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 Military Training.ca

Basic Training Manuals dealing with lifestyle associated with training.




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Military Training.ca

Basic Training Manuals dealing with lifestyle associated with training.


Military Training

General Advice
The United States is divided geographically into military departments with a general officer commanding each department. The departmen...

Mail
Mail is most often delayed because there is not sufficient information for the Postmaster on the envelope. The delivery of your mail...

Inoculations And Vaccination
As soon as you become a member of the army, whether as a private or as an officer, you will receive the typhoid prophylaxis inoculat...

What To Bring
1. Travel light. Bring only the bare necessities of life with you. Don't bring a trunk. Enlisted men (not officers) will be ...

What To Do On Your Arrival
There is a general rule of procedure to follow in reporting for duty at any post or training camp. 1. If you receive an order...

Rules Of Conduct For Camp Life
The first few days will be easy and profitable if you will read carefully and adhere to the following plan of procedure: 1. G...

Advice Regarding Habits
Your life in camp in regard to food, exercise, hours of sleep, surroundings, and comforts, will differ greatly from that you lead as...

A Disciplined Soldier
You will be expected to become quickly amenable both mentally and physically to discipline. A clear conception on your part of what ...

Dress
The uniform you will wear stands for Duty, Honor, and Country. You should not disgrace it by the way you wear it or by your conduct ...

Saluting
The military salute is universal. It is at foundation but a courteous recognition between two individuals of their common fellowship...

Army Slang
The following army slang is universally employed: Bunkie--the soldier who shares the shelter half or tent of a comrade ...

How To Clean A Rifle And Bayonet
Get a rag and rub the heavy grease off; then get a soft pine stick, pointed at one end, and with this point remove the grease from t...

Friends
There are a few men in all companies who play, loaf, and who are constantly in trouble. As the good men in each company will not bec...

Final Suggestions
Don't be profane or tell questionable stories to your bunkies or around the company. There is a much greater number of silent and un...

Physical Exercise
The greatest problem you will have to solve will be that of making your body do the work required. Every one else will be doing exac...

1st Exercise
Involving practically every important muscle in the body. From first position spring to second position; instantly return to first ...

School Of The Soldier
Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training; hence the excellence...

Position Of A Soldier At Attention
No. 1. Eyes to the front. Hands hang naturally. Rest weight of the body equally on feet. Feet turned out making angles of 45 deg.. ...

The Rests
Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE; and 1. Parade, 2. REST. At the command fall out, the men may leave th...

Eyes Right Or Left
1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT. At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on the line of eyes of t...

Facings
To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE. Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning on the right hee...

Steps And Marchings
All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right step, begin with the left foot. The length of the full step in quick t...

Quick Time
Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH. At the command forward, shift the weight of the body to the...

To Mark Time
Being in march: 1. Mark time, 2. MARCH. At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other f...

Side Step
Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Right (left) step, 2. MARCH. Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the lef...

Back Step
Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Backward, 2. MARCH. Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear. The back step is used for sh...

To Halt
To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. Squad, 2. HALT. At the command halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, plan...

To March By The Flank
Being in march: 1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH. The command march must be given when the right foot is on the ground as s...

To March To The Rear
Being in march: 1. To the rear, 2. MARCH. At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the...

Change Step
Being in march; 1. Change step, 2. MARCH. At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the...

Manual Of Arms
To acquire proficiency in the Manual of Arms, you should practice, practice, and practice. Position of order arms standing, i.e.,...

To Dismiss The Squad
Being at a halt: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED. Make a point of becoming sufficiently familiar with the ...

Close Order Drills
For several days after reporting you will undergo many hours of close order drill. You will ask yourself, Why is all this mental and...

Definitions
Deploy. To extend the front. A squad deploys when it goes As skirmishers. A company likewise deploys when it goes from column into ...

To Form The Squad
To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in front of where the center is to be and commands: Fall in. The men asse...

Alignments
To align the squad, the base file or files having been established: 1. Right (left), 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT. At the command dress, al...

The Oblique March
For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face half right ...

To Follow The Corporal
Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of it and commands:...

To Deploy As Skirmishers
Being in any formation, assembled: 1. As skirmishers, 2. MARCH. The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not already ...

To Increase Or Diminish Intervals
If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or decr...

The Assembly
Being deployed: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH. The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places. If the corporal contin...

Loadings And Firings
The commands for loading and firing are the same whether standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed at a hal...

To Load
Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD. At the command load each front-rank ma...

Stack And Take Arms
The subject of stack and take arms is less important than the rest of this chapter. It is difficult to be learned from a book. Your ...

School Of The Company
The company in line is formed in double rank with the men arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from right to left, t...

Close Order
In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side of the guide. Men in the line of file closers do not execu...

To Form The Company
At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company is to be, face...

1st Movement On The Fixed Pivot
Being in line, to turn the company: 1. Company right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH. [Illustrati...

2d Movement On The Moving Pivot
Being in line, to change direction: 1. Right (left) turn, 2. MARCH, 3: Forward, 4. MARCH. Executed as described in the School of ...

Fourth Movement Column Right
Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH. At the second command the front rank of the lea...

Fifth Movement On Right (left) Into Line
Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right or left: 1. On right (left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5...

Sixth Movement Right Front Into Line
Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to the front: 1. Right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5....

Facing Or Marching To The Rear
Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. ...

Route Step And At Ease
The column of squads is the habitual column of route, but route step and at ease are applicable to any marching formation. To mar...

Rules For Guides
A guide is a noncommissioned officer or a private upon whom the company regulates its march. It is not difficult for an inexperie...

Examples
Suppose the company to be in line. In executing: 1. Squads right. The guides go to the left flank. 2. Right by squads....

To Diminish The Front Of A Column Of Squads
Being in column of squads: 1. Right (left) by twos, 2. MARCH. At the command march all files except the two right files on the leadi...

Extended Order Drills
As soon as your progress in close order is sufficiently advanced, you will be given extended order drill, which will teach you the f...

Second Case
Now suppose the company is in column of squads at a halt. It is desired to form a skirmish line to the front: 1. As skirmishers, gui...

Rules For Deployments
The command guide right (left or center) indicates the base squad for the deployment; if in line it designates the actual right (left ...

The Assembly
The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, the element on which the company is to assemble and commands: 1. Assemble, 2....

Whistle Signals
There are only two kinds of whistle signals; a short last and a long blast. A short blast means pay attention, or look out for a sig...

The Advance
The advance of a company into an engagement whether for attack or defense) is conducted in close order, preferably column of squads,...

Field Exercises
These exercises, as well as combat exercises, are for instruction in duties incident to campaign. To receive the maximum benefit fro...

The Fire Attack
The principles governing the advance of the firing line in attack are considered in the chapters on Attack and Defense. When it b...

Fire Superiority
Do not study this chapter until you begin your extended order drills. If the authors of this text were requested to select for y...

Fire Direction
A company that cannot start firing or stop firing, that cannot fire faster or slower, that cannot distribute equally its fire over a...

Fire Control
We have just described what the captain directs. Now we must put his directions (orders) into effect. This is done through his plato...

Fire Discipline
Now we come to the individual private on the firing line. All of the above measures for efficiency will come to but little unless th...

The Service Of Security
Security has the same meaning in the military world as elsewhere. We properly think of the security of our persons, our property, ...

Attack And Defense
The European War has demonstrated more clearly than ever before two points in attack and defense. First, no people, or group of pe...

General Principles Of Target Practice
The most thrilling experience you will have at a training camp will probably come when you step up to the firing line on the tar...

Practise March Or Hike
The manoeuver practice march will be the most instructive, the most pleasant, and one of the hardest periods of your service. You ...

Marching Rules
1. Adjust your equipment, if necessary, at the first halt. 2. Do not leave the column without the express permission of your comp...

Halts
Halts are made for the purpose of resting. Take advantage of the opportunity by sitting down at once along the side of the road near...

Camping
Two men tent together--the front rank man and his rear rank file. Alter pitching your tent, get inside and level off the ground. Cut...

Preparing Your Bed
After you have pitched your tent, get some hay, grass, straw, or leaves and cover the floor. Place one poncho on this, then one or t...

Making Up Your Pack
Immediately after reveille, take down your tent and make up your pack. Place your extra blankets on the pile with those of the other...

Water
Fill your canteen each evening, as the water wagons sometimes do not reach camp before the morning march is commenced. Excessive wat...

Care Of The Feet
The infantryman's feet are his means of transportation. If you care for them properly, you will be rewarded. 1. Wash and dry the ...

Camp Sanitation
In camp you are really your brother's keeper. It is the duty of every man to keep the camp clean, sanitary, and livable. Constantly be...

Miscellaneous
1. Take great pains each morning to make a neat, small and solid pack and strap it up securely. 2. Don't put your pack on until ord...

Equipment
During the hike your equipment for living will be limited to: (1) your pack (things that you carry on your back), (2) a few authorized...

Esprit De Corps
Have too much esprit de corps to complain of the length of the march, or to kick about the dust on the road. Be self-controlled. Don...

Officers Reserver Corps
To make it possible to fill the gaps made in the Regular Army, by the heavy loss of commissioned officers which is inevitable in t...

General Information Concerning The Officers' Reserve Corps
An officer in the Reserve Corps cannot, without his consent, be called into service in a lower grade than that held by him in the Re...

The Officers' Reserve Corps In War
In time of actual or threatened hostilities the President can order officers of the Reserve Corps to temporary duty with the Regular...

The Officers' Reserve Corps In Peace
During peace the Secretary of War can order any Reserve Officer to duty for instruction for a period not to exceed fifteen days in a...

Examinations
Each applicant for a commission in the Reserve Corps will be given a rigid physical examination. Make certain that you can pass such...

Reports To Be Made
Officers in the Officers' Reserve Corps are required to report at once to the Adjutant General of the Department in which they live ...

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The President is authorized to establish and maintain in civil educational institutions a Reserve Officers' Training Corps which sha...

Senior Division
A senior division of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps may be established at any university and college requiring of its students...

Junior Division
A junior division of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps may be established at any institution to which an army officer has been d...

To Enter The Reserve Officers' Corps
The President is authorized, under such regulations as he may prescribe, to appoint in the Officers' Reserve Corps any graduate of t...

Department Commander's Report
At the end of each calendar year department commanders and chiefs of staff corps and departments compile lists of members of the Off...

The Land Forces Of The United States
You now are, or expect to become, a member of the land forces of the United States. Of what do the land forces of the United States ...

Articles Of War
The Army is governed by the Articles of War, which can be found in the Army Regulations. Any laws, orders, et cetera, pertaining to ...

General Advice
To become a first-class drillmaster is desirable and necessary. But, being one, you are not to be intrusted with the command of troo...

Military Correspondence
An official letter should refer to one subject only. In writing to the War Department address your letter to The Adjutant General...

Use Of The Combined Arms
Every efficient officer must realize the possibilities and limitations of his own arm of the service as well as the possibilities an...

Infantry
The infantry is the principal and most important arm, which is charged with the main work on the field of battle and it usually deci...

Artillery
The chief duty of the artillery is to support the infantry. It does this in three ways: 1st, By firing at the hostile infantry. 2d, ...

Cavalry
This very important arm is the eye with which the general sees for many miles to the front and flank. In an advance it pushes ahead,...

Machine Guns
Before the present European War, machine guns were classified as emergency weapons. It was not believed that they could remain long ...

Bombs And Hand Grenades
The present European War has revived the use of hand grenades and bombs. A certain number of soldiers in each British and French bat...

Night Operations
By employing night operations troops make use of the cover of darkness to minimize losses from hostile fire, to escape observation, ...

Obstacles
The main object in placing obstacles in front of a defensive position is to delay the enemy while he is under the defenders' fire, a...

Meeting Engagements
When two hostile forces suddenly meet we have what is termed a meeting engagement. Very little or no reconnaissance is possible. The...

Withdrawal From Action
The withdrawal of a defeated force can generally be effected only at a heavy cost. (Infantry Drill Regulations.) When a withdrawal i...

Intrenchments
Ordinarily infantry intrenches itself whenever it is compelled to halt for a considerable time in the presence of the enemy. (Infant...

Military Maps
Definition. A military map is a drawing made to represent some section of the country, showing the features that are of military im...

Bayonet
Importance of the Bayonet. The infantry soldier is armed with a bayonet. He relies mainly on fire action to disable the enemy, but h...

Ammunition
An infantry soldier goes into battle carrying 220 rounds of rifle ammunition. He habitually carries in his belt 100 rounds and when ...

Transportation
Organization commanders are responsible for all unauthorized material or supplies that may be put on their wagons. You should theref...

The Ration
A ration is the allowance (money) for the subsistence of one person for one day. It is based on the cost of a fixed amount of certai...

Property
In the absence of regulations on the subject, each Reserve Officer should own a good watch, a pair of field glasses, a compass, and ...

Guard Duty
Guards are used in camp or garrison to preserve order, to protect property, and to enforce police regulations. The commander of the ...

Saluting
Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy. In general it does not exceed thirty paces. A junior, who is mounted,...

Books
We recommend that all officers, non-commissioned officers and all privates who propose to work for advancement read the following bo...

Field Orders
Field orders, whether written or oral, should follow a certain form. This decreases the probability of any vital part being left out...

For An Advance
Field Orders (Title) No. ---- (Place) (Reference to map u...

A Model Order For An Advance
Field Orders Hq. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, No. 6 Fort Leavenworth, K...

General Ideas And Rules For Solving Military Problems
The cave man knocked over his foe with a rude club. The operation is greatly refined to-day. The technique of war changes with the a...

The Logical Way To Estimate The Situation
1st. Consider exactly what you are to do, i.e., your mission as set forth in the orders or instructions under which you are acting o...

Correct Procedure In Giving The Main Part Of A Field Order
1st. Give the information of the enemy and of our own supporting troops (i.e., those who may come to our assistance in case of need)...

Some General Hints
Clear and decisive orders are the logical result of definite and sure decisions. To guage[B] a man's caliber read his orders. You...

Summary
We recommend that each officer become familiar with the following summary: 1. Avoid combats that offer no chance of victory ...

Miscellaneous Information
For convenience, military information is considered under two heads, namely (1) that collected in time of peace by the body of army ...

Intelligence Section General Staff
There is a special committee of the Great General Staff called the Intelligence Section, whose business it is to weigh and classify ...

Assumption Of The Enemy
When reliable information of the enemy cannot be obtained, it must be assumed that he has sense and will act with excellent judgment...

False Information
Unless instructions have been given to spread false information, all persons connected with the military service are forbidden to di...

Fire
There are three kinds of fire: (1) Volley Fire. Every one fires at the command FIRE. It is used at funerals and occasionally in t...

The Difference Between Independent And Divisional Cavalry
The main difficulty in seeing the distinction between Independent and Divisional Cavalry consists in our forgetting that we have dif...

The Difference Between Strategy And Tactics
Strategy is generalship in its broadest conception. A strategist conceives and projects campaigns. He determines where armies and na...

Employment Of Air Craft On And Near The Firing Line In The Theater Of Operation
Airplanes will move far out, perhaps hundreds of miles, in front of our most advanced cavalry for the purpose of gathering general i...

The Big Ideas Of Marches
For marches to be entirely successful three conditions must be fulfilled: (1) the troops must get there; (2) they must get there on ...

Shelter
When troops are sheltered under canvas (in tents), they are in camp. When they are resting on the ground without tents (for instance...

Selection Of A Camping Ground
Suppose that you were sent on ahead of troops on the march to select a camp ground for them, what big ideas should you bear in mind....

Advice To Officers
A company of infantry is composed of three officers and one hundred and fifty non-commissioned officers and privates. What a shame t...

A Final Word
Now it is proper to consider your relation to your immediate superiors. You have no business commanding unless you have first learne...

General Principles
Security embraces all those measures taken by a command to protect itself from observation, annoyance, or surprise by the enemy. ...

Advance Guards
An advance guard is a detachment of the main body which precedes and covers it on the march. Its duties are: (1) To guard agai...

Strength And Composition
Subject to variation according to the situation, one twentieth to one third of a command may be assumed as a suitable strength for t...

Distance From The Main Body
While the distance between these two bodies should be great enough to prevent needless interruptions in the march of the main body, ...

Distribution Of Troops
An advance-guard order generally describes the following distribution of troops: Advance cavalry. Support. Reserve....

Advance Cavalry
The advance cavalry is that part of the advance-guard cavalry preceding the support. It reconnoiters far enough to the front and flank...

Support
Following the advance cavalry is the support, varying in strength from one fourth to one half of the advance guard. In mixed commands ...

Reserve
The reserve follows the support at several hundred yards' distance. It consists of the remainder of the infantry and engineers, the ...

Reconnaissance
In conducting the reconnaissance the patrols are, as a rule, small--from two to six men. If additional protection is necessary, a fl...

Advance Guard Of A Small Command
In forming the advance guard of a command smaller than a brigade, the foregoing distribution is modified, depending upon the situati...

Rear Guards
The rear guard is charged with the important duty of covering the retreat. When a commander decides to retreat, he issues the nec...

Strength And Composition
The strength of a rear guard depends upon the nature of the country and the strength and character of the pursuing force. It can not...

Distribution Of Troops
The proximity and conduct of the enemy control, to a large extent, the formation of a rear guard. When it is not necessary to withdr...

Distances
The distance of the rear guard from the main body and between the fractions of the rear guard are about the same as in the case of a...

Rear Guard Of An Advancing Force
If there is a possibility that the rear of the column may be attacked, a rear guard of suitable strength and composition is provided...

Outposts
The size and disposition of the outpost will depend upon many circumstances, such as the size of the whole command, the proximity of...

Composition
A mixed outpost is composed principally of infantry. The infantry is charged with the duty of local observation, especially at night...

Distribution Of Outpost Troops
The outpost will generally be divided into four parts. These, in order from the main body, are the reserve, the line of supports, th...

Establishing The Outpost
The outpost is posted as quickly as possible, so that the troops can the sooner obtain rest. Until the leading outpost troops are ab...

Relieving The Outpost
Evening and shortly before dawn are hours of special danger. The enemy may attack late in the day in order to establish himself on c...

The Theory Of Attack
Decisive results are obtained only by the offensive. Aggressiveness wins battles. If you want to thrash a man go after him; don't wa...

Advantages Of The Attack
(1) You can elect the point of attack while the defender must be prepared to resist at all points. (2) The fact that you are adva...

Different Kinds Of Attack
The most usual kinds of attack are: Frontal Attack. This attack is delivered directly against the front of the enemy. It offers l...

The Actual Attack
Deployment. To deploy means to extend the front. When does a column extend its front or prepare to fight? When open terrain, which w...

Advancing The Attack
It is now necessary to advance the attack to a point where the rifle is effective, so the attacking line can gain fire superiority. ...

The Fire Attack
The fire attack commences when the infantry in the firing line first opens fire and it usually ends with the charge. A charge is som...

The Charge
There can be no rule to tell you when to charge. It may be from 25 to 400 yards. The common sense (tactical instinct) of the senior ...

The Theory Of The Defensive
The defensive is divided into the purely passive defense and the active defense. The passive defense seeks merely to delay the en...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Defensive
The defense has the following advantages over the attack: (1) Troops attacking afford a better target than the troops on the defe...

Disadvantages Of The Defense
(1) The defender surrenders the advantage of the initiative as the attacker can elect the point of attack and the defender must be p...

Requisites Of A Good Defensive Position
If you were looking for a good defensive position, what points would you have in mind and of these points, which would be the most i...

Preparing A Defensive Position
Now let us suppose ourselves as part of a battalion that is to occupy a defensive position. What would probably be done? How and in ...

The Actual Defense
Let us suppose now that our battalion, occupying this defensive position, is a part of a larger force which is supported by artiller...

Patrolling
Everything else being equal the army that possesses the most accurate information about the enemy will win. Military history recit...

Duties Of A Patrol
Each reconnoitering patrol is given a certain mission (duty) to perform. The name, reconnoitering, meaning to survey, to view, indic...

Strength
The strength of the patrol will generally depend on its mission and on the number of messages that it will probably send back. The l...

Commander
The leader should be an officer or a noncommissioned officer. He must have good judgment, be cool, be quick in making a decision, be...

Instructions
The officer sending out a patrol should give it instructions on the following points: 1. Information of the enemy and of friendly...

Preparation
Before going out the patrol commander will make a careful inspection of the members of his patrol in order to see: 1. That the me...

Formation
It is impossible to lay down any hard-and-fast rule governing the formation and conduct of the operations of a patrol. Each situation ...

Conduct Of The Patrol
In communicating with each other for ordinary purposes the members of the patrol use signals agreed upon before the start. For this ...

Encountering The Enemy
If a small hostile patrol is encountered it is generally better to remain in concealment and let it pass than to attack. The noise o...

Returning
A patrol can never be certain that the enemy's patrols are not operating in its rear. Hence in returning, it is necessary to observe...

Target Practice
Military shooting or target practice is very different from shotgun shooting, or even the kind of shooting required of a large-gam...

Preliminary Instruction
Your preliminary instructions and their purposes are as follows: 1. Nomenclature of the Rifle. The word nomenclature means the vo...

Slow Fire Targets
This target is used during slow fire at 200 and 300 yards. This target is used during slow fire at 500 and 600 yards. ...

Rapid Fire Target
This target is always used with the battle sight at 200, 300, and 500 yards rapid fire. Battle sight is the position of the rear s...

Windage
The rear sight is set on a movable base so that it can be moved to the right or left and the aiming point shifted accordingly in ord...

Elevation
General rule for changing the elevation after hitting the target: A change of elevation either up or down, of 100 yards on your rear...

Slow Fire
Following satisfactory gallery practise scores the men go on the range for known distance practice. Here the army rifle is fired wit...

Rapid Fire
In rapid fire the battle sight is always used; the firing is against time and at a field target (Target D), and from ranges 200, 300...

Hints On Rapid Fire
1. When you go to the firing point get two clips of cartridges, one to be used at the command load and the extra one is placed in th...

General Hints And Cautions
1. Don't be afraid of the kick; it is more imaginary than real when the sling is properly used, your shoulder properly padded, and t...

Care Of The Rifle
Keep the metal part of your rifle covered with a thin coating of light oil; 3-in-1 oil is ordinarily used. This is especially import...

Miscellaneous Information
The Bayonet. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting of three principal parts, viz., the blade, the guard, and the ...

Estimating Distance
Suppose you are out hunting, and that you see a big buck on a distant hill. Suppose that it is exactly 600 yards distant from you, t...

Methods Of Estimating Distances By The Eye
1. Decide that the object cannot be more than a certain distance away, or less than a certain distance. Keep the estimate within the...

Appearance Of Objects
Become familiar with the effect which the varying conditions of light, background, etc., have upon the apparent distance of the obje...

Estimating Distances By Sound
Sound travels at the rate of about 366 yards a second. Therefore, multiply the number of seconds intervening between the flash of th...

Range-finding Instrument
Each company is equipped with a range-finding instrument. All company officers and sergeants should be proficient in using it. The a...

Trial Shots Or Volleys
If the ground is so dry and dusty that the fall of the bullets is visible through a glass or with the naked eye, a method of determi...

Estimating Distance Test
This test is usually held after the record firing on the range has been completed. No distance used in this test will be less than 5...

Range Finders
Five or six enlisted men, selected by the company [Illustration: This shows the path of the bullet (Line of Trajectory) of the 19...

Tent Pitching
On the hike the camp will be laid out daily in advance by a staff officer. The company being halted and in line, the company comma...

Signals And Codes
1. GENERAL SERVICE CODE. (INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE.) Used for visual (except semaphore) and sound signaling, radio telegraphy, on...

Arm Signals
The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line ...

First Aid To The Injured
In the army, as in civilian life, you are very often your brother's keeper, as well as your own. Doctors cannot accompany a scout, a...

First-aid Packet
Each soldier carries on his belt a first-aid packet. This packet contains two perfectly pure bandages and a couple of safety pins. I...

Cautions
1. Act quickly but quietly. Be calm and quiet. Don't lose your head. 2. Make the injured party sit or lie down. 3. See the inju...

Bullet Wound
If you receive a bullet wound, don't get excited or lose your head. A bullet wound in the muscle or soft parts of the body causes li...

Stopping Bleeding
If the blood is dark blue and the stream is continuous, a vein has been punctured which, in itself, is not ordinarily dangerous. The...

Broken Bone (fracture)
The next injury you must know is a broken bone. You will usually know when an arm or leg is broken by the way the arm or leg is held...

Drowning
Being under water for over four or five minutes is generally fatal, but, unless you know the body has been submerged a long time, ma...

Sunstroke--(the Skin Is Hot)
A sunstroke is accompanied by the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, sense of oppression, nausea, colored vision, and often th...

Heat Exhaustion--(the Skin Is Cool)
Symptoms: Nausea, a staggering gait, pulse is weak, and the patient may quickly become unconscious. The skin is cool. This condition...

Burns
Do not pull the clothing from the burnt part, but rip or cut it off. Do not break the blisters or prick them even if large. Treat...

Freezing And Frostbite
Symptom: The part frozen appears white or bluish and is cold. Treatment: Raise the temperature of the frozen member slowly by rub...

Fainting
Symptom: Loss of consciousness. It is usually the result of severe bleeding or exhaustion from fatigue. This condition is rarely dan...

Poisoning
Treatment: Send for a doctor at once. Empty the stomach and bowels. Give two tablespoons full of mustard and warm water or a tablesp...

Snake Bite
In snake bites the poison acts quickly. Treatment: Apply a tourniquet between the wound and the heart so as to stop the circulati...

Stomach Wounds
Send for a doctor. Lie perfectly quiet. Don't lose your head and don't attempt to crawl to help or to stir around. Place a clean pie...

Chafing
Treatment: Keep parts dry, use talcum powders and keep parts separated by a layer of absorbent cotton. ...

Extinguishing Burning Clothes
Treatment: Lie down on the floor and roll up as tightly as possible in a rug blanket, etc., leaving only the head out. If nothing ca...

Gas
Most of the gas used on the battlefield today is deadly. When a gas shell explodes there are two kinds of men: Quick men and Dead me...

Infantry Battalion
Four companies of infantry. (There are three battalions in a regiment of infantry.) ...

Infantry Drill Regulations 1911
FOR USE WITH THE UNITED STATES RIFLE, MODEL, 1917 (ENFIELD) For troops armed with the United States rifle, Model 1917 (Enfield...

To Load
Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. WITH DUMMY (Blank or ball) CARTRIDGES, 2. LOAD. At the command load each front rank ma...

To Unload
Unload: Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move the bolt alternately backward and forward until all the cartridg...

Company Inspection
Being in line at a halt: 1. OPEN RANKS, 2. MARCH. At the command march the front rank executes right dress; the rear rank and the...

Information For Schools And Colleges Armed With Rifles Model 1898
War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, December 2, 1911. The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been pr...

Rules Governing The Carrying Of The Piece
Third. The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using the magazine. Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, BAYONET. If the bayonet ...

Fill Magazine
Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate of the magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from the box...

Unload
All take the position of load, turn the cut-off up, if not already there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and c...

Clip Fire
Turn the cut-off up: fire at will (reloading from the magazine) until the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the cut-off down...

Cease Firing
Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartr...

The Eatyoup
Dicky Duck was a very wise young fellow. He swam about the pond alone long before his brothers left their mother, and such worms a...

The Tell-tale Goblin
Once upon a time there was a Little Fairy who loved to wander by the river, and as the Fairy Queen does not like her subjects to go...

Dame Cricket's Story
"Come, children, it is time to get up," said Dame Cricket to her ten little crickets. "Hurry, now, and take your bath and put on...

The Playroom Wedding
Paper Doll had been the maid of honor, but she did not at all approve of the match. "It will never be a happy marriage," she told ...

Morning-glory
Once upon a time there was a very little Morning-glory that grew on the end of a high vine, and one day when the wind was blowing a...

The Peacock Butterflies
Plain little Miss Butterfly sat on a bush one day, when along came Mr. Peacock, with his tail full spread. "Oh--oh!" sighed litt...

The Revenge Of The Gnomes
The Fairies decided to give a party one night, and invited the Goblins, but they did not ask the Gnomes, because they did not think...

The Little China Shepherdess
On the parlor mantel of a farmhouse stood little China Shepherdess. In one hand she held a gilt crook and with the other she shade...

How The Buttercup Grew Yellow
Long, long ago it is told that the flowers were all white and that each received its color by some magic power. The little Daisy...

Was It The Field Fairy?
Jack and his sister Nina were two little orphans who had to beg from door to door for their food and a place to sleep. One day a...

The Frogs And The Fairies
In a pond in a dell lived a big family of frogs, and one day when the sun was shining all the young bullfrogs came up out of the wa...

Jack The Preacher
One morning in very early springtime the big Evergreen Trees began to talk about the part they took in telling all the woodland flo...

Mr Crow Goes And Tells
Mr. Coon and Mr. Possum lived near each other in the woods, and one day they decided to give a supper the first bright moonlight ni...

Discontented Dewdrop
One morning a little Dewdrop was resting on the petal of a wild rose that grew beside a river. The sun shining on it made it gli...

Inquisitive Mr Possum
It was Mr. Owl who gave the wood folk the warning by calling out one night, "To whom it may concern!" At least the wood people kne...

What The Flowers Told Martha
Martha was visiting her grandmother, who lived in the country. At the back of the farmhouse was a very large porch, and in the fro...

When Jack Frost Was Young
Not that he is old now, for Jack is a snappy, bright fellow, and will never really grow old--that is, in anything but experience. ...

The Revenge Of The Fireflies
The Fireflies and the Goblins had always been good friends, just as they were with the Fairies, until one night when the Goblins he...

Sallie Hicks's Forefinger
Sallie Hicks was a little girl who was good most of the time, but she had one bad habit, and that was caused by her forefinger on h...

The Rain Elves
The Rain Elf children had been shut up in their houses for ever so long, for it had been hot and the Rain Elves do not like very ho...

Mr Fox's Housewarming
Mr. Fox had been so much disturbed by Mr. Dog and his master that he decided to try living somewhere besides on the ground floor of...

Little Pitcher-man
On a pantry shelf there once lived a funny squatty-looking pitcher-man. His cap was brown and that was the top of the pitcher. His...

The Windflower's Story
One day a little Windflower growing in a garden heard the Rosebush say to the Pansies, "What a quiet little creature the Windflower...

Pussy Willow's Furs
Miss Pussy Willow put on her furs one day in March and stepped out into the sunshine; but, while the sun was warm, March's breath w...

Orianna
Bunny White, one night when the Fairies were holding a revel, peeped out of his window to see the frolic, for Bunny and the Fairies...

Old North Wind
Old North Wind lived away up in the North Pole Land in the winter, and there her children, the Icebergs, grew. Old North Wind wa...

Mr Fox Cuts The Cottontails
Mr. Fox decided that the only way to get all the wood animals to have a good opinion of him was to give a big dinner, for he had so...

Little Never-upset
Little Never-upset was a roly-poly fellow, with weights in his little body so placed that no matter how he was treated or tumbled a...

The Eatyoup
Dicky Duck was a very wise young fellow. He swam about the pond alone long before his brothers left their mother, and such worms a...

The Tell-tale Goblin
Once upon a time there was a Little Fairy who loved to wander by the river, and as the Fairy Queen does not like her subjects to go...

Dame Cricket's Story
"Come, children, it is time to get up," said Dame Cricket to her ten little crickets. "Hurry, now, and take your bath and put on...

The Playroom Wedding
Paper Doll had been the maid of honor, but she did not at all approve of the match. "It will never be a happy marriage," she told ...

Morning-glory
Once upon a time there was a very little Morning-glory that grew on the end of a high vine, and one day when the wind was blowing a...

The Peacock Butterflies
Plain little Miss Butterfly sat on a bush one day, when along came Mr. Peacock, with his tail full spread. "Oh--oh!" sighed litt...

The Revenge Of The Gnomes
The Fairies decided to give a party one night, and invited the Goblins, but they did not ask the Gnomes, because they did not think...

The Little China Shepherdess
On the parlor mantel of a farmhouse stood little China Shepherdess. In one hand she held a gilt crook and with the other she shade...

How The Buttercup Grew Yellow
Long, long ago it is told that the flowers were all white and that each received its color by some magic power. The little Daisy...

Was It The Field Fairy?
Jack and his sister Nina were two little orphans who had to beg from door to door for their food and a place to sleep. One day a...

The Frogs And The Fairies
In a pond in a dell lived a big family of frogs, and one day when the sun was shining all the young bullfrogs came up out of the wa...

Jack The Preacher
One morning in very early springtime the big Evergreen Trees began to talk about the part they took in telling all the woodland flo...

Mr Crow Goes And Tells
Mr. Coon and Mr. Possum lived near each other in the woods, and one day they decided to give a supper the first bright moonlight ni...

Discontented Dewdrop
One morning a little Dewdrop was resting on the petal of a wild rose that grew beside a river. The sun shining on it made it gli...

Inquisitive Mr Possum
It was Mr. Owl who gave the wood folk the warning by calling out one night, "To whom it may concern!" At least the wood people kne...

What The Flowers Told Martha
Martha was visiting her grandmother, who lived in the country. At the back of the farmhouse was a very large porch, and in the fro...

When Jack Frost Was Young
Not that he is old now, for Jack is a snappy, bright fellow, and will never really grow old--that is, in anything but experience. ...

The Revenge Of The Fireflies
The Fireflies and the Goblins had always been good friends, just as they were with the Fairies, until one night when the Goblins he...

Sallie Hicks's Forefinger
Sallie Hicks was a little girl who was good most of the time, but she had one bad habit, and that was caused by her forefinger on h...

The Rain Elves
The Rain Elf children had been shut up in their houses for ever so long, for it had been hot and the Rain Elves do not like very ho...

Mr Fox's Housewarming
Mr. Fox had been so much disturbed by Mr. Dog and his master that he decided to try living somewhere besides on the ground floor of...

Little Pitcher-man
On a pantry shelf there once lived a funny squatty-looking pitcher-man. His cap was brown and that was the top of the pitcher. His...

The Windflower's Story
One day a little Windflower growing in a garden heard the Rosebush say to the Pansies, "What a quiet little creature the Windflower...

Pussy Willow's Furs
Miss Pussy Willow put on her furs one day in March and stepped out into the sunshine; but, while the sun was warm, March's breath w...

Orianna
Bunny White, one night when the Fairies were holding a revel, peeped out of his window to see the frolic, for Bunny and the Fairies...

Old North Wind
Old North Wind lived away up in the North Pole Land in the winter, and there her children, the Icebergs, grew. Old North Wind wa...

Mr Fox Cuts The Cottontails
Mr. Fox decided that the only way to get all the wood animals to have a good opinion of him was to give a big dinner, for he had so...

Little Never-upset
Little Never-upset was a roly-poly fellow, with weights in his little body so placed that no matter how he was treated or tumbled a...


Secret Service

The Harry Gilmor Sword And General Wallace's Comments
The sword of Harry Gilmor, the Confederate colonel, which General Wallace had given me, had aroused Graham's interest so much that I...

New York Harbor Fort Schuyler Fort Marshal And Aunt Mag
During the first year of the war ('61) I remained at home, but I was really ashamed to be found there when service called. Burdette ...

Dramatic Incident At Fort Mchenry
In the winter of '62-'63 our Regiment was removed to Fort McHenry, where Confederate prisoners of war were detained. General W. W. M...

A Taste Of The Draft Riots
I had a little taste of the draft riots during that memorable week beginning July 13th, 1863. I was ordered to David's Island, New Y...

Ordered To Execute Gordon By Shooting
I was on duty with troops until detailed as Assistant Provost Marshal at Fort McHenry. The administration of prisoners confined at F...

Introducing Christian Emmerich And Incidentally Charles E Langley A Noted Confederate Spy
For the purpose of showing how I grew in the service I will ask you to read each order carefully. Sometimes they explain themselves,...

I Branded E W Andrews Adjutant General To General Morris A Traitor To The Colors
In our prison were confined prisoners of all classes, Confederate officers, spies, blockade-runners, pirates, civil and political p...

Initial Trip Down Chesapeake Bay After Blockade Runners And Contraband Dealers And Goods
My initial trip down the Chesapeake Bay after blockade-runners was made under the following order: Headquarters, Middle De...

General Wallace Assumes Command Of The Middle Department
General Wallace assumed command of the Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, March 22d, 1864. The Department headquarters were located ...

Here Begins My Service As An Assistant Provost Marshal Of The Department
The Secret Service, as its name implies, is the most confidential arm of the service. Its information intelligently guides the comma...

Mrs Key Howard A Lineal Descendant Of The Author Of The Star Spangled Banner
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, Baltimore, Apl. 28, 1864. Special Order No. 48. Lie...

F M Ellis Chief Detective U S Sanitary Commission
United States Sanitary Commission, 244 F Street, Washington, D. C. May 7, 1864. Lieut. Smith. Dear...

Ordered To Seize All Copies Of The New York World Bringing In One Of The Great War Episodes The Bogus Presidential Proclamation
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, Baltimore, May 18, 1864. Provost Guards, or U. S. D...

The Pulpit Not Loyal
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, Baltimore, May 21, 1864. Lt. Col. Woolley, Provost ...

Two Of My Officers Captured By Union Pickets
To save delay in getting out of the harbor the following request was made: Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army...

Captain Bailey Makes A Capture
The following report was of another capture, by Captain Bailey: Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. ...

A Confederate Letter
The following discloses how perfectly the Confederate government understood the travelled route through the lines. It was by way of ...

Confederate Army Invades Maryland In 1864
About this time our efforts were pointed in another direction, for a portion of Lee's Army had been detached and had begun the invas...

Trip To New York Regarding One Thomas H Gordon
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Aug. 13, 1864. Special Order No. 111. ...

Thomas Bennett A U S Mail Carrier Disloyal
As our work progressed, we accumulated from Confederate mail, refugees and deserters, a mass of information as to the disloyalty of ...

Terrence R Quinn
Terrence R. Quinn, previously spoken of, backed by his military friends, complained of abuse which he alleged was put upon him by ou...

The Great Fraud Attempted In The Presidential Election Of 1864 Wherein The Misplacing Of A Single Letter Led To Its Detection
The Presidential election of 1864 was then upon us, and indeed it was most momentous. The issue was to determine the life of this Unio...

A Report That Led To A Historic Raid By Colonel Baker On The Bounty Jumpers And Bounty Brokers Of New York
Here follows a rather interesting case. One Deegan, an expert penman, who had formerly been a clerk in one of the regular cavalry re...

General Wallace's Letter To Secretary Of War Charles A Dana
Coleman's Eutaw House, Baltimore, Nov. 19, 1864. (Unofficial.) Hon. C. A. Dana, Asst. Sec. of War. ...

Capture Of Confederate Bonds And Scrip
I will now tell you of the Confederate bond matter. Special Order No. 172 enabled me to make my arrangements at Willard's Hotel: ...

Arrest Of T A Menzier And Expose Of A Prominent Railroad Official
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Dec. 4, 1864. Capt. W. H. Wiegel, Asst. ...

Statement Of Illinois Crothers Giving Valuable And Reliable Information Implicating Mr William Mitchell And A Mrs Keenan Of Winchester Virginia
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Dec. 10, 1864. Lt. Col. Woolley, Provost...

Statements: Jeremiah Artis A Real Deserter From The Confederates
I have told you that it required experience and skill to determine who were honest deserters, sick of the Confederate service, and s...

Patrick Scally An Honest Deserter From The Confederate Service
The following statement is interesting as showing how a poor, ignorant, drunken man was hurried off with Gilmor and Bradley T. Johns...

Confederate Colonel Harry Gilmor The Raider Telling How He Did Not Come Back As A Conquering Hero; Of The Sword He Never Received; Of His Capture
Colonel Harry Gilmor, who commanded a regiment of cavalry in the Confederate service, was a Baltimorean. He was the beau ideal of it...

Steam Tug Grace Titus Statement Of George Carlton Containing Valuable Confirmatory Information
Depot Quartermaster's Office, Baltimore, Jany. 16, 1865. Captain, Steam Tug "Grace Titus." You wil...

The Pungy Trifle One Of The Captures Colonel Mcphail Major Blumenburg And His Corrupted Office Boney Lee Bob Miller And Other Thugs
Office of Provost Marshal General for Maryland. Baltimore, Jany. 19, 1865. Capt. Smith, Asst. Prov...

Statement Of James Briers Bollman Mcguarty And Welsh U S Marine Corps
Office Provost Marshal, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Jany. 26, 1865. Statement of James Briers, late of Rich...

General W W Morris In Command In General Wallace's Absence
General W. W. Morris, who had been in command of the First Brigade, with headquarters at Fort McHenry (of whom I have spoken before)...

Interviewed Secretary Of War Stanton Relative To An Independent Command And Extension Of Our Territory
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Feby. 10, 1865. Special Order No. 27. Li...

Paine Who Was Afterwards One Of The Conspirators In The Assassinators' Plot In My Custody
I will now introduce the material from which was builded an actor. Lewis Paine, who brutally hacked at Secretary Seward while Booth wa...

Missionary E Martin An Agent Of The Confederate Treasury Department Arrested His Big Tobacco Smuggling Scheme Exposed
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Mch. 12, 1865. Special Order No. 44. L...

Secretary Of War Consulted About The Extension Of Our Territory To Include The District Between The Rappahannock And The Potomac Rivers
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Mch. 18, 1865. Lieut. Smith: I want to s...

The Chase After The Steamer Harriet Deford Which Was Captured By Pirates Supposedly To Supply A Means Of Escape To Jefferson Davis From The Crumbling Confederacy
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Baltimore, Apl. 5, 1865. Major: I have written to...

Ordered To Northern Neck Of Virginia The Day Before President Lincoln's Assassination
At this time in 1865 General Lee was about surrendering. All the people, North and South, were rejoicing at the prospect of peace, e...

Capture Of Samuel B Arnold One Of The Conspirators Sent To Dry Tortugas
The saddest day in our nation's history was Friday, April 14th, 1865. Early in the evening I was introduced to General Grant, in his...

Counterfeiters And The Arrest Of Mrs Beverly Tucker
Richmond had fallen, Lee had surrendered and the end was near. Disbandment and readjustment, to a civil basis, was then in order. W...

Camp Carroll Rioting Troops Being Mustered Out
The muster out of troops and return to civil life of the men who had been hardened soldiers was attended with difficulties. The men ...

Indicted For Assault With Intent To Kill The Only Clash Between The Military And Civil Authorities During General Wallace's Administration
June 25th, 1865, the Baltimore papers said: "Lieut. Smith, Wm. Earle, Kraft, and Babcock, of Colonel Woolley's office, were indicted...

Trip To Norfolk And Richmond
Headquarters, Middle Department, 8th Army Corps. Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, July 5, 1865. Sp...

Twice Ordered To Washington With Horse Thieves
The following is a copy of my release from duty to be mustered out: Headquarters, Middle Military Department. B...

Captain Beckwith Convicted
Along about August and September, 1865, the Government ordered surveillance of all gambling houses, to discover if disbursing office...

Trip To Carlisle Illinois To Unravel A Fraudulent Claim
We closed our headquarters in December, 1865, packing all records in finely arranged cabinets, which were then transferred to the Wa...

Brevetted Major Governor Fenton's Letter
State of New York, Executive Department, Albany, 8th May, 1867. Bvt. Major H. B. Smith. Dear Sir.--I...


Sea Operations

Principles Of Operations Over The Sea
Since steamers have supplanted sailing ships for commercial intercourse it is possible to transport our large troop forces in them;...

Preparations During Peace
Whether the operations be large or small, full preparations must be made during peace. These preparations include first of all the d...

Preparations At The Outbreak Of War
Actual preparations for war cannot be kept secret for any length of time. Opponents would receive information through secret channels,...

Embarkation
Proper loading is the business of the land forces and should be conducted by trained officers so as to ensure the shipment of materia...

Sea Voyage
For transporting troops over the sea, it is the chief problem of the navy to clear the course to the hostile shore. All enterprises of...

Landing
Military history shows that an attempt to prevent a really bold landing is never successful. The defense must either scatter its forc...

Operations
The operations of the landed expedition corps on the whole can be conducted according to the principles set down by the commanders of ...

Reembarkation
A reembarkation of the expedition corps is possible only when the battle fleet is able to prevent attack from the sea. In the event of...

Consideration Of Landing Operations Against Powers That Can Be Reached Only By Sea
The recognized military complication with England and America affords an interesting example on account of the difference in distanc...

Views On Colonial Expeditions
All operations for colonial expeditions can be undertaken successfully because of the small forces necessary to transport over the s...

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