, or older friends of ...

The Start
The day before you leave for your camping-ground, have everything in readiness that there may be no delay when it is time to go. Be pr...

The One-day Camp
Even a one-day camp fills the hours with more genuine lasting enjoyment than girls can find in other ways; there is a charm about it w...

Camp Dinner
Counting on a keen outdoor appetite for wholesome substantials, the provision list includes only plain fare, such as: Lamb chops, or t...

The Clean-up
While resting after dinner is the time for story-telling; then, before taking part in sports of any kind, every particle of debris, ev...

Shelters And Tents. Lean-to
For a fixed camp of longer or shorter duration your home will be under the shelter of boughs, logs, or canvas. The home of green bough...

Permanent Camp. Lean-to. Open Camp
Another kind of lean-to intended for a permanent camp is in general use throughout the Adirondacks. It is built of substantial good-si...

Tents
Tents in almost endless variety of shapes and sizes are manufactured and sold by camp-outfitters and sporting-goods shops. The tents r...

Camp-beds
To derive joy and strength from your outing it is of serious importance that you sleep well every night while at camp, and your camp-b...

Bough-bed
Tips of balsam broken off with your fingers about fourteen inches long make the best of beds, but hemlock, spruce, and other evergreen...

Bag-bed
When the camp is located where there is no material for a bough-bed, each girl can carry with her a bag three feet wide and six and on...

Cot-bed
For an entire summer camp army cots which fold for packing are good and very comfortable with a doubled, thick quilt placed on top for...

Pillows
Make a bag one-half yard square of brown linen or cotton cloth, and when you reach camp, gather the best browse you can find for filli...

Guards
Establish watchers, for this temporary camp, in relays to keep guard through the night and care for the fire, not allowing it to sprea...

Exercise
While wholesome camping calls for sufficient physical exercise to cause a girl to be blissfully tired at night, and yet awaken refresh...

The Camp-fire
The outdoor fire in camp bespeaks cheer, comfort, and possibilities for a hot dinner, all of which the camper appreciates. ...

How To Build A Fire
Choose an open space, if possible, for your fire. Beware of having it under tree branches, too near a tent, or in any other place that...

Cook-fire
Make the cook-fire _small_ and _hot_; then you can work over it in comfort and not scorch both hands and face when trying to get near ...

Log-cabin Fire
Start this fire with two good-sized short sticks or logs. Place them about one foot apart parallel to each other. At each end across t...

Fire In The Rain
To build a fire in the rain with no dry wood in sight seems a difficult problem, but keep cheerful, hum your favorite tune, and look f...

Camp Fireplace
One way to make the outdoor fireplace is to lay two _green_ logs side by side on the ground in a narrow V shape, but open at both ends...

Camp Cooking. Provisions
In the woods one is generally hungry except immediately after a good meal, and provisions and cooking are of vital interest to the cam...

Flapjacks
Mix dry flour, baking-powder, and salt together, 1 good teaspoonful of Royal baking-powder to every 2 cups of flour, and 1 level teasp...

Biscuits
Biscuits are more easily made than raised bread and so are used largely in its place while in camp. The proportions of flour and bakin...

Johnny-cake
Served hot, split open and buttered, these Kentucky johnny-cakes with a cup of good coffee make a fine, hearty breakfast, very satisfy...

Corn-meal Mush
Corn-meal mush does not absolutely require fresh cream or milk when served. It is good eaten with butter and very nourishing. Many lik...

Kentucky Bread
Kentucky bread is made of flour, salt, and water. It is generally known as beaten biscuit. Mix 2 scant teaspoonfuls of salt with 1 qua...

Cocoa
Good cocoa may be made by substituting cold milk and cold water for hot. Follow directions on the can as to proportion, and add the co...

Coffee
For every camper allow 1 tablespoonful of ground coffee, then 1 extra spoonful for the pot. Put the dry coffee into the coffee-pot, an...

Boiled Potatoes
Wash potatoes, cut out any blemish, and put them on to cook in cold water over the fire. They are much better boiled while wearing the...

Baked Potatoes
Wrap each potato in wet leaves and place them all on hot ashes that lie over hot coals, put more hot ashes on top of the potatoes, and...

Bean Soup And Baked Beans
Look over one quart of dried beans, take out all bits of foreign matter and injured beans; then wash the beans in several waters and p...

Bacon
Sliced bacon freshly cut is best; do not bring it to camp in jars or cans, but cut it as needed. Each girl may have the fun of cooking...

Game Birds
Game birds can be baked in the embers. Have ready a bed of red-hot coals covered with a thin layer of ashes, and after drawing the bir...

Fish
Fish cooked in the embers is very good, and you need not first remove scales or fins, but clean the fish, season it with salt and pepp...

Essential Foods
Outdoor life seems to require certain kinds of foods; these we call essentials; others in addition to them are in the nature of luxuri...

List
_Essentials_ Wheat flour 6 lbs. Corn-meal 2-1/2 lbs. Baking-powder 1/...

List
_Non-Essentials_ Rice 2-1/2 lbs. Lemons 1/2 d...

Sanitation
_Keep your camp scrupulously clean._ Do not litter up the place, your health and happiness greatly depend upon observing the laws of h...

Camp Spirit
Thoughtfulness for others; kindliness; the willingness to do your share of the work, and more, too; the habit of making light of all ...

Camp Outfits
Clothing. Personal Outfits. Camp Packs. Duffel-Bags and What to Put in Them To prepare your own camping outfit for the coming sum...

Clothing
Make your dress for the trail absolutely comfortable, not too heavy, too tight, too hot, or too cool. No part of the clothing should b...

Underwear
For girl campers the light-weight, pure-woollen underwear is best, especially if you locate in the mountains, or the Canadian or Maine...

Stockings
Select your stockings with care. Let them be of wool, strong, soft, and absolutely satisfactory when the shoe is on. The aim of the en...

Shoes
Wear low-heeled, high-laced shoes of stout leather and easy fit. Make them water-proof by giving the leather a good coat of hot, melte...

Camping Dress
The most serviceable and practical dress for camping is a three-piece suit, made of a fadeless, soft quality of gray or brown material...

Check List Of Apparel
Go light when off for the woods, take with you only those things which seem to be absolutely necessary; remember that you will carry y...

Check List Of Toilet Articles
One comb, not silver-backed. One hand-mirror to hang or stand up. One tooth-brush in case. ...

Check List Of Personal Camp Property
One note-book and pencil for taking notes on wild birds, animals, trees, etc. One needle-case, compac...

Check List For First Aid
One hot-water bag, good for all pains and aches, and a comfort when one is chilly. One package pure g...

Check List For General Camp
Two basins, of light metal, paper or collapsible rubber. The last is easy to pack and light to carry. O...

Check List Of Kitchen Utensils
Two dish-pans, one for piping-hot sudsy water for washing dishes, the other for scalding-hot rinsing wa...

Camp Packs
When you intend carrying your belongings and striking the trail either part or all the way to camp, the easiest method for portage is ...

What To Put In Your Pack
Open out your pack-cloth flat on the floor, and place your folded mattress-bag in the centre. Fill the pillow-bag with your first-a...

Blanket-roll Pack
Side-trips from camp for only one night's bivouac will not need a back pack; the few articles required can be carried in your blanket-...

Duffel-bag
Articles for general use while at camp can be packed together in one or more duffel-bags; if but one bag is needed, provisions might g...

Packing Provisions
You can make or buy separate tube bags of different heights, but all of the same diameter, and pack flour in one, corn-meal in another...

Camp Furnishings
--Dressing-Table, Seats, Dining-Table, Cupboard, Broom, Chair, Racks, Birch-Bark Dishes, etc. Camp is the place where girls enjoy...

Dressing-table
A near-by tree will furnish the substantial foundation for your dressing-table and wash-stand combined. If you can find a side-piece o...

Camp-seats
Stones, logs, stumps, raised outstanding roots of trees, and boxes, when obtainable, must be your outdoor chairs, stools, and seats un...

Camp-table
A table can be built in much the same way as the seat and will answer the purpose well if one of boards is not to be had. For the tabl...

Camp-cupboard
A cupboard made of a wooden box by inserting shelves, held up by means of cleats, will be found very convenient when nailed to a tree ...

Camp-broom
With a slender pole as a handle, hickory shoots, or twisted fibre of inner bark of slippery-elm, for twine, and a thick bunch of the t...

Camp-chair
If you have a good-size length of canvas or other strong cloth, make a camp-chair. For the back use two strong, forked stakes standing...

Camp Clothes-press
If you are in a tent tie a hanging pole from the tent ridge-pole, and use it as a clothes-press. ...

Blanket Bed
Two short logs will be required for your blanket bed, the thicker the better, one for the head and one for the foot, also two long, st...

Camp Hammock
By lashing short crosspieces to the head and foot of the side poles the blanket mattress can be a hammock and swing between two trees,...

Birch-bark Dishes
It will be easy for girls to make their birch-bark dinner plates, vegetable dishes, baskets, dippers, etc. Soften the thick bark by s...

Cooking Utensils
A forked stick with points sharpened makes a fine toasting-fork or broiling-stick for bacon or other small pieces of meat. The meat is...

In The Woods, The Fields, On The Shore. Stalking Animals And Birds
There is but one way to make friends with the folk of the wild, and that is by gentleness, kindness, and quietness. Also one must le...

Stalking
You may stalk an animal by remaining quiet as well as by following its trail. To even see some of the inhabitants of woods, fields, an...

Animals Found On The Trail
The animals most frequently seen in the woods where there is no longer any large game are the chipmunk, the red, the gray, and the bla...

Birds
Among the feathered tribes of the woods you will find the owl, the woodcock, and the grouse. Of the smaller birds, the nuthatch, the w...

Stalking The Ruffed Grouse
If you want to see the birds, stalk them when you hear their call. Wait until you locate the direction of the sound, then walk silentl...

Woodcock
The woodcock, another forest bird, seldom shows himself in broad daylight except when hunted; then he will rise a few feet, fly a shor...

Beaver
Along the shores of sluggish streams, of lonely lakes and ponds, you may see the beaver, the muskrat, very rarely the otter, and somet...

Fish-hawk, Osprey
On the shore you will also find the fish-hawk, or osprey; a well-mannered bird he is said to be, who fishes diligently and attends st...

Blue Heron
The great blue heron is one of the shore folk and his metallic blue-gray body gleams in the sunlight, as you sight him from your canoe...

Loon, Great Northern Diver
Another interesting bird, which you may both hear and see on secluded lakes, is the loon or great northern diver. I first heard the wi...

Animals And Birds Of The Open
You will find that the wild life of the open differs in some respects from that of the woods, though there will be the woodchuck, the ...

Field-mouse
There is the little field-mouse, a short-eared and short-tailed little creature with a thick neck and of a red-brown color. It feeds o...

Kangaroo-rat, Jumping Mouse
In the underbrush near a meadow and at the edges of thickets you may possibly see, though they are not common, a diminutive animal, be...

Pocket-gopher
The pocket-gopher lives and burrows in the fields. It is a mole-like animal but much larger than the common mole. Its legs are short a...

Antelope
On the great plains of the west you may still see the beautiful and gentle antelope, though that animal is fast disappearing, while th...

Coyote, Prairie-wolf
The coyote, or prairie-wolf, is about the size of a large dog and resembles one. Its color is gray, made by a mixture of black and whi...

Spermophile
In the Middle West, especially in Indiana, the little spermophile, sometimes called the ground-squirrel, is common and not afraid to ...

Bobolink
The birds of the open are varied and many. Most of the forest birds are seen occasionally in the fields, but some birds make their hom...

Meadow-lark
Early spring trailing through the meadows will bring you the cheery song of the meadow-lark: "Spring-o-the-year!" Stalk him carefully ...

Red-winged Blackbird
The red-winged blackbird with his sweet call of "O-ka-lie," or "Ouchee-la-ree-e!" you will also find on the meadows and marshes. He b...

Song Sparrow
The little song sparrow loves the open and the hot summer sunshine. Trailing along a country road at midday, when most of the other bi...

Edible Fruits, Nuts, Roots, And Plants
While wild foods gathered on the trail give a delightful variety to camp fare, be advised and do not gather, still less eat, them un...

Red Raspberry
The wild berry often has a more delicious flavor and perfume than the cultivated one of the same species. Nothing can approach the won...

Black Raspberry
The growth and leaves of the _wild black raspberry_ are like those of the red raspberry, and it is found in the same localities. The f...

Purple-flowering Raspberry
The purple-flowering raspberry is acid and insipid; it can hardly be called edible, though it is not poisonous. You will find it clamb...

Mountain Raspberry, Cloudberry
The usual home of the mountain raspberry, or cloudberry, is on the mountain-tops among the clouds. You will find it in the White Mount...

Wild Strawberry
When crossing sandy knolls or open, uncultivated fields and pastures, the alluring perfume of the _wild strawberry_ will sometimes lea...

Low Running Blackberry
Among the mountains and hills, down in the valleys, and on the plains; straggling along roadsides, clinging to fence rails, and sprawl...

Running Swamp Blackberry
Perhaps you have seen the blackberry with fruit so small it seems only partially developed and, like myself, have hesitated to taste i...

High-bush Blackberry
Throughout the northern states as far west as Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri and down to North Carolina, you may find the _high-bush black...

Mountain Blackberry
There is another variety called the _mountain blackberry_. It has a spicy flavor, but the fruit is small and dry. The leaves are more ...

Thornless Blackberry
The sweetest of all varieties is said to be the thornless blackberry. It ripens later than the others and has no thorns. The leaves ar...

Eastern Wild Gooseberry
Among the mountains from Massachusetts to North Carolina, the eastern wild gooseberry grows. It is said that its flavor is delicious. ...

Dwarf Blueberry
Perhaps the most satisfactory of all berries when one is really hungry is the blueberry, of which there are several varieties. The _dw...

Low Blueberry
Another variety is called the _low blueberry_. It is very much like the dwarf blueberry, but the bush grows sometimes as high as four ...

High-bush Blueberry
On the _high-bush blueberry_ the color of the berries varies. Some bushes bear a black, shiny berry, others a smooth, blue, and still ...

Dangleberry
Another variety is called the dangleberry. The berries grow on stems in loose clusters; they are rather large, of a dark-blue color wi...

Wintergreen. Checkerberry
Almost every one knows the little cherry-red _wintergreen berry_ or _checkerberry_, and almost every one likes its sweet aromatic flav...

Partridgeberry
Another ground berry is the partridgeberry. This may be eaten but is dry and rather tasteless. It is a red berry and grows on a slende...

June-berry. Shadbush
There are berries on trees as well as on bushes and vines, at least they are called berries though not always resembling them. The ...

Red Mulberry
Although the finest _mulberry-trees_ are said to be found along the Mississippi and the lower Ohio Rivers, I have seen large, thrifty ...

Sweet Viburnum. Nanny-berry. Sheepberry
The fruit of the sweet viburnum, nanny-berry or sheepberry, is said to be edible. It grows on a small tree, of the honeysuckle family,...

Large-fruited Thorn
The thorns, large-fruited and scarlet, are edible. As a child I knew the fruit as _haws_ and was very fond of it. The large-fruited th...

Black Haw. Stag-bush
The fruit of the black haw, or stag-bush, is not edible until after frost has touched it. It is oval, dark blue with bloom, and about ...

Wild Plums. Canada Plum
There is a wild plum that is found in our New England States and in Canada known as the Canada plum. The plant grows along fences, in ...

Beach Plum
Usually on sandy and stony beaches, though at times farther inland, you may find the beach plum. It is a low shrub and grows in clumps...

Wild Red Cherry
The wild red cherry is sour but edible; it is best used as preserves. The tree is usually small yet sometimes reaches the height of th...

Sand-cherry
Growing in the sand along our eastern coast as far south as New Jersey and sometimes on the shores of the Great Lakes, the sand-cherry...

Persimmon
In the Southern, Western, and Middle States, some say as far north as New York, grows the _persimmon_. Deliciously sweet and spicy whe...

Papaw
The papaw is another fruit I knew well as a child. It is sometimes called custard-apple because the flesh resembles soft custard. As I...

May-apple
One of the most delicious wild fruits we have is the _May-apple_ or _mandrake_. It is finely flavored, sweet and juicy, but being a la...

Wild Grapes
There are several varieties of wild grapes, all, I think, edible but not all pleasant to the taste. The fox-grape is sweet, but has a ...

Frost-grape Or Chicken-grape
If you try to eat the _frost-grapes_ before frost you will find them decidedly sour, but after a good frost they are really fine. They...

Wild Nuts. Black Walnuts
Of all the wild-growing foods, nuts are, perhaps, the most nutritious. The _black walnut_, not plentiful in the Atlantic States but ab...

Butternut
While the _butternut-tree_ is much like the walnut in general appearance, it does not grow as large. The nuts are different in shape ...

Hickory-nuts
In gathering hickory-nuts you must be able to distinguish between the edible variety and others that are fair on the outside but bitte...

Shellbark. Shagbark
The _shellbark_ or shagbark hickory-nut is one of the best. The flavor, as every one knows, is sweet and pleasant. It is the bark of t...

Mockernut
The _mockernut_ is the hickory-nut with a dark, brownish-colored shell, hard and thick and not easily cracked. It is called the mocker...

Pignut
I will italicize the _pignut_ because, though I have never eaten it, I once tried to, and the first taste was all-sufficient. Some wri...

Beechnut
One of the sweetest and most delicately flavored of our native nuts is the little, triangular _beechnut_. The tree is common and widel...

Chestnut
I find that the _chestnut-tree_ is not as well known as its fruit, which is sold from stands on the street corners of most American ci...

Bark And Roots Of Trees
...

Slippery-elm
The inner bark and the root of the _slippery-elm_ are not only pleasant to the taste but are said to be nutritious. They have a glutin...

Sassafras
The _sassafras_ grows wild from Massachusetts to Florida, and west through the Mississippi Valley. It is generally a small tree, from ...

Salads. Watercress
There is no more refreshing salad than the _watercress_ gathered fresh from a cool, running brook. It is a common plant, found almost ...

Dandelion
A salad of tender, young _dandelion_ leaves is not to be despised, and the plant grows everywhere. Only the very young leaves, that co...

Insects
My first experience with wood-ticks, jiggers, and Jersey mosquitoes was during the summer we spent at Bayville, near Toms River, N. ...

Wood-ticks
I had been told of the ticks that infest the forests of the South, had heard blood-curdling stories of how they sometimes bury themsel...

Jigger. Redbug. Mite
The tiny mite called by the natives jigger and redbug is more annoying than the wood-tick, one reason being that there are so many mor...

Deer-fly
The deer-fly will bite and bite hard enough to hurt. It will drive its sharp mandibles into your skin with such force as to take out a...

Black-fly
The Adirondack and North Woods region is not only the resort of hunters, campers, and seekers after health and pleasure, but it is als...

No-see-um. Punky. Midge
There is another pest of the North Woods which the guides call the no-see-um. It is a very diminutive midge resembling the mosquito in...

Gnats
In the mountains of Pennsylvania the most troublesome insects I found were the tiny gnats that persist in flying into one's eyes in a ...

Bees, Wasps, And Yellow-jackets
While honey-bees and wasps can make themselves most disagreeable when disturbed, you can usually keep away from beehives and bee-trees...

Dopes
Then there are dopes to be rubbed over the face, neck, and hands. The three said to be the best are Nessmuk's Dope, Breck's Dope, and ...

Nessmuk's Dope
In giving the recipe for his dope, Nessmuk says that it produces a glaze over the skin and that in preventing insect bites he has neve...

Breck's Dope
Pine tar 3 oz. Olive (or castor oil) 2 oz. Oil of pennyroyal ...

H. P. Wells's Bug-juice
Olive oil 1/2 pt. Creosote 1 oz. Pennyroyal ...

Smudges
Smudges are said to afford relief in camp, but my own experience has been that the insects can stand them better than I. A smudge is m...

Snakes
The bite of a poisonous snake is by all means to be avoided, and the point is: you almost always can avoid it. With all the snakes in ...

Rattlesnakes
The rattlesnake appears to vary in color and markings in the different localities where it is found, and there are fourteen or fifteen...

Banded Rattlesnake
The mountains of Pennsylvania are a favorite resort of the rattlesnake, but, though I have passed many summers in Pike County, famous ...

Diamond Rattlesnake
The rattlesnake marked in diamond patterns of gold outline on brown is of the south and is oftenest found in Florida. This is a very l...

Massasauga
The massasauga is the rattlesnake occasionally found in the swamps from western New York to Nebraska, but it is rare. Its color is lig...

Copperhead
The copperhead is not a rattler, though its vibrating tail amid dry leaves will sometimes hum like one. (This is also true of the bla...

Harlequin Snake And Coral-snake
The harlequin snake and the coral-snake are so similar in color and in habits, one description for both will answer our purpose. They ...

Water-moccasin, Cottonmouth
The water-moccasin is ugly, and ugly all the way through. Its deadly viciousness is not redeemed by any outward beauty. Its average le...

Other Snakes
There are many other snakes in the United States, but they are not venomous. Here is one thing to remember: you need never fear a snak...

Beaded Lizard, Gila Monster
The only other venomous reptile found in the United States is the beaded lizard, called Gila monster (pronounced heela). Unless you vi...

Treatment For Snake-bites
If the unlikely should chance to happen and one of your party is bitten by a poisonous snake, first aid should be given _immediately_,...

Poisonous Plants
There are two kinds of poisonous plants: those that are poison to the touch and those that are harmless unless taken inwardly. Both ma...

Poison-ivy
We are apt to think that every one knows the common poison-ivy, but that some people are not familiar with it was shown when one beaut...

Poison-oak
The poison-oak closely resembles the poison-ivy, and is sometimes called by that name, but its leaves are differently shaped, being ov...

Poison-sumach, Or Swamp-sumach
Another member of the same family is the poison-sumach. They are all three equally poisonous and act by contact. The poison, or swamp,...

Yellow Lady's-slipper
Growing in bogs and low woods from Maine to Minnesota and Washington, southward to Georgia and Missouri, there is a sweet-scented, lit...

Deadly Nightshade
To the nightshade family belong plants that are poisonous and plants that are not, but the thrilling name, deadly nightshade, carries ...

Pokeweed, Pigeonberry
Pokeweed comes under the heading of poisonous plants though its berries are eaten by birds, and its young shoots are said to be almost...

Poison-hemlock
The poison-hemlock is well known historically, being in use at the time of Socrates, and believed to have been administered to him by ...

Water-hemlock
Water-hemlock is similar in appearance and in effect. It is found in wet places and on the borders of swamps. The remedies are the sam...

Jimson-weed
The jimson-weed is very common in Kentucky. I have not seen so much of it in the east and north, but it appears to grow pretty nearly ...

Toadstools
Unless you are an expert in distinguishing non-poisonous mushrooms from the poison toadstool, _leave them all alone_. Many deaths occu...

What To Photograph And How
You cannot depend entirely upon your memory to recall the sights and adventures of the trail, and will be only half-equipped if you ...

Selecting A Camera
In selecting a camera remember that every ounce in weight counts as two when on the long trail, and that to have to carry it in your h...

How To Know Your Camera
The camera once bought and in your hands, the next thing to do is to become thoroughly acquainted with it. With your camera you are en...

Loading The Camera
Learn how to load and to unload, first without unrolling your film. Afterward adjust the roll in the camera and see that it is properl...

Count The Turns Of The Key
With your first roll of films it is well to learn and remember the number of turns you must give the key to bring a new exposure into ...

Be Economical With Your Films
A very important thing to learn when taking photographs is to be economical with your films, and especially is this so when on the tra...

Plan Your Pictures To Illustrate Your Trip
It is a good idea to plan your pictures so that they will illustrate your trip from beginning to end. A snap-shot of your party starti...

Backgrounds
Look for the best view of a subject before using your camera; there is always a choice. One side may be much more pleasing or more ch...

Color Values In Photographs
Another thing to remember is that, unless in broad sunlight, green will take dark and sometimes black; and brown or tan, being of the ...

Photographing Wild Animals
It is not easy to photograph wild animals after you have found them, but you can do it if you are quick to see and to act and are also...

Shutter Speed
To photograph objects in rapid motion such as flying birds, the speed of your shutter must be at least one three-hundredths of a secon...

Set Your Camera Like A Trap
Find the spot frequented by the animal or bird you are after, wait for it to go away of its own accord while confident and unfrightene...

Taking The Picture
As the animal approaches the camera grasp your cord firmly and steady your nerves to act quickly, and when it is in focus, not before,...

Photographing The Trail
You can get a good picture of the trail with a snap-shot when it is in the open, but a forest trail must have time exposure. When your...

Timing Without A Watch
You can time it without a watch by counting in this way: one-and-two-and-three-and-up to the number of seconds required. One-and is o...

Photographing Flowers And Ferns
If your camera will focus so that you can place it near enough to take small objects such as flowers and ferns, another field of inter...

Look At The Date On Your Film
Even the best photographer cannot take good photographs unless he has good films. On the box of every roll of films is stamped the lat...

Safe And Unsafe Boats
One seldom goes on the long trail, or into camp, without encountering water, and boats of some kind must be used, generally rowboats o...

Stepping In And Out Of A Boat
To step on the gunwale (the edge of the boat) will naturally tip it and most likely turn it over. One should always step directly into...

Canoes And Canoeing
If you are to own a canoe select it carefully; consult catalogues of reliable dealers, and, if possible, have an experienced and good ...

Paddles
Girls and women generally require shorter paddles than men, as they do not have the same reach of arm, and you can take your choice of...

Accessories
A strong, healthy girl will no more need cushions and canoe-chairs than a boy, but a back rest is not always to be despised. It is wel...

Care Of The Canoe
Even the strongest canoe should be well cared for. To leave it in the water for any length of time, when not in use, is to run the ris...

Getting In The Canoe
Never allow any one to get into your canoe or to sit on it when it is out of the water. That is harder on it than many days of actual ...

Upset
Should there be an upset keep hold of your paddle, it will help to keep you afloat, then if you can reach your craft and hold to it wi...

Paddling
Some expert canoeists strongly advise kneeling in the bottom of the canoe while paddling, for at least part of the time, but the usual...

Loading A Canoe
A top-heavy canoe is decidedly dangerous, that is why it is safest to sit or kneel on the bottom, and in loading your camp stuff bear ...

Rowing
A rowboat is a safer craft than a canoe, and rowing is not a difficult feat, but there is a difference between the rowing of a heavy ...

Rafts
You can never tell just what will happen when you go on the long trail, that is one of its charms, nor do you know what you will be ca...

Primitive Weaving Method
For tying the logs together use the primitive weaving method. Lay three lengths of rope on the ground, one for the middle and one each...

Poling
If you have a raft you must know how to pole it, and at times it is necessary to pole other kinds of craft. Select a straight pole of ...

Swimming
If you will realize that your body is buoyant, not a dead weight in the water, and that swimming should come as naturally to you as to...

Movements In Swimming
If you are learning alone, begin in quiet, shallow water only deep enough to float you; waist-high is sufficiently deep. Assume the fi...

Floating
Some people can float who cannot swim. Others can swim but are not able to float. That is, they think they are not and do not seem wil...

Diving
You will learn to dive merely for the joy of the quick plunge into cool waters, but there are times when to understand diving may mean...

Breathing
Breathe through your nose always when swimming as well as when walking. To open your mouth while swimming is usually to swallow a pint...

Treading Water
In treading water you maintain an upright position as in walking. Some one says: "To tread water is like running up-stairs rapidly." T...

Fishing
Just here would seem to be the place to talk of fishing, but I am not going to try to tell you how to fish; that would take a volume, ...

Square Knots. Hitching Knots. Other Knots
Every outdoor girl should know what knots to use for various purposes and how to tie them, but only those which will be found useful...

Terms Used In Knot-tying
There are three different kinds of bends that are given a rope in the process of tying a knot, and each bend has its own name. You mus...

Square Knot
This is probably what you would at first call a hard knot, and so it is a hard knot to come untied of itself or to slip, but it is eas...

Figure-eight Knot
Use the figure-eight knot to make a knot on the end of a rope or to prevent the end of the strands from untwisting. Form a loop like F...

Bow-line Knot
To form a loop that will not slip and yet may be easily untied use the bow-line knot. (1) When the loop is not fastened to anything...

Sheep-shank Knot
It is sometimes necessary to shorten a rope temporarily and not desirable to cut it, and the sheep-shank knot solves the problem. It ...

The Parcel Slip-knot
This is the simplest of all knots to start with in tying up a parcel. Begin by making a knot about one inch from the end of your twine...

Cross-tie Parcel Knot
When you have two or more parallel twines on your parcel and have begun to bring down the cross-line, secure it to each twine in this ...

Fisherman's Knot
The fisherman's knot is used by fishermen to tie silkworm gut together. It is easily untied by pulling the two short ends, but it neve...

Halter, Slip, Or Running Knot
The halter or slip knot is often convenient, but should never be used around the neck of an animal, for if either end is pulled it wil...

Half-hitch
If you have anything to do with horses or boats you must know how to make the proper ties for hitching the horse to a post, or a boat ...

Timber-hitch
When you want a temporary fastening, secure yet easily undone, make a _timber-hitch_ (Fig. 70). Pass the rope around an object, take a...

Hitching Tie
If the hitching tie is properly made, and the knot turned to the _right_ of the post, the stronger the pull on the long end of the rop...

Sprains. Bruises. Burns. Cuts. Sunstroke. Drowning
One learns quickly how to take care of oneself while on the trail, and serious accidents seldom occur. In fact, every member of the ...

Sprains And Bruises
The best immediate treatment for ordinary sprains and bruises is the application of _cloths dipped in very hot water_. This takes out ...

Fireman's Lift
To be able to use the fireman's lift may be to save a life, as it can be employed when there is but one person to do the carrying. Wit...

Cuts
The accidents that most frequently happen are simple cuts and bruises. For a slight cut wash the wound in lukewarm water to remove a...

When An Artery Is Cut
When an artery is cut the wound is more serious and the bleeding must be stopped _immediately_. When the blood comes from an artery it...

The Tourniquet
To stop the bleeding press the artery _above_ the wound firmly with your fingers while some one prepares a tourniquet. Use a handkerch...

Emergency Stretchers
Loss of blood is too weakening to permit of the patient walking, and the exertion may start the wound bleeding again, so a stretcher o...

Burns And Scalds
Personally I have repudiated the old method of treating simple burns and scalds and, instead of applying oil or flour, have discovered...

Heat Prostration And Sunstroke
This will seldom occur in a camp of healthy girls whose stomachs and blood are in good order, but it is best not to expose oneself to ...

Cinder Or Foreign Substance In The Eye
As a rule all that is necessary to remove "something" in your eye is to take the eyelashes of the upper lid between your thumb and for...

Fainting
Fainting occurs most often in overheated and over-crowded places where the air is impure. The proper treatment is to lay the patient f...

Drowning--shafer Method
Secure a doctor if possible, but do not wait for him. Do not _wait_ for anything; what you do, do _instantly_. As soon as the rescu...

After Respiration Begins
With returning breath the first corner in recovery has been turned, but the after treatment is very important. To restore circulation,...

Nosebleed
The simplest method of stopping the nosebleed is to hold something _cold_ on the back of the neck (a large key will do) and pinch the ...

Active Sports And Games.
Evenings in Camp. Around the Camp-Fire. Quiet Games, Songs, and Stories. Lighting Fires Without a Match Camp fun should have a pl...

Obstacle Races
Competitive sports are always entertaining, and races, of one kind or another, are the most exciting. The Boy Scouts have a race in wh...

Medals
The winner of the race should be given a medal as a prize. The medal can be made of any handy material. A tin circular disk cut from t...

Blindfold Obstacle Walk
Another amusing camp sport is the blindfold obstacle walk. Place six or eight good-sized stones on the ground in a row, about two feet...

Hunting The Quail
This is something like the old game of hide-and-seek, with which all girls are familiar, and it will not be difficult to learn. The pl...

Trotting-horse
It is warranted to put in circulation even the most sluggish blood and to warm the coldest feet, and it is fine for the almost frosty ...

Wood Tennis
Wood tennis is of the woods, woodsy. Green pine-cones take the place of balls; hands, of rackets; and branches, of tennis-net. Lay out...

Around The Camp-fire
When darkness creeps through the woods, closing in closer and closer; when it blots out, one by one, the familiar landmarks and isolat...

Songs
Then come the songs. If there is some one in the party who can lead in singing, she can use a familiar air with a rousing chorus as a ...

Bird-call Match
In a camp where the members are all familiar with the calls of the various wild birds, a bird-call match makes a charming game when th...

Vary The Game
You can vary this game by giving the calls of wild animals and the characteristic noises they make when frightened or angry. Living...

Lighting The Fire Without A Match
A fire-lighting contest is the best of camp sports, for it requires practise and skill, and to excel in it is to acquire distinction a...

Bow-and-drill Method
The bow-and-drill method is the most popular among girls and boys alike, and for this, as for all other ways of lighting a fire, you m...

Tinder
All is now ready for creating a spark, but that spark cannot live alone, it must have something it can ignite before there will be a f...

Without The Bow
Fig. 78 shows a method which is the same as Fig. 77, the only difference being that the bow is dispensed with, the hands alone being u...

The Plough
It is more difficult to produce fire by the plough method than with the bow, but it can be done. The appliances are simple enough. All...

Bamboo Fire-saw
Part of an old bamboo fishing-rod will supply material for the fire-saw. Cut off a piece of bamboo about fifteen inches long, split it...

Happy And Sane Sunday
It is a good idea to carefully plan for your Sundays in camp, have every hour mapped out and never allow the time to drag. Make specia...

Observation Game
The leader counts 3 to the credit of the girl who first sees a squirrel, 2 for the girl who sees the second one, and 1 for every succe...

The Dead-fall
There are several varieties of this trap, some of which are described in other parts of this volume. In general construction they all ...

The Gun Trap
After a Puma has succeeded in capturing his prey, and has satisfied his appetite by devouring a portion of its carcass, he leaves the ...

The Bow Trap
This device does duty in India and Southern Asia, where it is known as the tiger trap. It is easily constructed as follows: Firs...

The Down-fall
This is the famous harpoon trap, so commonly used in Africa for the capture of the hippopotamus. There is no reason why it may not b...

The Bear Trap
This trap is constructed after the idea of the old-fashioned box or rabbit trap, and has been the means of securing many a hungry bea...

The Pit-fall
The tiger is the scourge of India and Southern Asia and some sections of these countries are so terribly infested with the brutes th...

The Log Coop Trap
This is commonly set for bears, although a deer or a puma becomes its frequent tenant. As its name implies it consists of a coop of l...

The Net Trap
The lion and tiger are often taken in a net, which is secured to a frame work and suspended over a tempting bait. When the latter is ...

Snares Or Moose Traps
These devices, although properly coming under the head of traps, differ from them in the sense in which they are generally understo...

Quail Snare
which forms the subject of our first illustration. This consists of a series of nooses fastened to a strong twine or wire. They may ...

Hoop Nooses
This is a variation from the above, the noose being attached to a barrel hoop and the latter being fastened to two stout posts, which...

The Twitch-up
Our next example of the snare, we imagine, is one which all our boy-readers will immediately recognize; for it would certainly seem t...

The Poacher's' Snare
Our next example represents one of the oldest and best snares in existence,--simple in construction, and almost infallible in its ope...

The Portable Snare
This is simply a modification of the snare just described, but possesses decided advantages over it in many respects. In the first pl...

The Simplest Snare
This is one of the most ingenious and effective devices used in the art of trapping; and the principle is so simple and universal in ...

The Quail Snare
That quails are sociable in their habits, and that they run together in broods in search of their food, is a fact well known to all ...

The Box Snare
This is a most unique device, and will well repay anyone who may desire to test its merits. It may be set for rabbits, coon, or feath...

The Double Box Snare
This is another embodiment of the same principle which has already been described, viz.--the knotted string. By many it is considere...

The Old-fashioned Springle
This is the variety of snare which has been in very common use for ages, and has always been the one solitary example of a noose t...

The Improved Springle
The accompanying cut illustrates an improvement on the last mentioned trap, whereby it can be used for the capture of larger game, ...

The Figure Four Ground Snare
For simplicity in construction there are few snare traps which can compare with this variety, although it is somewhat similar to t...

The Platform Snare
This odd invention will be found to work capitally as a game trap, and the only extra requisite necessary consists of a slab or lig...

The Sieve Trap
This device certainly possesses one great advantage:--it is not complicated. Any one possessed of a sieve and a piece of string can g...

The Brick Trap
This is a very old invention, and has always been one of the three or four stereotyped specimens of traps selected for publication in ...

The Coop Trap
This is another excellent device for the capture of birds and large feathered game, and is used to a considerable extent by trappers ...

The Bat Fowling Net
With English bird-catchers this contrivance is in common use, but so far as we know it has not been utilized to any great extent in t...

The Clap Net
In Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, this trap is a common resource for the capture of wild birds of various kinds. It may be c...

The Bird Whistle
This instrument, also known as the prairie whistle, is clearly shown in our illustration. It is constructed as follows: First, procur...

The Wild Goose Trap
In our northern cold regions, where the wild geese and ptarmigan flock in immense numbers, this trap is commonly utilized. It consists...

The Trap Cage
Among bird-catchers generally, this is the favorite and most universal trap; and, where a decoy bird is used, it is particularly su...

The Spring Net Trap
Although slightly complicated in construction, our next illustration presents one of the prettiest bird traps on record, and may be m...

A Simpler Net Trap
Much ingenuity has been displayed in the construction of bird traps of various kinds, but often the ingenuity has been misplaced, a...

The Upright Net Trap
The following is another novelty in the way of a bird-trap, somewhat similar to the one we have just described, in its manner of worki...

The Box Owl Trap
The use of a box trap for the capture of an owl is certainly an odd idea, but we nevertheless illustrate a contrivance which has been...

The Box Bird Trap
Here we have another invention somewhat resembling the foregoing. Our engraving represents the arrangement of the parts as the trap a...

The Pendent Box Trap
This invention is original with the author of this work, and when properly made and set will prove an excellent device for the capture...

The Hawk Trap
Our illustration represents a hawk in a sad plight. The memory of a recent feast has attracted it to the scene of many of its dep...

The Wild Duck Net
Following will be found two examples of traps in very common use for the capture of wild ducks, and in the region of Chesapeake bay, ...

The Hook Trap
Our second example is one which we are almost tempted to exclude on account of its cruelty, but as our volume is especially devoted...

The Fool's Cap Trap
Of all oddities of the trap kind, there is, perhaps, no one more novel and comical than the Fool's Cap crow-trap, which forms the sub...

Bird Lime
This substance so called to which we have above alluded, and which is sold in our bird marts under that name, is a viscid, sticky pre...

The Humming Bird Trap
One of the most ingenious uses to which bird lime is said to have been applied with success, is in the capture of humming-birds. The ...

The Common Box Trap
which have not been covered by any of the previous titles. Several novelties are contained in the list, and also a number of well kn...

Another Box Trap
This works after the manner of the ordinary wire rat-trap; our illustration explains itself. The box should be of the shape ther...

The Figure Four Trap
One of the most useful as well as the most ancient inventions in the way of traps is the common Figure Four Trap, which forms the ...

The Double Ender
This is what we used to call it in New England and it was a great favorite among the boys who were fond of rabbit catching. It was ...

The Self Setting Trap
One of the oldest known principles ever embodied in the form of a trap is that which forms the subject of the accompanying illustratio...

The Dead-fall
In strolling through the woods and on the banks of streams in the country, it is not an uncommon thing to stumble against a contrivanc...

The Garrote
There is another variety of trap, somewhat resembling the dead-fall, but which seizes its prey in a little different manner. This tr...

The Bow Trap
This most excellent and unique machine is an invention of the author's, and possesses great advantages, both on account of its durabil...

The Mole Trap
If there is anyone subject upon which the ingenuity of the farmers has been taxed, it is on the invention of a mole trap which would ...

A Fish Trap
Our list of traps would be incomplete without a Fish Trap, and although we have mentioned some contrivances in this line under our ar...

The Barrel Trap
This most ingenious device possesses great advantages in its capabilities of securing an almost unlimited number of the vermin in qui...

The Box Dead-fall
This trap is an old invention, simplified by the author, and for the capture of rats and mice will prove very effectual. It consist...

The Board-flap
For the capture of mice this is both a simple and effective contrivance, and it may be enlarged so as to be of good service for la...

The Box Pit-fall
We now come to a variety of trap which differs in its construction from any previously described. It secures its victims alive, and w...

Cage Trap
The common cage trap is well known to most of our readers, and for the capture of rats and mice, it is one of the most efficacious ...

The Jar Trap
In place of the wire cage, a glass preserve-jar was substituted. A few bits of cheese were then dropped inside, and the top of a funn...

Bowl Traps
Very effective extempore traps may be set up in a few minutes by the use of a few bowls. There are two methods commonly employed. One...

Fly Paper
A sheet of common paper, smeared with a mixture composed of molasses one part, and bird-lime six parts (see page 97), will be found to...

Fly Trap
Take a tumbler, and half-fill it with strong soap suds. Cut a circle of stiff paper which will exactly fit into the top of the glass. ...

Requisites Of A Good Steel Trap
1. The jaws should not be too thin nor sharp cornered. In the cheaper class of steel traps the jaws approach to the thinness of sheet...

Hints On Baiting The Steel Trap
There is a very common and erroneous idea current among amateur sportsmen and others in regard to the baiting of the steel trap; v...

The Spring Pole
This is nearly always used in connection with the steel trap, in the capture of the smaller land animals. It not only lifts the cr...

The Sliding Pole
The first impulse with almost every aquatic animal when caught in a trap, is to plunge headlong into deep water. With the smaller ...

The Clog
A trap which is set for heavy game should never be secured to a stake. Many of the larger and more powerful animals when caught in a ...

The Grappling Iron
This answers the same purpose as the above, and is often used instead. It is manufactured in connection with the larger steel traps...

The Season For Trapping
The business of trapping for profit must be confined to the season between the first of October and the beginning of May, as furs of ...

The Art Of Trapping
From time immemorial, and in every nation of the world, the art of trapping has been more or less practised. By some as a means of su...

Medicines Or Scent Baits
These form one of the most important requisites of the trapper's art. A trap baited simply with the food of the required animal, may...

Castoreum
This substance, commonly known as Barkstone, by trappers and fur dealers, is obtained from the beaver, and is a remarkable aid in the...

Castoreum Composition
The Barkstone is used both pure and in combination with other substances, the following prescription being much used: Into the conten...

Musk
This substance is a secretion obtained from several different animals, notably the otter and muskrat. The glands which contain it are ...

Assafoetida
This foul smelling production seems to have a specially attractive fragrance to many animals, and for general use is much esteemed by ...

Oil Of Rhodium
This is a vegetable oil obtained from a species of rose, and is quite costly. Its power of attracting animals is surprising, and it i...

Fish Oil
This is especially useful in the capture of the majority of the fur tribe, and particularly the water animals. The oil may be bough...

Oil Of Skunk
This, the ne plus ultra, or quintessence of diabolical stench, yields the tempting savor which irresistibly attracts many animals to ...

Oil Of Amber
This substance is frequently referred to in the following pages, and is a vegetable product of the amber gum of commerce. The Oil of ...

Oil Of Anise
This is strongly recommended by many trappers as a most excellent universal medicine. It is a vegetable product, and is obtainable at...

Sweet Fennel
This plant is commonly cultivated all over the United States, and the seeds are often powdered and used as a scent bait. The Oil of F...

Cummin
This is another plant, somewhat resembling the former, and, like it, cultivated for its seeds. It has an aromatic taste, and its stro...

Fenugreek
Like the two foregoing this plant is valuable for its seeds, which are used for medicinal purposes. The oil or bruised seeds may be u...

Lavender
This is another aromatic plant, the oil of which, either pure or diluted with alcohol, is much used in the trapper's art. ...

Compound
For ordinary use, a mixture of Assafoetida, Musk, Oil of Anise, and Fish Oil, together with a few drops of the Oil of Rhodium, is esp...

The Trail
The object of the trail consists in offering a leading scent which, when followed, will bring the animal to the various traps, and wh...

How To Trap
In the following pages will be found full and ample directions for the trapping of all our leading game, together with detailed descr...

The Fox
Foremost in the list of animals noted for their sly craft, and the hero of a host of fables and well-authenticated stories, in which ...

The Wolf
The United States are blessed with several species of this animal. The Grey Wolf, which is the largest, and the smaller, Prairie Wolf ...

The Puma
The puma, commonly known also as the panther or cougar, is the largest American representative of the Cat tribe, and for this reason ...

The Canadian Lynx
The lynx represents another of the Cat tribe, and as its name implies is a native of the regions north of the United States, although ...

The Wild Cat
This animal is one of the most wide-spread species of the Cat tribe, being found not only in America, but throughout nearly the whole ...

The Bear
There are several species of the Bear tribe which inhabit our continent, the most prominent of which are the Grizzly, and the Musquaw ...

The Raccoon
Although allied to the Bear family, this animal possesses much in common with the fox, as regards its general disposition and charact...

The Badger
The American Badger is mostly confined to the Northwestern parts of the United States, and it is a curious little animal. In size its...

The Beaver
The Beaver of North America has now a world-wide reputation for its wonderful instinct and sagacity. The general appearance of this a...

The Muskrat
The muskrat, or musquash, is very much like a beaver on a small scale, and is so well-known throughout the United States that a detai...

The Otter
The fur of this animal is of such exquisite softness and beauty as to be in great demand for commercial purposes, bringing a very hig...

The Mink
This animal, as will be seen by our illustration, has a long, slender body, something like the weasel, to which scientific family it ...

The Pine Marten
This animal belongs to the tribe of weasels, and is closely allied to the celebrated sable, which it greatly resembles. The pine marte...

The Fisher
This animal is classed among the martens, and is principally to be found in Canada and the Northern United States, where it is known ...

The Skunk
This disgusting animal has won the unenviable but deserving reputation of being the most foul-smelling creature on the face of the glo...

The Wolverine
This, one of the most ferocious as well as detestable of American animals, is principally found in British America and the upper port...

The Opossum
The opossum is found more or less throughout nearly all the United States. In size it equals a large cat, the tail being about fift...

The Rabbit
The rabbit or cotton tail, as he is familiarly termed, is too well-known to need any description here. From Maine to Texas our woods ...

The Wood-chuck
This animal also called the marmot, is so well-known to most of our readers, that a detailed description will not be necessary, suffi...

The Gopher
This remarkable little animal somewhat resembles the Mole in its general appearance and habits. It is also commonly known as the Cana...

The Mole
Of all the mammalia the Mole is entitled to take the first place in the list of burrowers. This extraordinary creature does not merel...

Squirrels
There are many species of squirrels found in the United States, but their fur is of little value, and of trifling importance in the f...

The Deer
There are upwards of eight varieties of this animal which inhabit North America. The common red or Virginian deer is found throughout ...

The Moose
We have already given so much space to the hunting of the deer that we shall be obliged to cut short our remarks on the Moose, partic...

Rocky Mountain Sheep
These creatures are natives of the entire range of the Rocky Mountains, and are especially prized on account of the superior quality o...

The Buffalo
The Buffaloes or Bison of the Western plains is too well known to need description. They travel in migrating herds of thousands, and ...

The Prong Horn Antelope
This sole American representative of the Antelope tribe we believe is seldom trapped; but as it is a well-known animal on the Western ...

Shooting And Poisoning
Until the introduction of the steel-trap, shooting was a common method of taking fur bearing animals, and even to the present day it ...

Plan Of Campaign
The first thing to be considered in reference to a campaign is the selection of a trapping ground, and it is always desirable to choo...

Food And Cooking Utensils
The professional trapper on a campaign depends much upon his traps for his food, and often entirely contents himself with the subsiste...

The Trapper's Shelter
The life of the professional trapper is a life of hardship and severe exposure, and a man not only requires considerable courage, but...

Bark Shanty
This is made by first driving into the ground two forked poles seven or eight feet in height and stout enough to sustain a ridge pole...

Tents
Shanties like the foregoing are in general use among the old veteran trappers of all countries, and even to the amateur there is a cha...

Beds And Bedding
Many a trapper does away with these commodities, merely rolling himself in a blanket and using his arm for a pillow; but we do not...

Tent Carpeting
We have described a most excellent contrivance for a bedstead and recommend its use whenever possible; but when the bed is desired to...

Insect Ointments
These insects seem to have a special aversion for the scent of pennyroyal--an herb growing commonly in sandy localities--and a single...

Boat Building
Where trapping is carried on along the banks of the lakes and rivers, a boat of some kind becomes almost a positive necessity. T...

Dug-out Or Log Canoe
It's general appearance is well indicated by the accompanying illustration. With the proper tools, one of these canoes is easily made...

The Indian Or Birch-bark Canoe
Where the white birch grows in perfection, and the trees attain a large size, the chief material of the birch bark canoe is at hand; ...

A Light Home-made Boat
The following gives an easy method of making a light and serviceable bateau, which any boy, with moderate ingenuity or skill, could e...

The Scow
The bateau we have above described is built so as to allow for considerable speed in the water, either in rowing or sculling; but whe...

Snow-shoes
These commodities are almost indispensable to the trapper where he pursues his vocation in the winter time, during the prevalence of ...

The Toboggan Or Indian Sledge
For winter traffic over deep snows there is no better sled in the world than the Indian toboggan. To the trapper during a winter camp...

Curing Skins
This department of the trapper's art is one of the most important and necessary, as affecting pecuniary profits. The value of a skin ...

Stretchers
The board stretcher is the simplest form and is in most common use among trappers for the smaller animals. These stretchers are of tw...

The Hoop Stretcher
This consists of a hoop made from one or more flexible switches tied together so as to form a circle. In order to be adapted to this ...

Tanning Skins
In case some of our readers might desire to tan fur skins for their own domestic purposes, the subjoined directions will be found to b...

To Tan Mink And Muskrat Skins
Before tanning, the skin should always be thoroughly cleansed in warm water, and all fat and superfluous flesh removed. It should th...

How To Tan The Skins Of Beaver Otter Raccoon And Marten
These should be stretched on a board and smeared with a mixture composed of three ounces each, of salt and alum; three gills of water...

Observations On The History Of Furs And The Fur Trade
In all cold climates, man has availed himself liberally of the warm covering with which nature has clothed the animals around him; bu...

Market Value Of Fur Skins
Below will be found an authentic table of the comparative values of the various American furs at the present date of publication. The...

American Fur Skins--their Uses At Home And Abroad
In the early history of fur apparel, its use was determined by climate; to-day, and especially in this country, it is regulated by th...


Fly Fishing

The Art Of Fly-making
To give something that will convey a durable and correct idea of Fly-making, Angling, and Dyeing of Colours to my pupils, is what ...

An Easy Method To Make The Trout Fly
(See Plate.) The tyro will provide himself with a dubbing book, containing numerous compartments, to hold feathers, furs, pig hai...

An Easy Method Of Making A Plain Salmon Fly
Tie on the salmon hook to a length of twisted gut or loop (see the gut and hook tied on in the Plate of Salmon Hook, No. 1) firmly...

To Make The Trout Fly In The Best And Most Approved Method
The reader will lay out his materials before him on the table, which consist of hook, gut, wings, hackle, feather for tail, body o...

To Make The Palmer Or Double-hackle Fly
You tie on the hook firmly as before, and prepare two hackles for the fly, as you may see in the plate of Feathers, two hackles tied...

How To Make The Salmon Fly As Shown In The Beautiful Plate Of Engravings On Salmon Hooks
Reader, you will have an idea of the sorts of materials you require for the different processes on each hook in the plates, as the m...

Process Of Making The Gaudy Salmon Fly
You commence by tying the hook and gut firmly together, and that it may be more easy and convenient to the reader to accomplish ...

To Make The Winged Larva
Tie on the hook and gut as before (say a hook about No. 8) and form a brown body of mohair on it, wing the fly with a portion of hen...

A Catechism Of Fly-making
BY WILLIAM BLACKER Question. What do you mean by Fly-making? Answer. I mean the artificial assimilation of those beautiful inse...

The Trout Flies For The Season
I will now give a description of those flies which will be found most killing, as they are imitations of the natural ones that appea...

Flies For March
No. 1. THE MARCH BROWN.--The body is made of light brown mohair, mixed with a little fur of the hare's neck, and a little yellow moh...

Flies For April
No. 7. THE SOLDIER FLY.--The body is made of scarlet-colored mohair, ribbed with fine gold twist, and two black-red cock hackles run...

Flies For May
No. 14. THE BLACK GNAT.--The body is made of black hair from the spaniel's ear which is fine and soft, or a black ostrich feather cl...

Flies For June
No. 20.--THE GREAT RED SPINNER.--The body is made of red mohair, ribbed with fine gold wire, and a red cock hackle for legs; the win...

Flies For July
No. 25.--THE GREAT WHIRLING DUN.--The body is made of water-rat's fur, mixed with yellow mohair, and ribbed with yellow silk; a redd...

Flies For August
No. 29. THE RED DUN.--The body is made of red orange hair, over which roll a small dun hackle; the wings are a dun grey, and are mad...

Fishing Rods And Fly Fishing
For a trout rod, to have a good balance from the butt to the extreme top, it is essentially necessary that the wood should be well-s...

Fly-fishing For Salmon
When you begin fly-fishing for Salmon, you must be careful not to let out too much of the reel line first, but when you become accus...

An Account Of The Salmon And Its Varieties
I desire merely to give some account of this beautiful fish for the information of my readers, the knowledge of which has come under...

The Salmon Fry
These beautiful little fish, the production of the spawn of the salmon, make their appearance in March and April, and if a flood hap...

A Description Of The Fifteen Salmon Flies Engraved In The Plates
These fifteen Salmon Flies may be considered by my readers as specimens of real perfection, and the "dons" of the present time among...

Spring Flies
The following fine large flies will be excellent killers in the Shannon, the Tweed, the Thurso, the Spey, and the Tay, in the spring s...

Salmon Rivers
It will be most advantageous to my readers that I should give them some accurate accounts of the various Salmon Rivers, pointing out...

The River Tweed
I will begin with this large and beautiful salmon river, which runs rapidly along the borders of England and Scotland, taking a cour...

The River Shannon
This is the largest and finest Salmon river in Britain. There is not a river in Norway that can be compared to it for fishing, were ...

The Lakes Of Clare
From the town of Killaloe the angler may proceed to the lakes of the County of Clare. You go west to the town of Broadford, eight mi...

The Lakes Of Killarney
From Mallow, on the Blackwater, the angler proceeds to Killarney. It would be as well to go to Lismore, farther down from Mallow, wh...

Lough Curran Waterville
The angler may proceed any morning he feels disposed, to Waterville river and lake, southwest of Killarney, in the County Kerry; the...

Connamara And Ballynahinch
In this western region there are some beautiful lakes and rivers, once celebrated for the abundance of Salmon and Trout which they c...

Ballyna
The angler may now proceed to the river Moy, at Ballyna, in the County of Mayo, a celebrated place for ages for Salmon fishing with ...

Ballyshannon
From Ballyna the angler may proceed to the Erne, at Ballyshannon, by coach, where he will find, on his arrival, a beautiful river, a...

The Rivers Bush And Bann
From Ballyshannon the angler proceeds to the Enniskillen and Derry railway, where he takes his seat for Coleraine; on arriving at th...

The River Bann
Portna is considered the best ford for Salmon and Trout fishing on this noble stream. At this place, which is merely an inn, kept by...

Lakes Of Westmeath
After leaving Draugheda, the angler will reach Dublin by rail in a very short time, where he will take his place in the railway carr...

The River Lee At Cork
Would be as good a place as any in Ireland "to go to fish," were it not for the "weirs," and foul play in many ways, which is practi...

Salmon Rivers Of Scotland
We will bid adieu to old Ireland for a season, and its fair city Dublin, "with the blue sky over it," and step into the steam boat a...

The River Tay
This beautiful salmon river is the principal one in Perthshire, in its course it expands into Loch Tay, on leaving which it finds it...

The Dee And Don
These rivers run into the sea at Aberdeen, and are excellent for Salmon and Trout fishing--the Dee for Salmon, and the Don more for ...

The River Spey
This splendid Salmon river runs through Elginshire, and a nobler one there is not to be found for fishing with the salmon fly, parti...

The Findhorn
is another fine Salmon river after heavy rains, which swell it to a prodigious size, as shown by its channel in low water, high ridg...

Rivers And Lakes Adjacent To Fort William On The Caledonian Canal
These wild and majestic scenes in the heart of the Highlands of Scotland are without doubt splendid, either to look upon or for the ...

Salmon Flies For Fort William
The flies to suit the various waters surrounding Fort William are generally of a medium size and middling gaudy. The engraved ones i...

Salmon Flies For The Ness
No. 1. Body half black and yellow, a jay and purple hackle ribbed with silver, orange head, mallard, peacock wing and jungle cock wi...

The River Shin
Classic Shin, on whose heath-clad banks and flowing waters the great and good fly fishers roam, who never saw "Kelt of Baggit" there...

The River Thurso
The Thurso, famed for its fresh run salmon throughout the year, is the most northern river in Scotland. The town of Thurso, in Caith...

The River Esk
The North and South Esk are rivers of Forfar, falling into the sea near Montrose. The North Esk is the best of the two, and affords ...

Loch Leven
The trout fly fisher staying at Stirling, or its neighbourhood, on the Great Northern, will find himself agreeably situated in the c...

The River Allan
This is a good stream for trout fishing; it enters the Forth below Stirling, just above the town of Aloa. It has an extraordinary wi...

Loch Awe And River
This celebrated lake, on the western side of Scotland, may be conveniently reached from Glasgow. There are steam boats sail two or ...

The Rivers Irvine Girvan And Stincher In Ayrshire
In this westerly quarter may be found excellent Salmon and Trout fishing in the spring and autumn in these beautiful streams, which ...

Rivers Of Wales The Conway
There would be excellent salmon fishing in Wales were the rivers properly preserved. The Conway (North Wales) is a beautiful stream,...

The River Dovey
The Dovey is a nice stream, but runs off very soon, like all others descending from the mountains. The salmon would be, nevertheless...

River Tivey
The Tivey is considered the very best and most prolific river in all Wales. It has a long and winding course to Cardigan, and before...

The Wye Monmouth
The Wye, at the town of Monmouth, and up towards Leominster, is an excellent river for salmon; and the Usk, in the same quarter, is ...

The River Severn
The river Severn has its source in Montgomeryshire, takes a long course, passing the towns of Welshpool and Shrewsbury. It is a fine...

The Trent
is a good river for greyling fishing, near the town of Newark, on the Nottingham and Lincoln Railroad. The flies to suit it are smal...

Rivers Of York And Derby
The beautiful streams of these counties are excellent for trout fishing, and the scenery varied and pleasing throughout. The river W...

The Hodder
Whitewell is a favourite spot for anglers to meet during the May fly season, it is beautifully situated for scenery and sport; my li...

Rivers Of Derby
Derbyshire is watered by many delightful streams, which abound with trout and greyling, the owners of which allow the angler to fish...

The Rivers Wandle And Coln
These rivers are convenient to London, and are famous for fly fishing: they are in general private property, but the owners are very...

The River Thames
After jumping over old "tower'd" Thames on our way to the south, we now return to him to wind up this little chapter on rivers; ther...

Perch
The Perch is a very handsome fish, and is best taken with the worm or live minnow, the larger size ones take the latter bait well an...

Barbel
The Barbel are strong fish, and require strong tackle to catch them, a No. 4 or 5 hook tied on stout single gut, and have a small bu...

Pike
The Pike is a rough customer (if large) to come across, and the tackle which is required to catch him is as rough and as terrible as...

Roach
The Roach is a handsome fish, and when taken of the size of half a pound or a pound, are not such bad eating as is said of them. The...

Dace
The Dace is a lively brisk little fish, and affords much amusement in catching him, particularly with very small flies, which he wil...

Carp
It is a very difficult matter to catch Carp with the bait, as they are most cunning fish to detect at once the deception, and swim a...

Chub
The Chub is rather a handsome fish when in season, and those caught with the artificial fly in many parts of the Thames, are very br...

Gudgeons And Minnows
These are very beautiful little fish, and most wholesome food; they are the best bait for perch, jack, and large trout, that can be,...

Baits
To scour worms:--put them in clean damp moss, changing it in two or three days, place them between two layers of it, and choose thos...

The Art Of Dyeing Fishing Colours Which Are Pig's Hair Mohair Fur & Hackles Commonly Called Dubbing
The great advantage the fly fisher must derive from a knowledge of dyeing his colours and hackles is obvious. It affords amusement t...

To Dye Yellow
I will begin with yellow, the most useful colour in general for the gentle craft. Put your crucible on a slow fire nearly full of wa...

To Dye Brown
Put into your dye pot about two handfuls of walnut rinds, or as much as it will hold nicely to boil; simmer this slowly over the fir...

To Dye A Yellow Brown
The Saunders' Wood, brought from the Indies, and sold in powder or ground mixed with sumach is good, it takes long to boil, adding t...

To Dye Blue
Fill your crucible three parts full of soft water, and put it on a slow fire, at the same time put in your blue ingredients, previou...

To Dye Red
Prepare your dye pot by nearly filling it with soft water; and keep it at a scalding heat when the dye stuff is put in, as it must n...

To Dye Orange
When orange is desired take a handful of best madder and mix it with a spoonful of cochineal, boil it for an hour or two, add too a ...

To Dye Purple Or Violet
First dye the hackles or stuffs blue, and lay them to dry; then, fill the dye-pot more than half with soft water, and in the other p...

To Dye Crimson
Boil your hackles or hair in a tea-spoonful of alum, and nearly as much pure tartar, for an hour; bruise two table-spoonfuls of coch...

To Dye Scarlet
Boil your hackles, &c., in a little crystal of tartar; procure two table-spoonfuls of cochineal, bruise them a little, and boil them...

Crimson Red In Grain
Boil your hackles or hair in a quarter of an ounce of alum, and the same quantity of pure tartar, an hour gently; wash them out of t...

To Dye Green Drake Feathers And Fur
Boil your hackles, mohair, or fur, in alum and tartar, a quarter of an ounce of each; rinse them well, and put them into the dye-pot...

To Dye Claret
Boil two handfuls of red-wood, or ground Brazil-wood, for an hour, with a handful of log-wood; then take a table-spoonful of oil of ...

Another Way To Dye Claret
Take a handful of nut galls and bruise them, put them into the crucible and boil them half an hour, add to the dye a table-spoonful ...

To Dye Black
Boil two good handfuls of log-wood with a little sumach and elder bark for an hour, put in the stuff or hackles (boil very gently), ...

To Dye Greens Of Various Shades
The greatest nicety of all is in finding the exact quantity of ingredients to put in, so as to prevent the dye stuff from injuring t...

To Dye Lavender Or Slate Dun &c &c
Boil ground logwood with bruised nut galls and a small quantity of copperas, according to judgment: you may have a pigeon dun, lead ...

Blues
Dissolve some indigo in oil of vitriol for twenty-four hours, put a couple of spoonfuls in your pot, add a little crystal of tartar,...

A Silver Grey
Boil some fenugreek and a little alum half an hour, put in the white hackles, &c., and add a little pearlash and Brazil-wood, boil t...

A Coffee Or Chesnut
Boil the hackles, &c., that have been previously dyed brown, in some nut gall, sumach, and alder bark, then add a small quantity of ...

To Dye Olives And A Mixture Of Colours
Olives are dyed from blue, red, and brown, of every shade, according to fancy. From yellow, blue, and brown, are made olives of a...

A Concise Way Of Dyeing Colours
I will now add the way to dye the colours, for pighair, mohair, hackles, &c., in a concise and summary manner, to avoid giving troub...

The Materials Necessary For Artificial Fly Making
The necessary articles used for fly making in general are as follows: Those feathers that are of a most gaudy hue are best for the w...

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