| Crowds (51) Psychology (51) How to Succeed (25) Imagination (28) Dealing with Fear (2) Psychotherapy (170) |
Fear grip us in our everyday life. Learn how to overcome different fears.
|Introduction. The Era Of Crowds.|
The evolution of the present age--The great changes in
civilisation are the consequence of changes in National
Scarcely a century ago the traditional policy of European states
and the rivalries of sovereigns were the principal factors that
|General Characteristics Of Crowds Psychological Law Of Their Mental Unity.|
What constitutes a crowd from the psychological point of view--A
numerically strong agglomeration of individuals does not suffice
|1. Impulsiveness, Mobility, And Irritability Of Crowds.|
The crowd is at the mercy of all exterior exciting causes, and
reflects their incessant variations--The impulses which the crowd
|2. Crowds Are Credulous And Readily Influenced By|
SUGGESTION. The obedience of crowds to suggestions--The images
evoked in the mind of crowds are accepted by them as
|3. The Exaggeration And Ingenuousness Of The Sentiments Of|
CROWDS. Crowds do not admit doubt or uncertainty, and always go
to extremes--Their sentiments always excessive. 4. THE
|Impulsiveness, Mobility, And Irritability Of Crowds.|
When studying the fundamental characteristics of a crowd we
stated that it is guided almost exclusively by unconscious
|The Suggestibility And Credulity Of Crowds.|
When defining crowds, we said that one of their general
characteristics was an excessive suggestibility, and we have
shown to what ...
|The Exaggeration And Ingenuousness Of The Sentiments Of Crowds.|
Whether the feelings exhibited by a crowd be good or bad, they
present the double character of being very simple and very
|The Intolerance, Dictatorialness And Conservatism Of Crowds.|
Crowds are only cognisant of simple and extreme sentiments; the
opinions, ideas, and beliefs suggested to them are accepted or
|The Morality Of Crowds.|
Taking the word "morality" to mean constant respect for certain
social conventions, and the permanent repression of selfish
|1. The Ideas Of Crowds.|
Fundamental and accessory ideas--
How contradictory ideas may exist simultaneously--The
transformation that must be undergone by loft...
|The Ideas Of Crowds|
WHEN studying in a preceding work the part played by ideas in the
evolution of nations, we showed that every civilisation is the
|The Reasoning Power Of Crowds|
It cannot absolutely be said that crowds do not reason and are
not to be influenced by reasoning.
However, the arguments they emp...
|The Imagination Of Crowds|
Just as is the case with respect to persons in whom the reasoning
power is absent, the figurative imagination of crowds is very
|What Is Meant By The Religious Sentiment|
It is independent ofthe worship of a divinity--
Its characteristics--The strength of
convictions assuming a religious shape--Various ex...
|Preparatory Factors Of The Belief Of Crowds|
The origin of the beliefs of crowds is the consequence of a
preliminary process of elaboration--
Study of the different factors of...
Traditions represent the ideas, the needs, and the sentiments of
the past. They are the synthesis of the race, and weigh upon us
|Political And Social Institutions|
The idea that institutions can remedy the defects of societies,
that national progress is the consequence of the improvement of
|Instruction And Education|
Foremost among the dominant ideas of the present epoch is to be
found the notion that instruction is capable of considerably
|1. Images, Words And Formulae.|
The magical power of words
and formulae--The power of words bound up with the images they
evoke, and independent of their real sense-...
|Images, Words, And Formulas|
When studying the imagination of crowds we saw that it is
particularly open to the impressions produced by images. These
From the dawn of civilisation onwards crowds have always
undergone the influence of illusions. It is to the creators of
Experience constitutes almost the only effective process by which
a truth may be solidly established in the mind of the masses, and
In enumerating the factors capable of making an impression on the
minds of crowds all mention of reason might be dispensed with,
|1. The Leaders Of Crowds.|
The instinctive need of all
beings forming a crowd to obey a leader--The psychology of the
leaders of crowds--They alone can endow cr...
|The Leaders Of Crowds.|
As soon as a certain number of living beings are gathered
together, whether they be animals or men, they place themselves
|The Means Of Action Of The Leaders: Affirmation, Repetition, Contagion|
When it is wanted to stir up a crowd for a short space of time,
to induce it to commit an act of any nature--to pillage a palace,
Great power is given to ideas propagated by affirmation,
repetition, and contagion by the circumstance that they acquire
in time th...
The invariability of certain general
beliefs--They shape the course of a civilisation--The difficulty
of uprooting them--In what resp...
|Fixed Beliefs 2|
A close parallel exists between the anatomical and psychological
characteristics of living beings. In these anatomical
|The Changeable Opinions Of Crowds|
Above the substratum of fixed beliefs, whose power we have just
demonstrated, is found an overlying growth of opinions, ideas,
Different varieties of them--The influence
of race--The spirit of the crowd is weak in proportion as the
spirit of the race is strong...
It is these collectivities whose characteristics have been
studied in this volume. They are composed of individuals of any
|Less Accentuated In Proportion As The Spirit Of The Race Is|
STRONG. The crowd state and the domination of crowds is
equivalent to the barbarian state, or to a return to it. It is
by the acquisi...
Homogeneous crowds include: 1. Sects; 2. Castes; 3. Classes.
The SECT represents the first step in the process of organisation
|Crowds Termed Criminal Crowds|
A crowd may be legally yet not psychologically criminal--
The absolute unconsciousness of the
acts of crowds--Various examples--Psych...
General characteristics of juries--statistics
show that their decisions are independent of their
composition--The manner in which an ...
General characteristics of electoral crowds--The manner of
persuading them--The qualities that should be possessed by a
Parliamentary crowds present most of the characteristics common
to heterogeneous crowds that are not anonymous--The simplicity of
|Not Desired By Us Two Days, A Single Day Before They Were Taken:|
| The Crowd And The Social Problem Of To-day|
Every one at times feels himself in the grip of social forces over which
he has no control. The apparently impersonal nature of thes...
| How Crowds Are Formed|
In his well-known work on the psychology of the crowd Le Bon noted the
fact that the unconscious plays a large part in determining t...
| The Crowd And The Unconscious|
Throughout the discussion thus far I have been making repeated reference
to the psychology of the unconscious, without going into de...
| The Egoism Of The Crowd-mind|
The unconscious egoism of the individual in the crowd appears in all
forms of crowd-behavior. As in dreams and in the neurosis this ...
| The Crowd A Creature Of Hate|
Probably the most telling point of likeness between the crowd-mind and
the psychoneurosis--paranoia especially--is the "delusion of
| The Absolutism Of The Crowd-mind|
Wherever conscious thinking is determined by unconscious mechanisms, and
all thinking is more or less so, it is dogmatic in characte...
| The Psychology Of Revolutionary Crowds|
The crowd-mind is seen at its best and at its worst in revolution. To
many minds, revolution is so essentially a crowd phenomenon th...
| The Fruits Of Revolution New Crowd-tyrannies For Old|
So much for the psychology of the revolutionary propaganda. Now let us
look at what happens in the moment of revolutionary outbreak....
| Freedom And Government By Crowds|
The whole philosophy of politics comes down at last to a question of
four words. Who is to govern? Compared with this question the p...
| Education As A Possible Cure For Crowd-thinking|
We have seen that Democracy in and of itself is no more sure a guarantee
of liberty than other forms of government. This does not ne...
| What Is Psychology?|
Wise men study the sciences which deal with the origins and development
of animal life, with the structure of the cells, with the ef...
We took a glimpse at random into the mental life of an adult
consciousness, and found it very complicated, constantly changing. We
| The Unconscious|
But the mind of man knows two distinct conditions of activity--the
conscious and the unconscious. Mind is not always wide awake. We
| Consciousness Is Complex|
The one fact we want at this stage of our inquiry is simply this: that
consciousness, awaking at birth, very soon becomes complex. How...
| Consciousness In Sleep|
Sleep seldom, if ever, is a condition of utter unconsciousness. We so
frequently have at least a vague recollection, when we wake, of
| Consciousness In Delirium|
At this time of our study it will suffice to say that in delirium and in
insanity, which we might very broadly call a prolonged deliri...
| Organs Of Consciousness|
Nothing is known to us until it has been transmitted to the mind by
the senses. The nerves of special sense, of sight, hearing, smel...
| The Central And Peripheral Nervous Systems In Action|
I am passing the open door of a bake-shop, and a pervading odor fills
the air. I think "hot rolls," because my organ of smell--the nos...
| The Sympathetic Nervous System|
Associated with the central nervous system by connecting nerves--but
located outside of it in various parts of the body--are groups of...
| Relation Of Mind And Body|
We have found that mind is entirely dependent upon the bodily organs for
its existence. Is the body in the same way dependent upon t...
| The Cerebrum Or Forebrain|
For convenience the various lobes of the cerebrum are known as frontal,
temporal, parietal, and occipital, according to the parts of t...
| The Normal Mind|
Mind, we found, is born in the form of consciousness when the outside
world impresses itself upon the brain-cells by way of the sens...
| The Normal Mind Instinct|
We have found that the mind's chief end is action, of itself, or of its
body. But what are its incentives to action?
We see the ver...
No mind retains consciously everything that has ever impressed it. It is
necessary that it put aside what ceases to be of importance o...
| The Place Of Emotion|
Feeling Cannot Be Separated from Thinking.--Emotion we found the
constant accompaniment of every other mental activity. It is first on...
| The Beginning Of Reason|
We found feeling by far the strongest factor in producing action in
babyhood and childhood. Our instinctive doing, we learned, is the ...
| Development Of Reason And Will|
Later still, when the child is older, we may have somewhat the following
mechanism: "Sweets, good, want, taste; spank, hurt; don't car...
The conclusion or decision that reason has reached we call a judgment.
The youth who decides against the sweet between meals, we say, ...
| Reaction Proportioned To Stimuli|
In the normal mind the emotional or feeling accompaniment of thought and
action is proportionate and adequate to the circumstances, i....
| Normal Emotional Reactions|
Some emotions, that seem exaggerated at first thought, may be normal
under the circumstances. For no one can know the whole background...
| The Normal Mind|
The normal mind reasons clearly with the best data at hand to results
that will stand the test of conformity to reality; the normal mi...
| Psychology And Health|
In the use of its functions the mind manifests certain powers and
certain modes of expression which can act as powerful allies or as...
| Necessity Of Adaptability|
Adaptability is as essential to life of mind as to life of body; and
health of mind as well as health of body is determined by the ind...
| The Power Of Suggestion|
One almost universal condition found in illness is
hypersuggestability. Here is the nurse's despair and her hope.
Suggestion may come...
| One Thought Can Be Replaced By Another|
If we control attention we control thought, and with the suggestible
patient this principle depends upon the one just now considered. ...
| Habit Is A Conserver Of Effort|
It is always easier to follow a beaten path than to break one's way
through untrodden forests. It is easier to walk after we "learn ho...
| The Saving Power Of Will|
It is not uncommon to hear a doctor say, "Nothing but his will pulled
him through that time." It does not mean quite what it says, for...
| Disorders And Perversions|
Life would be a very simple proposition if the mental machinery always
worked right. But this is peculiarly subject to damage both fro...
| Variations From Normal Mental Processes (continued)|
Hyperesthesia is abnormal sensitiveness to stimulation.
Anesthesia is loss, either temporary or permanent, of any of the
When we consider the accumulated possibilities for disorder which the
family tree of almost any one of us can show, the wonder is not ...
While environment may prove the saving grace from poor heredity, it may
itself add heavily to the debit side. With the very best of he...
| Personal Reactions|
What will decide whether a human being can resist, successfully, bad
tendencies in heredity, or in environment, or in both, and keep a...
| The Attention Of Interest|
Attention naturally follows interest. It can, however, be held by will
to the unappealing, with the usual result of transforming it in...
| The Attention Of Reason And Will|
So the good nurse will not consider her work done when she has diverted
mental processes into channels of co-operation. When the patie...
| What Determines The Point Of View|
The point of view of any individual depends upon temperament, present
conditions--mental and physical--and the aim of the life. That i...
| Getting The Other Man's Point Of View|
Our points of view are very frequently merely hereditary or acquired
prejudices, hence altogether emotional rather than rational. We o...
| The Deluded Patient|
If the patient's mind is temporarily clouded through infection or
suffering, he may be reacting to a delusion, an obsession, a fixed i...
| Nursing The Deluded Patient|
The nurse soon realizes the uselessness of attempting to argue a patient
out of his delusions, of trying to convince him that the thin...
| The Obsessed Patient|
A patient who is suffering from obsessions must carry out certain
abnormal actions, or be wretched. She cannot do otherwise. It is as
| The Mind A Prey To False Associations|
Sometimes a nurse reminds a patient of some one in the past who has
complicated her life in an unhappy way, so she distrusts or dreads...
| The Psychology Of The Nurse|
The mind can be as definitely developed and strengthened as the body.
The man who has suffered for years an organic disease will nev...
| Accuracy Of Perception|
The beginning of learning is perception. Keen, accurate perception at
the time of first introduction of a new fact or thought, and the...
| Training Perception|
The nurse who demands of herself that she perceive accurately paves the
way for accurate, deft service in her profession. There are co...
| Association Of Ideas|
After the first few years of life practically nothing enters
consciousness that cannot by some likeness or contrast or kinship be
How to Study.--You learn sooner or later from experience that the
quickest and best way to learn anything new is to give it your undiv...
| Self-training In Memory|
Hand in hand with clear thinking goes reliable memory. But so many of us
have it not, and feel its need so strongly that we shall cons...
| Emotional Equilibrium|
Suppose that when you first enter the ward you are wishing with all your
heart you had never decided to become a probationer. Perhaps ...
Accuracy in work, a primary essential to the nurse, can become automatic
if she will demand of herself accuracy of perception, and con...
| Training The Will|
There is no better opportunity for will-training than the hospital
affords the nurse. The constant necessity of acting against desire,...
| The Nurse Of The Future|
The student of life and of the sciences which deal with the origin and
development of the human race, and with the relations of man ...
| The Nurse Of The Future|
The nurse of the future will not be merely a handmaiden to care for the
sick body by deftly carrying out the doctor's orders. She will...
How to Succeed
| First Be A Man|
The great need at this hour is manly men. We want no
goody-goody piety; we have too much of it. We want men who will
| Seize Your Opportunity|
"The blowing winds are but our servants
When we hoist a sail."
You must come to know that each admirable genius is b...
| How Did He Begin?|
There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day,
using that term in its broadest sense, are men who began life
| Out Of Place|
The high prize of life, the crowning fortune of a man, is to be
born with a bias to some pursuit, which finds him in employm...
| What Shall I Do?|
No man ever made an ill-figure who understood his own talents,
nor a good one who mistook them.
| Will You Pay The Price?|
The gods sell anything and to everybody at a fair price.
All desire knowledge, but no one is willing to p...
| Foundation Stones|
In all matters, before beginning, a diligent preparation should
How great soever a genius m...
| The Conquest Of Obstacles|
Nature, when she adds difficulties, adds brains.
Exigencies create the necessary ability to meet and conq...
| Dead In Earnest|
It is the live coal that kindles others, not the dead. What
made Demosthenes the greatest of all orators was that he
| To Be Great Concentrate|
Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and
then stick to it.
"He who follows tw...
| At Once|
Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit
of 500,000,000 miles back to the solstice at the appointed
Doing well depends upon doing completely.
He who does well will always have patrons enough.
In the elder days of Art
Builders wrought with greatest care
Each minute and unseen part,
For the gods see e...
Quit yourselves like men.
--1 SAMUEL iv. 9.
Cowards have no luck.
He has not learn...
In the moral world there is nothing impossible if we can bring
a thorough will to do it.
It is ...
| Guard Your Weak Point|
He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty: and he that
ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.
Patience is the courage of the conqueror; it is the virtue,
_par excellence_, of Man against Destiny, of the One against
If you want to test a young man and ascertain whether nature
made him for a king or a subject, give him a thousand dollars
| Live Upward|
"Do what thou dost as if the stake were heaven,
And this thy last deed ere the judgment day."
If you wish to reach t...
I shall show the cinders of my spirits
Through the ashes of my chance.
| Above Rubies|
The best way to settle the quarrel between capital and labor is
by allopathic doses of Peter-Cooperism.
| Moral Sunshine|
I have gout, asthma, and seven other maladies, but am otherwise
The inborn genialit...
| Hold Up Your Head|
Thoroughly to believe in one's own self, so one's self were
thorough, were to do great things.
| Books And Success|
Ignorance is the curse of God,
Knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.
Prefer knowledge ...
| Riches Without Wings|
Walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.
--EPH. iv. I.
Abundance consists not alone in material possessi...
| The Motor Nature Of The Constructive Imagination|
It has been often repeated that one of the principal conquests of
contemporary psychology is the fact that it has firmly establ...
| The Intellectual Factor|
Considered under its intellectual aspect, that is, in so far as it
borrows its elements from the understanding, the imagination ...
| The Emotional Factor|
The influence of emotional states on the working of the imagination is a
matter of current observation. But it has been studied chie...
| The Unconscious Factor|
By this term I designate principally, not exclusively, what ordinary
speech calls "inspiration." In spite of its mysterious and...
| The Organic Conditions Of The Imagination|
Whatever opinion we may hold concerning the nature of the unconscious,
since that form of activity is related more than any other to...
| The Principle Of Unity|
The psychological nature of the imagination would be very imperfectly
known were we limited to the foregoing analytical study. Indee...
| Imagination In Animals|
Up to this point the imagination has been treated analytically only.
This process alone would give us but a very imperfect idea of i...
| The Creative Imagination In The Child|
At what age, in what form, under what conditions does the creative
imagination make its appearance? It is impossible to answer this
| Primitive Man And The Creation Of Myths|
We come now to a unique period in the history of the development of the
imagination--its golden age. In primitive man, still confine...
| The Higher Forms Of Invention|
We now pass from primitive to civilized man, from collective to
individual creation, the characters of which it remains for us to st...
| Law Of The Development Of The Imagination|
Is imagination, so often called "a capricious faculty," subject to some
law? The question thus asked is too simple, and we must make...
After having studied the creative imagination in its constitutive
elements and in its development we purpose, in this last part,
| The Plastic Imagination|
By "plastic imagination" I understand that which has for its special
characters clearness and precision of form; more explicitl...
| The Diffluent Imagination|
The diffluent imagination is another general form, but one that is
completely opposed to the foregoing. It consists of vaguely-...
| Numerical Imagination|
Under this head I designate the imagination that takes pleasure in the
unlimited--in infinity of time and space--under the form of num...
| Musical Imagination|
Musical imagination deserves a separate monograph. As the task requires,
in addition to psychological capacity, a profound knowledge o...
| The Mystic Imagination|
Mystic imagination deserves a place of honor, as it is the most complete
and most daring of purely theoretic invention. Related to d...
| The Scientific Imagination|
It is quite generally recognized that imagination is indispensable in
all sciences; that without it we could only copy, repeat, imit...
| The Practical And Mechanical Imagination|
The study of the practical imagination is not without difficulties.
First of all, it has not hitherto attracted psychologists, so th...
| The Commercial Imagination|
Taking the word "commercial" in its broadest signification, I understand
by this expression all those forms of the constructive imag...
| The Utopian Imagination|
When the human mind creates, it can use only two classes of ideas as
materials to embody its idea, viz.:
(1) Natural phenomena, t...
| The Foundations Of The Creative Imagination|
Why is the human mind able to create? In a certain sense this question
may seem idle, childish, and even worse. We might just as wel...
| The Imaginative Type|
Let us try now, by way of conclusion, to present to the reader a picture
of the whole of the imaginative life in all its degrees.
| The Various Forms Of Inspiration|
Among the descriptions of the inspired state found in various authors, I
select only three, which are brief and have each a special ...
| On The Nature Of The Unconscious Factor|
We have seen that in the question of the unconscious there
must be recognized a positive part--facts, and an hypothetical
| Cosmic And Human Imagination|
For Froschammer, Fancy is the original principle of things. In his
philosophical theory it plays the same part as Hegel's Idea,
| Evidence In Regard To Musical Imagination|
The question asked above, Does the experiencing of purely musical
sounds evoke images, universally, and of what nature and under wha...
| The Imaginative Type And Association Of Ideas|
I have questioned a very great number of imaginative persons, well known
to me as such, and have chosen preferably those who, not ma...
Dealing with Fear
|How To Stop A Panic Attack In 10 Seconds|
Do you suffer from panic attack or moments during the day where the outside world feels overwhelming? At times this feeling could take th...
|How To Deal With Unhappy Feelings|
Have you ever felt down, depressed, sad, overwhelmed or stressed? Life can be a drag and everything feels heavier and hard to do than nor...
| Great Physicians In Psychotherapy|
"The real physician is the one who cures: the observation which does
not touch the art of healing is not that of a physician, it is ...
| First Physician|
The first physician of whom we have any record was I-em-Hetep, who
lived in the reign of King Tcsher of the third dynasty of Egypt,
| Psychotherapy In Egypt|
Among the Egyptians the first great development of medicine came among
the priests. The two professions, the medical and priesthood, w...
| Mind Healing In Greece|
When Greece awoke to the great literary and scientific discussion of
human thought that gave us such philosophic and scientific thinke...
| Alexandrian Psychotherapy|
When the center of interest in Greek medicine was transferred from
Greece itself to Egypt, and the Alexandrian school represented what...
| Psychotherapy At Rome|
Galen.--Galen, whom we are prone to think of as a Latin because so
much of his work was done at Rome, but whose works have come to us ...
| Arabian Mental Medicine|
The Arabian physicians who succeeded to the traditions of Greek
medicine preserved also those relating to psychotherapy. Rhazes, the
| Medieval Mind-healing|
During the Middle Ages faith was one of the things most frequently
appealed to, and even the physicians made use of religious belief t...
| Mental Healing In The Renaissance|
What is exemplified in medieval medicine in this matter remains true
during the Renaissance. In the fifteenth century Petrus Pomponati...
| Psychotherapy And Modern Medicine|
Paracelsus.--Paracelsus, the great physician of the first half of the
sixteenth century, who may well be considered the father of mode...
| Unconscious Psychotherapeutics|
The great authorities in medicine, the men whose thought counted for
most in the development of not only the science but the art of
| Remedies Plus Suggestion|
Prof. Richet, the head of the department of physiology, University of
Paris, quotes the expression of a French critic of medicine: "Hu...
| Genuine Remedies And Suggestive Exaggeration|
The story of the suggestive use of drugs shows us many suggestions
employed even by distinguished physicians, men whose work is eminen...
| Therapeutic Persuasion|
It is not only in the distant past, however, but also in quite modern
times that these therapeutic persuasions have existed among
| Signatures And Psychotherapy|
Similia similibus curantur, like is cured by like, is a very old
idea. According to the doctrine of signatures nature had put an
| Pseudo-science And Mental Healing|
An interesting phase of psychotherapy is found in the history of the
applications of new scientific discoveries to medicine. The
Astrology is the typical example of pseudo-science in medicine. The
stars, and particularly the planets and the moon, were supposed to...
| Herbal Medicine|
What is thus exemplified in astronomy and astrology can be found in
the story of every other science. After the knowledge of the stars...
When chemistry, under the old name of alchemy, began to develop, its
first study was of minerals, and just as soon as a body of knowle...
| Mathematical Medicine|
When mathematics developed, applications of that science were made to
physiology and to medicine. Under the influence of Borelli, the ...
The great development of pseudo-science in medicine remained for the
era following the scientific investigation of electricity. With t...
| Light And Psychotherapy|
Just as electricity has always been therapeutically abused by those
who have taken advantage of the suggestive influence of its marvel...
| The X-ray|
That happened two generations ago, and it might be supposed that in
the meantime there had been so much advance in popular education, ...
| Radium And Radio-activity|
When radium was discovered, though it came so soon after the discovery
of the X-ray and our disappointment with it, the old story of a...
| Suggestion And Pseudo-science|
These applications of science, or rather of supposed science,
illustrate the influence of suggestion. The succession of events in
| Quackery And Mind Cures|
Not less interesting than the therapeutic results obtained by men who
in good faith were using inert remedies that they thought effect...
| Nostrums And The Healing Power Of Suggestion|
A striking illustration of the power of the mind to bring about the
cure of ailments and symptoms of every sort is found in the histor...
| Amulets Talismans Charms|
Amulets, talismans, charms--these words are commonly used with
something of the same significance, and for our purpose all three may
| Deterrent Therapeutics|
In the history of therapy a peculiar phase was the use of all sorts of
materials, intensely repugnant to human nature and deterrent to...
| Influence Of The Personality In Therapeutics|
Though it has seldom been fully realized and has probably never been
appreciated as in our time, one of the most important factors in
| Impressive Personality|
As a matter of fact, it is easy to comprehend, even from the
comparatively scanty details that we have of habits and methods of the
| Success In Healing|
We have any number of examples, then, of this power of the healer in
history. Over and over again we find that it was the personality ...
| Faith Cures|
The series of phenomena that may be grouped under the term "faith
cures" represent the oldest, the most frequent, universal, and
| Influence Of Mind On Body|
The power of mind over body for the relief of symptoms has been
recognized, not only by physicians, but by the generality of men at
| Unfavorable Mental Influence|
Much as may be accomplished by psychotherapeutics through favorable
mental influence--the modifying of the mental attitude towards
| The Influence Of Body On Mind|
While trying to take advantage of the influence of the mind on the
body for therapeutics, it is important to remember that the body ha...
| The Mechanism Of The Influence Of Mind On Body|
The question as to how mind influences body, and body mind, has always
proved a riddle to all but those with a special theory in the m...
| Brain Cells And Mental Operations|
While the theories of neuronic action we have discussed do not
represent absolute knowledge, they are at least suggestive and helpfu...
Even more important, perhaps, than any other of the functions
attributed to the neuroglia cells, is the role they may play in
It is evident that some of the physical mechanisms that are employed
for the lower grade mental processes at least can be explained on...
| Unconscious Cerebration|
Some people actually learn to depend on unconscious cerebration. A
man, for instance, who has to make an address on a particular subje...
| Abstraction Of Mind|
Features of the mechanism of mental operations are brought out in
certain phenomena of abstraction of mind, which show how the attenti...
| Preoccupation Of Mind|
This is true, not only for ordinary sensations, but even for such as
would ordinarily be presumed to be so insistent in their call tha...
| Vital Energy Behind Brain Cells|
In all of these phenomena there is something more than brain cells at
work. Brain cells are guided, co-ordinated, controlled, and even...
| Unconscious Cerebration|
Many of the exhausting neurotic and psycho-neurotic affections so
common in recent years are largely due to the failure of patients to...
| Sleep Communications|
Any one who has been thinking much for several days about a problem is
likely to wake up with the thought that he has dreamed a soluti...
| Pathological Significance|
Unconscious cerebration is not, then, a trivial matter, and not an
unusual experience. It probably occurs in every individual to a muc...
| Mental Relaxation|
What is important for mental relaxation, apparently, is not that a man
shall try to set his mind at absolute rest, for that seems to b...
| Remedial Measures|
The most important general remedy for over-prolonged mental occupation
with a single subject, is some outdoor sport or form of exercis...
| Distant Mental Influence|
There is a very general impression that it is possible, at least under
certain circumstances, for one human mind to influence another ...
| Secondary Personality|
So much attention has recently been directed to the subject of
secondary personality by the startling phenomena described in numerous
Hypnotism is popularly supposed to be a mysterious psychological
process by which susceptible subjects are brought under the influence...
| Former Methods Of Hypnotization|
All the methods of hypnotizing, then, are directed to securing this
state of concentration of the patient's mind. The hypnotic state i...
| Present Day Methods Of Hypnotization|
Though various methods of producing the hypnotic sleep are in use, the
rule is now that, in the course of a hypnotizer's experience, l...
| Practice Of Hypnotism|
In the ordinary practice of hypnotism now, the patient is placed
sitting on a comfortable chair and the operator on one side facing
| Animal Hypnotism|
The hypnotization of animals shows that only a very low grade
intelligence is needed for the production of this state. The famous
| Dangers Of Hypnotism|
There are many and various opinions of the dangers of hypnotism. Some
of those who have given it a fair trial have insisted on its dan...
| Psychotherapy And The Individual Patient|
The most important element in Psychotherapy is the individual patient.
Old Dr. Parry of Bath said a century ago, "It is much more im...
| The Morning Hours|
In getting the history of patients for diagnostic purposes the safest
way is to begin with the getting up in the morning and then to...
| The Day's Work|
Probably even more important than details with regard to the early
hours of the day, is detailed information as to the day's work, the...
| The Middle Op The Day|
Information regarding the mid-day meal will be of value to the
physician in many cases. In cities, luncheon, likely to be rather an
| The Leisure Hours|
Then comes the return from business. Here once more the ordinary
method of getting on a crowded train, standing up to be pushed and
| General Principles Of Psychotherapy|
In formal, deliberate psychotherapeutics the first and most important
principle is the treatment of the individual patient, and not ...
Under the head of Adjuvants and Disturbing Factors in the psychic
treatment of patients come the various phases of life which make for...
In recent years a great change has come over the popular mind
regarding exercise, especially in the open air. It is well to
There are many changes of position that relieve pain, lessen
discomfort, aid in excretion, and in the evacuation of material from
One of the most important factors for therapeusis in the sense of the
amelioration of defective motor conditions, the relief of distur...
| Occupation Of Mind|
Two classes of patients frequently apply to physicians for relief from
various discomforts. They are, first, people who have no regu...
| Diversion Of Mind Hobbies|
There are two classes for whom diversion is of the utmost value. The
first are over-occupied with themselves; and the second group a...
Few people realize how powerful a factor for physical, as well as
moral, good and evil is habit. The old expression that habit is se...
| Physical Habits|
Habit and Food.--Most of our likes and dislikes for food are neither
physical nor physiological, but simply habitual. We have become...
| Mental Habits|
It is evident from the foregoing that physical habits have much to do
with making life easier and saving expenditure of nervous energy...
| Manners And Disposition|
Habit can modify nature so much as to make what is practically another
man. We all know how the dancing master can transform a country...
| Therapeutic Importance Of Habit|
The most important therapeutic element in the formation of good
habits, mental and physical, is that habit does away with the
Pain, while always a dreaded symptom of disease, seems, with the
increase of comfort and the gradual abolition that has come in our
| Influence Of Mind On Food Digestion|
With the progress of biological chemistry, digestion came to be
considered a purely chemical process. Now we realize that even more
| Indigestion And Unfavorable States Of Mind|
Indigestion is the characteristic disease of our time. There are few
men or women over thirty who have not suffered from it. The wor...
| Psychic Treatment Of Digestive Conditions|
If discouragement and solicitude make a healthy stomach digest
imperfectly, the same mental factors will play an even more serious
| Mental Influence In Dyspepsia And Indigestion|
It is often said that this teaching as to the effect of the mind on
digestion and its eminent usefulness for the treatment of dyspepti...
| Prevention And Correction|
The important rule with regard to the mental attitude of the patient
toward uncomfortable feelings due to digestion must be, first to
Two classes of patients come to the physician complaining of lack of
appetite. The first and more important class consists of those ...
To judge by the frequency of advertisements for laxatives of various
kinds, constipation must be an extremely common affection. At l...
| Neurotic Intestinal Affections|
There is a whole series of intestinal affections dependent on nerve
influence that get worse and better under stress of emotion or r...
| Muco-membranous Colitis|
Probably the severest, certainly the most interesting of the neurotic
conditions of the intestines, is muco-membranous colitis. The on...
Obesity, popularly considered to be an over-accumulation of fat, is
sometimes thought to exist only when there is the large developmen...
| Weight And Good Feeling|
Probably the most important single condition for the maintenance of
good health and good feeling is the carrying of weight normal fo...
| Vague Abdominal Discomforts Loose Kidney|
After the vague pains around joints so commonly called rheumatic, and
which occur so frequently that probably there is no one over f...
| The Heart And Mental Influence|
The heart is an organ so vitally important that we might expect it to
be carefully protected by nature from any interference with it...
| Diagnosis And Prognosis In Heart Disease|
The more carefully heart disease, and particularly individual patients
affected by various heart lesions, have been studied in recen...
| Cardiac Neuroses|
If, as all the authorities recognize, the attitude of mind toward
organic heart disease is extremely important and when favorable is...
| Cardiac Palpitation And Gastro-intestinal Disturbance|
Morgagni, whom Virchow greeted as the Father of Modern Pathology, made
a careful study of the pulse and especially of its irregulari...
| Angina Pectoris|
The two forms of this affection, known commonly as true and false
angina, are characterized by pain or anguish in the precordial reg...
Etymologically tachycardia means rapid heart. There are two forms of
rapid heart, that which is constant and that which occurs in
Bradycardia, or persistent slow pulse, is much rarer than the
persistent rapid pulse discussed at the beginning of the chapter on
| Coughs And Colds|
Cough under most conditions is so completely a natural reflex due to
irritation from material which demands expectoration that to ta...
Tuberculosis, in spite of all our efforts against it, remains in
Defoe's striking phrase the "captain of the men of death." Pneumoni...
| Character As A Therapeutic Asset|
Recent interest in tuberculosis has taught us that the best possible
asset for a tuberculous patient is character. Resistive vitality ...
| Suggestion As To Symptoms|
Besides the value of suggestion for the general condition in
tuberculosis many of its symptoms can be treated best by changing the
| Neurotic Asthma And Cognate Conditions|
For the consideration of its psychotherapy asthma may be divided into
two forms--symptomatic and essential, or neurotic, asthma. Sym...
| Dust Asthma Seasonal Catarrh Hay Fever|
Grouped under the term "hay fever" there are probably as many
different affections as there are under the term "chronic rheumatism."...
| Dyspnea Cat And Horse Asthma|
There is a class of cases of difficulty of breathing allied to asthma
and often called by that name, the study of which throws light...
| Painful Joint Conditions Pseudo-rheumatism |
[Footnote 33: The position here taken, that acute articular
rheumatism never leaves a mark after it, is entirely due to the
| Suggestion In Treatment Of So-called Rheumatisms|
How much the treatment of these so-called chronic rheumatisms depends
on suggestion, in spite of the apparent improbability of anythin...
| Old Injuries And So-called Rheumatism|
As people advance in years, it is a common experience that tissues
injured years before are the source of no little discomfort and a...
| Muscular Pains And Aches|
Whenever exposure to cold causes a period of discomfort in almost any
organ, except the teeth and certain definite nerves (for neura...
| Occupation Muscle And Joint Pains|
There is one variety of painful conditions of muscles and joints,
often spoken of as muscular rheumatism or as chronic rheumatism an...
| Painful Arm And Trunk Conditions|
Cervical Ribs.--Some interesting cases with painful conditions of the
arms develop as a consequence of the presence of cervical ribs...
| Lumbago And Sciatica|
Any affection involving discomfort, pain, ache, or disability of the
large muscles in the lumbar regions is likely to be called lumb...
Etiology.--What has been said of lumbago applies to a great extent
also to sciatica. There are a number of different affections whic...
| Painful Knee Conditions|
Most of the painful knee conditions of which patients complain are not
directly due to true pathological conditions either of the kn...
| Foot Troubles|
The more physicians see of affections of the feet and of painful
conditions of the legs due to foot troubles the more they realize t...
| Arthritis Deformans|
Arthritis deformans has unfortunately been called by several names
besides the descriptive term which, in the present state of our
| Heberden's Nodes|
The most familiar form is named Heberden's nodes, from the great
English physician who first made a special study of it. The affection...
| Chronic Arthritis Deformans|
The third type of arthritis deformans is the chronic slow running type
which involves many joints before the process is complete. One ...
Coccygodynia, or, as it is sometimes called, coccydynia, is a painful
affection of the coccyx or bony end of the spinal column. It usu...
| Mental Healing In Gynecology|
All physicians are convinced of the good that has been done by the
extension of the application of surgery to women's diseases durin...
| Psychic States In Menstruation|
One does not need to be a physician to be familiar with the curious
psychic states which develop or are accentuated during the menst...
No feature of menstrual difficulty shows so clearly the influence of
the mind over bodily function, and especially over those genita...
Practically every woman of menstrual age has more or less discomfort
during menstruation. In most cases this does not rise beyond a ...
While the influence of the mind in producing painful menstruation and
a much diminished menstrual flow is well recognized, the conne...
| The Menopause|
While the phase of feminine sexual life which involves the cessation
of menstruation is physiological and not morbid, it is so commo...
| Suggestion In Obstetrics|
In no department of medicine is favorable or unfavorable mental
influence more important than in obstetrics. Unfortunately,
Maintenance of Health.--Women must keep up their normal health and
strength during pregnancy. By not taking sufficient exercise and ...
Suggestion in Labor.--When the subjects are normal, expectancy has
much to do with the severity of labor pains. In recent years so m...
The attitude of mind of a woman toward her milk supply is important,
as the flow of milk is closely subject to mental influence. The
| Maternal Impressions|
"Maternal impression" is accepted as a specific designation to signify
the real or supposed influence of emotion and especially seri...
It may seem impossible to include prostatic hypertrophy, or the train
of symptoms connected with it, among those affections likely t...
| Sexual Neuroses|
Anything that disturbs the sexual sphere in either sex, no matter how
trivial it may be, becomes a source of worry and depression qu...
| Sexual Habits|
As was emphasized in the preceding chapter, sexual symptoms are
usually the subject of so much worry and disturbance of mind and
| Psychotherapy In Skin Diseases|
The place of mental influence in the treatment of skin diseases will
be best realized from the role that we know the mind plays in t...
Diabetes is an affection of metabolism definitely recognized as due to
serious organic changes, though existing in several forms. We...
| Graves Disease|
Graves' disease, sometimes called Basedow's disease, though the Irish
physician has a right to the name by priority, is often called...
| Psychotherapy Of Organic Nervous Diseases|
Since we know that the basis of many nervous diseases is an
obliteration of certain cells of the brain or of the spinal cord, or
| Cerebral Apoplexy|
Cerebral apoplexy is an extremely serious organic disease that seems
surely to be an affection for which psychotherapeutics can mean...
| Locomotor Ataxia|
How much can be done for organic nervous disease by attention to the
individual patient and by favorable suggestion is illustrated i...
Paresis would seem to be one of the affections so inevitable in its
course, so positively helpless as regards any medication, and so...
| Epilepsy And Pseudo-epilepsy|
With regard to the major neuroses generally, very much more
therapeutic benefit can be secured than in any other way t...
| Paralysis Agitans|
This is a chronic affection of the nervous system having for its most
characteristic symptom a tremor, but with marked muscular rigi...
In spite of the improvement in the general health of the community,
due to more hygienic living, more healthy food and better ventil...
| Nervous Weakness Neurasthenia|
Neurasthenia, from the Greek roots, neur, meaning nerve, and
sthenos, strength, joined by the negative particle a, turning
This twitching affection, so familiar that it need not be described
particularly, is sometimes classed as a pure neurosis, sometimes...
Without any good reason in the etymology or the history of the word,
the term "tics" has now been generally accepted to signify cert...
| Stuttering Ataxia In Talking Walking Writing Etc|
The difficulty of speech called stuttering has usually been considered
rather as an unfortunate lack of control over the organs of
Two types of tremors come to us for treatment: those that are quite
involuntary and occur when muscles are at rest, and those that a...
| Psycho-neuroses Hysteria|
As the derivation of the name indicates, psycho-neuroses are
functional nervous affections dependent on states of mind. They are
| Forms Of Neurotic Simulation|
Every possible painful condition is simulated by these psycho-neurotic
conditions. They occur probably with more frequency in the ab...
| Differential Diagnosis|
For the differential diagnosis of psycho-neuroses from definite
organic conditions, the most important element is the patient's
| Mental Incapacity Psychasthenia|
In recent years we have come to realize that many of the so-called
nervous diseases, or if they do not deserve the serious name of
Hallucinations Differentiated from Illusions and
Delusions.--Hallucinations are vivid impressions on the consciousness
In any discussion of the influence of mind over body, favorable and
unfavorable, too much emphasis cannot be placed on the hold that...
| Definite Dreads|
Besides these rather vague dreads, however, there are certain special
disquietudes peculiar to individuals, even more groundless, if
| Dreads Of Men Of Genius|
The insane are particularly prone to suffer from dreads, so that some
people argue from their dreads to the thought of insanity. It ...
| Periodical Depression|
Fits of periodical depression, familiarly known as "the blues," occur
in the experience of practically everyone. In some people they...
| Mental States Of Disappointment|
Quite apart from these serious ailments, however, there are passing
phases of depression that come to nearly everyone after adult li...
To the minds of many people insomnia is one of the most serious ills
to which human nature is heir. Most of this quite false impress...
| Some Troubles Of Sleep|
Certain annoying incidents in connection with sleep annoy those
affected by them so much as to arouse them very completely from slee...
Dreams, that is, thoughts and illusions and mental phenomena of
various kinds that occur during sleep, have always been interesting ...
| Disorders Of Memory|
Many patients suffering from various nervous symptoms insist that they
are losing their memory or that it is becoming notably defici...
| Psychic Contagion|
The term psychic contagion is often thought of as merely figurative.
It is, however, quite literal. Many minds are influenced by wha...
In recent years so much has been said about addiction to alcohol as a
disease rather than as a habit that the treatment of it frankl...
| Drug Addictions|
Much of what has been said with regard to alcoholism finds ready
application to the treatment of drug addictions. At the very beginn...
In spite of the gradual increase of comfort in life and its wide
diffusion--far beyond what people enjoyed in the past--there has be...
Grieving would seem at first glance to be one of the conditions for
which the physician, especially if the etymology of the name of hi...
In recent years the attention of physicians has been called to the
fact that many people are made profoundly miserable by an
| Responsibility And Will Power|
The development of science (meaning by that term knowledge with regard
to physical nature in contradistinction to philosophy or the ...
| Psychotherapy In Old-time Surgery|
Surgery, a name derived from chirurgy--handwork--might seem to be
dependent almost entirely on mechanical and technical skill, yet t...
| Mental Influence Before Operation|
Much may be done during the preparation for operation to put the
patient in the most suitable condition for the manifestation of
| Mental Influence In Anesthesia|
Nowhere in the domain of surgery is the influence of the mind more
important than in the production of anesthesia for surgical purpo...
| Mental Influence After Operation|
Every surgeon feels the necessity of having his patients as quiet and
restful as possible after operation. Any unfavorable mental in...
A physician who wishes to use psychotherapy effectively should know
something about physiological psychology, or analytical or