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 Pigment.ca

Learn about light, colours and the science of Chromatography.




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  Chromatography (546)    Colours (39)    Aesthetics (21)    Photography (29)  


Pigment.ca

Learn about light, colours and the science of Chromatography.


Chromatography

Composition Chemical Analysis Has Shown Several Of The Blues To Be
oxide of copper with a small proportion of iron; none containing cobalt. There is little doubt, however, that the most brilliant specime...

The Reds Seem For The Most Part To Be Composed Of Oxide Of Iron Mixed
with lime, and were probably limited to iron earths and ochres, with a ...

Native Cinnabar Or Vermilion The Yellows Are Said To Have Been In
many cases, vegetable colours; but it is likely earths and ochres were ...

Their Chief Source The Greens Consist Of Yellow Mixed With Copper
blue. The bluish-green which sometimes appears on Egyptian antiquities, ...

Is Merely A Faded Blue The Blacks Are Both Of Vegetable And Mineral
origin, having been obtained from a variety of substances in a variety of ways. But, as shown by Layard in his discoveries at Nineveh...

Egypt The Greeks Obtained The Knowledge Of Their Ars Chromatica
which they are said to have carried by gradual advances during several centuries, from the monochromatic of their earlier painters, to t...

Gross And Material Which Is Content With Mere Nature And To Which
...

Belong The Dutch And Flemish Schools; The Sensible Which Aims At
refined and select nature, and accords with the Venetian school; and the ...

Intellectual Which Aspires To The Ideal In Beauty Grandeur And
sublimity, and corresponds with the Greek, Roman, and Florentine ...

Schools Modern Art As Founded Upon The Intellectual School Of The
ancient Greeks, became grand, scientific, and severe in the practice of Michael Angelo, and Leonardo da Vinci; graceful, beautiful and ...

Sensible Perfection It Attained Harmony Of Colouring And Effect In
the works of Titian and Tintoret; but it sunk into grossness and ...

Sensuality While Perfecting Itself Materially Among The Flemish And
Dutch. In the practice of the individual in painting, as well as in all revolutions of pictorial art, in ancient Greece as in modern ...

Even Now It Is Urged By Some To The Disparagement Of The British
school, that it excels in colouring; as if this were incompatible with any other excellence, or as if nature, the great prototype of art...

Colour Remarks Ruskin Is Wholly Relative; Each Hue Throughout A Work
is altered by every touch added in other places. Thus, to place white beside a colour is to heighten its tone; to set black beside a col...

Contrast Of Hues Upon Which Depend The Brilliancy Force And Harmony
of colouring, we have just spoken; but there is, secondly, the contrast ...

Of Shades To This Belong All The Powers Of Chiaroscuro By Which Term
the painter denotes the harmonious effects of light and shade; and though they form the simplest part of colouring, yet they cannot be ...

Is That Of Warmth And Coolness Upon Which Depend The Toning And
...

General Effect Of A Picture Fourthly There Is The Contrast Of Colour
...

And Neutrality The Chromatic And Achromatic Or Hue And Shade By The
right management of this, local colours acquire value, gradation, keeping, and connection: whence come breadth, aerial perspective, and ...

This Principle Of Contrast Applies Even To Individual Colours And
conduces greatly to good colouring. It may be carried with advantage into the variety of hue and tint in the same colour, not only as re...

Is Important And Consists In The Blending And Gradating By Mixture
...

While We Avoid The Compounding Of Contrasting Colours That Is The
colours must be kept distinct in the act of blending them, or otherwise they will run into dusky neutrality and defile each other. This ...

The Same In Light And Shade Or White And Black Which Mix With
clearness. Now, there are only two ways in which this distinctness in union of contrasts can be effected in practice: the one is by hatc...

Whiteness Even Contrast Has Its Contrast For Gradations Or
...

Intermedia Are Opposed To Contrasts Or Extremes; And Upon The Right
management of contrasts and gradations depend the harmony and melody, the tone, effect, and general expression of a picture. Thus, paint...

Colour It Has Already Been Observed Is Wholly Relative In
contrasting, therefore, any colour, if we wish it to have light or brilliancy, we cast its opposite into the shade; if we would have it ...

Opaque Contrary And Vice Versa: Indeed In Practice All These Must
be in some measure combined. Such are some of the powers of contrast in colouring alone, and such is the diversity of art upon which ...

Lose Sight Of That The Colour Of Shadow Is Always Transparent And
...

Only That Of Extreme Light Objects Opaque It Follows That White Is To
be kept as much as possible out of shadow, and black, for the same reason, out of colour. In their stead, whenever it is necessary to c...

With Regard To The Perspective Of Colours Or The Manner In Which They
affect the eye, according to position and distance, it is a branch of aerial perspective or the perspective of light and shade. This is ...

In Furnishing Or Setting The Palette Philosophically And Upon
principle, it is necessary to supply it with pure blue, red, and yellow; to oppose to these an orange, of a hue that will neutralise the...

As A Local Colour Which Is A Technical Term For The Natural Colour
of an object, unvaried by distance, reflection, or anything interfering with distinct vision; although, properly speaking, local colours...

By Mixing His Colours With White The Artist Obtains His Tints By
...

Mixing Colours With Colours He Produces Compound Colours Or Hues
...

And By Mixing Colours Or Tints With Black He Gets Shades It Is A
common error to confound these distinctions. The above classification of colours enables us to understand the simplicity of relation ...

There Are Five Classes Of Colours Viz:--the Neutral The Primary
...

The Secondary The Tertiary And The Semi-neutral
...

Neutral Colours Are Three Only White Black And Grey According
to the laws of Optics, the two first comprise all other colours synthetically, and afford them all by analysis. These are sometimes cal...

Primary Colours Are Three Only Yellow Red And Blue They Are
such as yield others by being compounded, but are not themselves capable of being produced by composition of other colours. By way of d...

Secondary Colours Are Three Only Orange Green And Purple
Each of these is composed of, or can be resolved into, two primaries. Thus, orange is composed of red and yellow; green, of yellow and b...

Tertiary Colours Are Three Only Citrine Russet And Olive
Each of these is composed of, or can be resolved into, either two secondary colours, or the three primaries. Thus, citrine consists of ...

Those Which Are Positive Or Definite; And The Three Colours Of Each
genus, united or compounded in such subordination that neither of them ...

Predominates To The Eye Constitute The Negative Or Neutral Colours
...

Of Which Black And White Have Been Stated To Be The Opposed
...

Extremes And Greys Their Intermediates Thus Black And White Are
constituted of, and comprise latently, the principles of all colours, and accompany them in their depth and brilliancy as shade and ligh...

Semi-neutral Colours Belong To A Class Of Which Brown Marrone
...

And Gray May Be Considered Types They Are So Called Because They
comprehend all the combinations of the primary, secondary, and tertiary ...

Colours With The Neutral Black Of The Various Combinations Of Black
those in which yellow, orange, or citrine predominates, have obtained the name of brown, &c. A second class in which the compounds of bl...

Note Here The Difference Between Gray As Spelt With An A And Grey As
...

Spelt With An E The Two Names Being Occasionally Confounded Gray
is semi-neutral, and denotes a class of cool cinereous colours, faint of hue; whence we have blue grays, olive grays, green grays, purpl...

Grey Is Neutral And Is Composed Of Or Can Be Resolved Into Black And
white alone, from a mixture of which two colours it springs in an infinite series. It must be observed that each colour may comprehen...

Of Shades Between The Extremes Of Light And Dark As Each Compound
...

Colour Also May Comprise A Similar Series Of Hues Between The Extremes
of the colours composing it. And as the relations of colours have been deduced regularly, from white or light to black or shade; so the ...

Thus Russet And Olive Compose Or Unite In Dark Purple; Citrine And
...

Olive In Dark Green; Russet And Citrine In Dark Orange The
tertiaries have, therefore, the same order of relation to black that the primaries have to white; and we have black primaries, secondari...

Orange For Instance Which Is Naturally An Orange Pigment And Not
composed of red and yellow, is superior to many mixtures of those colours in a chemical sense, and to all such mixtures in an artistic ...

Whatever The Practice Adopted Permanent Original Pigments Should Be
used as often as the case will admit; it being borne in mind, that a pigment may be compound, although its colour may be primary. As a r...

To The Practice Of Producing Tints And Hues By Grinding Pigments
...

Together Instead Of Blending Them On The Palette May Be Attributed
some of the peculiarities of the tints and textures of the Flemish school; they being, perhaps, results of intimate combination from gr...

Example Be In A State Which Chemists Have Termed Protoxide They Are
liable to absorb oxygen on exposure to light, air, or moisture, and ...

Becoming What Is Called Peroxidized May By Consequence Change Or
fade. In like manner, lakes and carmines thrown down upon a base, may owe some of their fugacity to the oxidation of that base, as well ...

Pigments And Bases Are Subject To Deoxidation Or To A Loss Of Oxygen
in which case the colour is apt to deepen. Pigments generally are more affected by oxidation and fading in a water vehicle, and by deoxi...

Picture--that Picture Which May Meet With Foul Exhalations But Must
be exposed to light and air. And he too often thinks as little of the effects of an impure atmosphere or injudicious admixture, as the c...

With The Exception Of Madder Those Colours Mostly Affected By Light
...

And Air Are Of Organic Origin Such As Gallstone Indian Yellow And
the yellow dye-wood lakes; the red and purple lakes of cochineal; indigo; and sap green. To these may be added the semi-organic Prussian...

The Pigments Liable To Injury From Sulphuretted Hydrogen &c Are
notably those obtained from lead and copper; and that treacherous compound of iodine and mercury, known as pure scarlet. ...

Many Colours Are Apt To Change From The Action Of White Lead And Other
lead pigments, &c., principally those which are altered by light and air. Many, too, cannot safely come into contact with iron, or fe...

Numerous Colours Are Likewise Injured By Lime And Fire And Cannot
therefore be employed in fresco, or enamel painting. Of substances which may act deleteriously on colours, there remain the ...

Vehicles And Varnishes With Which They Are Mixed Many Of These Have
been blamed, and often with justice, for their injurious effects on pigments. The reputation of the most permanent colour may be ruined,...

Attention Notably The Permanent Transparent Yellow Called Aureolin
Seeing that, until its introduction, a yellow combining transparency with a perfect stability was unknown to the palette, the importance...

Highest Order Merits Regard Orient Yellow Distinguished For Its
lustrous golden hue, resembling a bright Indian yellow. Dazzling in ...

Brilliancy And Absolute In Permanency Cadmium Red Next Attracts
notice. This new aspirant for artistic fame is a most vivid orange-scarlet, the latter colour predominating, of intense fire, but with ...

With It May Be Coupled Cadmium Orange A Colour Equally Brilliant And
stable, and equally without rankness or harshness, but of a true orange hue, admirably adapted for sunsets and the like. Last of all the...

Pigments Of Whose Thorough Durability There Is No Doubt Comes The
...

Splendid Viridian A Green Nothing But Fire Will Change And No
mixture of blue and yellow will afford. Clear, bright, and transparent as the emerald, it rivals velvet in its soft gorgeous richness. W...

Have To Be Learnt For Each Pigment Has Its Own Peculiar Habitudes
chemical, physical, artistic; but if they be good and durable, no amount of time and study spent upon them is thrown away. To think less...

Well To All Of These Must Be Superadded Durability When Used A
quality to which the health and vitality of a picture belong, and one so essential that all other properties put together without it are...

Beauty Commonly Comprises In The Same Pigment Delicacy Purity And
brilliancy; or depth, richness, and intensity. Delicacy and depth in the beauty of colours are at variance in the production of all pigm...

Truth Of Hue Is A Relative Quality In All Colours Except The Extreme
primaries, in the relations of which, blue, being of nearest affinity to black or shade, has properly but one other relation, in which i...

Blue Is Furnished By Aureolin Alluded To In The Last Chapter The
secondary and tertiary colours, having all duplex relations, may incline without default to either of their relatives. ...

Transparency Is An Essential Property Of All Glazing Pigments And
adds greatly to the value of dark or shading colours; indeed it is the prime quality upon which depth and darkness depend, as whiteness,...

Light Does Upon Opacity Or Reflecting Power Opacity Is Therefore
the antagonist of transparency, and qualifies pigments to cover in dead-colouring, or solid painting, as well as to combine with transp...

Working Well Is A Quality Which Depends Principally Upon Fineness Of
...

Texture And What Is Called Body In Colours; Yet Every Pigment Has Its
peculiarities in respect to working both in water and oil, and these must become matter of every artist's special experience. Some of th...

Fineness Of Texture Is Produced By Extreme Grinding And Levigation
Pigments ground in water in the state of a thick paste, are miscible in oil and dry therein firmly; and in case of utility or necessity,...

Desiccation Or Drying The Well-known Additions Of The Acetate Or
sugar of lead, litharge, and sulphate of zinc, either mechanically ground, or in solution, for light colours; and japanner's gold size, ...

All Cases Add The Property Of Being Innoxious As This However
cannot be, and colours are by no means to be sacrificed on that account, cleanliness and avoiding the habit of putting the brush unneces...

With Regard To Colours Individually It Is A General Law Of Their
relations, confirmed by nature and the impressions of sense, that those colours which lie nearest in nature to light have their greatest...

In Respect To Pigments Individually It May Be Observed That--other
things being equal--those pigments are the most beautiful which possess the most colour, whether they be light or dark, opaque or transp...

Latent Colour Not Immediately Apparent Apart From The Beauty Which A
wealth of colour imparts, those pigments imbued with it are, as a rule, the most permanent. And not unnaturally so, for the more colour ...

With Regard To Colour Then White In A Perfect State Should Be
neutral in hue, and absolutely opaque; that white being the best which reflects light most brilliantly. This property in white is called...

Body; By Which In Other Pigments Especially Those That Are
...

Transparent Is Meant Tingeing Power White Besides Its Uses As A
colour, is the instrument of light in painting, and compounds when pure with all colours, without changing their class. Yet it dilutes a...

Also Called Permanent White And Barytic White Is When Well
prepared, of superior body in water, but has less opacity in oil. It works in a somewhat unsatisfactory and unpleasant manner, and is c...

The Grinding Sufficient Only Of Clear Cold Jelly Of Gum Tragacanth As
will connect them into a body, and attach them to the paper in painting. Cold starch will answer the same purpose. Constant white is ...

Comprise And Are Known Under The Names Of:--white Lead Flake White
...

And Body-white Cremnitz Or Kremnitz Crems Or Krems White
...

London And Nottingham White Flemish White Pattison's White
...

Blanc D'argent Or Silver White Ceruse Dutch White French
...

White Venetian White Hamburgh White Kremser White Sulphate
...

Of Lead &c
The heaviest and whitest of these are the best, and in point of colour and body, are superior to all other whites. When pure and prope...

These Are False Appellations Of A White Lead Called Also French
...

White It Is Brought From Paris In The Form Of Drops Is Exquisitely
white, but of less body than flake white, and has all the properties of the best white leads. Being subject to the same changes, it is u...

Known Likewise As Kremnitz Crems Or Krems White Is A Carbonate
of lead which derives its names from Kremnitz in Hungary, or Crems or ...

Krems In Austria It Is Also Called Vienna White Being Brought From
Vienna in cakes of a cubical form. Cremnitz white is the brightest white that is used in oil: it possesses rather less body than flake w...

Called When Levigated Body White Is An English White Lead In The
form of scales or plates, sometimes grey on the surface. It takes its name from its figure, is occasionally equal to Crems white in colo...

Cadmium White
Provided the metal be freed from iron, which we have commonly found to be more or less present, a white of considerable beauty may be ...

17 Pearl White
Is an insoluble basic nitrate of bismuth, a pearly white powder of loose texture, turning grey on exposure, and blackened by sulphuret...

Tin White
Resembles zinc white in some respects, but has less body and colour, and dries badly. According to its composition, it is liable to tu...

White Chalk
Is a well-known native carbonate of lime, employed by the artist only as a crayon, or for tracing his designs, for which purpose it is...

Light Compounded With The Primary Red It Constitutes The Secondary
...

Orange As Well As Its Relatives Scarlet And Other Warm Colours
...

It Is The Archeus Or Prime Colour Of The Tertiary Citrine;
characterises in like manner the endless number of semi-neutral colours ...

Called Brown And Enters Largely Into The Complex Hues Termed Buff
bay, tawny, tan, dan, dun, drab, chestnut, roan, sorrel, hazel, auburn, isabela, fawn, feuillemort, &c. Yellow is naturally associated w...

Primary Blue Yellow Furnishes All The Variety Of The Secondary
...

Green As Well As Subordinately The Tertiaries Russet And Olive
It also enters in a very subdued degree into cool, semi-neutral, and broken colours, and assists in minor proportion with blue and red i...

Composition Of Black
As a pigment, yellow is a tender delicate colour, easily defiled, when pure, by other colours. In painting it diminishes the power of ...

Proportions Of Thirteen Purple To Three Yellow Measured In Surface
or intensity. Being nearest to the neutral white in the natural scale of colours, yellow accords with it in conjunction; while, of all c...

Pigment Says The Chemical News Supplies A Desideratum Hitherto In
vain sought for by artists. It is the nearest approach to a perfect yellow in existence, and more closely resembles the purity of the p...

Extract From Mr Aaron Penley's English School Of Painting In Water
...

Colours:--
...

I Have Fully Tested The Qualifications Of Aureolin For The
Landscape Painter, and, without hesitation, pronounce it to be the most valuable addition to the 'colour box' since the int...

Will Not Only Be Regarded By The Artist As A Great Boon In The
production of his works, but it must also be considered as a ...

Real And Lasting Benefit To Pictorial Art In General The
permanence and unaltered purity of its lightest and faintest tints we are assured may be confidently relied upon, inasmuch as ...

Of These There Are Three Tints Deep A So-called Pale And Lemon
TTITLE DEEP CADMIUM. Cadmium Yellow is comparatively a recent introduction, the metal itself not having been discovered till 1818. ...

Cadmium Yellow {cadmium Carbonate Of Cadmium (white)
{Sulphur. / / / ...

/\
White Lead {Lead. / Sulphide of Lead (Black.) {Carbonic Acid. Such is the theory of the reaction wh...

Sufficient To Make The Sulphur Bite Into The Base This Opinion
indeed, extends to all metallic sulphides, and our belief is, that if vermilions were made generally by wet processes, they would not be...

Also Called Jaune Minerale Jaune De Cologne Or Cologne Yellow
...

Pale Chrome And Deep Chrome Are Chromates Of Lead In Which The
latter metal more or less exists, according to the paleness or depth of the colour. Of modern introduction, they are distinguished for t...

Sometimes Designated Drop Gum And Variously Written Gamboge
...

Camboge Gamboage Cambogia Cambadium Cambogium
...

Gambodium Gambogium &c Is The Produce Of Several Kinds Of Trees
The natives of the coast of Coromandel call the tree from which it is principally obtained Gokathu, which grows also in Ceylon and Siam....

Is A Pigment Long Employed In India Under The Name Purree But Has Not
many years been introduced generally into painting in Europe. It is imported in the form of balls of a fetid odour, and is produced from...

Also Called English And Dutch Pink Is An Absurd Name For A Stronger
and richer kind of yellow lake, warmer in tint and more powerful than the preceding. It is a rich transparent yellow, yielding a variety...

Or Quercitron Yellow Is What Its Name Implies It Is Dark In
substance, in grains of a glossy fracture, perfectly transparent, and when ground is of a beautiful yellow colour. In painting it follow...

Jaune De Mars Jaune De Fer Iron Yellow &c Is An Artificially
prepared iron ochre, of the nature of sienna earth. In its general qualities it resembles the ochres, with the same eligibilities and e...

The Name Of Giallolino And Was Variously Of A Pleasing Light Warm
yellow tint. It was opaque and of good body, not altered by the light of the sun, and might be used with comparative safety in oil or va...

Without Change In This State It Was Called Giallolino Di Fornace And
was introduced as a pigment for artists, under the erroneous conception that vitrification gives permanence to colours, when in truth it...

Known As Yellow Ochre Brown Ochre Roman Ochre Transparent Gold
...

Ochre Oxford Ochre Stone Ochre Di Palito &c Are Native
earths, consisting chiefly of silica and alumina in combination with iron, which latter forms the principal colouring matter. They are a...

Called Also Mineral Yellow Is Found In Most Countries And Abundantly
in our own. It differs much both in constitution and colour, ranging from a tolerably bright though not vivid yellow to a brown-yellow, ...

Likewise Known As Spruce Ochre And Ocre De Rue Or More Correctly
...

Ru Is A Dense Deep-toned Brownish Yellow Fine In Sandy Foregrounds
With Indian yellow it gives a dark autumnal tint of great richness, but stable only as respects the ochre. When mixed with other colours...

Also Called King's Yellow Chinese Yellow Yellow Orpiment &c
...

Was Known In Ancient Times: The Romans Called It Auri Pigmentum Or
gold colour, whence, by corruption, its present name is derived. It is found in the native state in China and elsewhere, the best qualit...

Known Likewise As Raw Sienna Earth Terra Di Sienna &c Is A
ferruginous native pigment, firm in substance, of a glossy fracture, and very absorbent. It is of rather an impure yellow colour, and mu...

Arsenic Yellow
...

Called Also Mineral Yellow Has Improperly Been Classed As An
orpiment, from which it differs in not being a sulphide, and in containing lead. It is prepared from arsenic fluxed with litharge, and ...

Bismuth Yellow
Or chromate of bismuth, may be obtained either as a lemon or an orange yellow, sparingly soluble in water. The colour is not permanent...

Copper Yellow
Or chromate of copper-potassa, is of a bright yellow tint, not insoluble in water. It is discoloured both by foul gas and exposure. ...

Gelbin's Yellow
Or chromate of lime, is a pale whitish yellow, poor in colour, partly soluble, and not at all to be depended on. ...

Indium Yellow
Whether the new metal indium will ever be found in sufficient quantity to render it practically useful remains to be seen. The most ab...

Iodine Yellow
Or iodide of lead, is one of those compounds whose presence on the palette should never have been allowed. Exceedingly brilliant, it i...

Iron Yellow
Or oxalate of protoxide of iron, has very unadvisedly been recommended as a pigment. It is a bright pale yellow, but soon loses the be...

Madder Yellow
As our (the Editor's) experience of this product is somewhat at variance with that of the author, we subjoin his original statement. "...

Described As Cory's Brown Madder
...

Massicot
...

Or Masticot Is A Protoxide Of Lead Varying From The Purest And Most
tender straw colour to a dull orange yellow, and known as Light, Yellow, and Golden Massicot. It has in painting all the properties of w...

Litharge Is Merely Fused Massicot Old Writers Speak Of Litharge Of
silver and litharge of gold, oxides of lead, pale and reddish yellow respectively. Commercial litharge, especially that which is foreign...

Patent Yellow
...

Turner's Yellow Montpellier Yellow Mineral Yellow Cassel
...

Yellow &c Is A Mixture Of Chloride And Oxide Of Lead Obtainable
either as a pale or a deep yellow. It is a hard, ponderous, sparkling substance, of a crystalline texture and bright colour; hardly infe...

Platinum Yellow
Our own opinion of this costly preparation is that the good qualities of the product do not justify its price. It may be obtained as a...

Thallium Yellow
The new metal thallium yields in combination with chromic acid two yellow colours, a pale and an orange. They are not absolutely insol...

Thwaites' Yellow
Under this name chromate of cadmium was introduced some few years back. If well prepared, it is a fine soft powder of a very vivid lig...

Turbith Mineral
...

Or Queen's Yellow Is A Subsulphate Of Mercury Of A Beautiful Lemon
yellow colour, but so liable to change by the action of light or impure air, that it cannot be used safely, and hardly deserves attentio...

Uranium Yellow
Can be produced of a pale or orange tint, differing in brightness and depth of colour according to the mode of preparation. It is fair...

Yellow Carmine
Is a rich transparent colour, somewhat resembling an ochre compounded with Indian yellow. On exposure to light, it behaves much as a m...

Of Those Pigments Would Do The Rich Yellowness Entirely Disappearing
and the sober-coloured earth being left behind. * * * * * From several metals besides those mentione...

Between Yellow And Blue; And Is Also In Like Intermediate Relation
...

To White And Black Or Light And Shade Hence Red Is Pre-eminent
among colours, as well as the most positive of all, forming with yellow ...

The Secondary Orange And Its Near Relatives Scarlet &c; And With
...

Blue The Secondary Purple And Its Allies Crimson &c It Gives Some
degree of warmth to all colours, especially to those which partake of yellow. ...

Red Is The Archeus Or Principal Colour In The Tertiary Russet; Enters
...

Subordinately Into The Two Other Tertiaries Citrine And Olive; Goes
largely into the composition of the various hues and shades of the ...

Semi-neutral Marrone Or Chocolate And Its Relations Puce Murrey
morelle, mordore, pompadour, &c.; and is more or less present in ...

Browns Grays And All Broken Colours It Is Likewise The Second
power in harmonizing and contrasting other colours, as well as in ...

Compounding Black And All Other Neutrals Into Which It Enters In The
proportion of five,--to blue, eight,--and yellow, three. Red is a colour of double power in this respect too; that, in union or ...

Connexion With Yellow It Becomes Hot And Advancing; But Mixed Or
...

Combined With Blue Cool And Retiring It Is However More Congenial
with yellow than with blue, and thence partakes more of the character of the former in its effects of warmth, the influence of light and...

A Blue-green; And When It Tends To Crimson Or Purple A
...

Yellow-green
Red breaks and diffuses with white with peculiar loveliness. It is discordant when standing with orange only, requiring to be joined o...

Being The Most Positive Of Colours And Holding The Middle Station Of
the primaries, red contrasts and harmonizes with black and white, which ...

Are The Negative Powers Or Neutrals Of Colours And The Extremes Of
the scale. Moreover, as red is less nearly allied to black or shade than to white or light, this harmony is most remarkable in the union...

Lake A Term Derived From The Lac Or Lacca Of India Is The Name Of
a number of transparent red and other coloured pigments of great beauty, prepared for the most part by precipitating coloured tinctures ...

Carmine Crimson Lake Scarlet Lake Purple Lake Chinese
...

Lake Florentine Lake Hamburgh Lake Roman Lake Venetian
...

Lake &c And Are Obtained From The Coccus Cacti An Insect Found On
a species of cactus, from the juice of which it extracts its nourishment. This coccus is a native of Mexico, where two kinds are recogn...

May Be Said Of Chinese Lake
TTITLE HAMBURGH LAKE Is a lake of great power and depth of colour, purplish or inclining to crimson, which dries with extreme diffi...

Applies To Roman Lake Venetian Lake And Many Others; None Of
which, however beautiful or reputed, is entitled to the character of stability either in hue, shade, or tint. TTITLE DRAGON'S BLOOD ...

Likewise Called Lac Lake This Is Obtained From The Lac Or Lacca Of
India, a resinous secretion which seems to depend upon the puncture of a ...

Small Insect--coccus Ficus--made For The Sake Of Depositing Its Ova On
the branches of several plants, found in Siam, Assam, and Bengal. The twigs soon become encrusted with a mammelated substance of a red c...

Rubric Lakes Or Field's Lakes Are Derived From The Root Of Rubia
tinctorum," a plant largely grown in France and Holland, whence the bulk of that used in England is obtained. The French madders are in ...

Crimson To A Delicate Rose And Are Known As Madder Carmine Field's
...

Carmine Pink Madder Rose Madder Madder Lake And Liquid
...

Rubiate Or Liquid Madder Lake
TTITLE MADDER CARMINE, ...

Or Field's Carmine Like That Of Cochineal Is The Richest And Deepest
lake prepared, containing most colouring matter and least base. It differs from the paler products chiefly in transparency and intensity...

The Laque De Garance Which Was Tinged With The Rouge Of Carthamus
and was of course inferior in durability. As, however, liquid ammonia and alkalis generally dissolve the colours of cochineal, lac, and ...

Rose Madder Which Is Indeed Indifferently Called Rose Madder Pink
...

Madder Or Madder Lake Speaking Of Pink Roses Mrs Duffield Remarks
that "the local colour is best imitated with pink madder," and the Messrs. Rowbotham observe "this heather may be best represented by c...

Rose Rubiate Or Liquid Madder Lake Is A Concentrated Tincture Of
madder of the most beautiful and perfect rose colour and transparency. It is used as a water colour only in its simple state, diluted wi...

Or Rouge De Mars Is An Artificial Iron Ochre Similar In Subdued Tint
and permanence to the native earths. Its chemical affinities, however, are greater than those of the latter, and it therefore requires t...

Comprise Red Ochre Indian Red Light Red Venetian Red
...

English Red Persian Red Prussian Red Spanish Red Brown
...

Red Indian Ochre Scarlet Ochre Carnagione Terra Puzzoli
...

English Vermilion Spanish Brown Majolica Redding Ruddle
...

Bole Almagra Sil Atticum Terra Sinopica &c They Are Rather
hues and tints than definite colours, or more properly belong to the tertiary, semi-neutral, and broken colours. As a rule they are nati...

Is A Native Earth; Sometimes Brown Ochre Burnt And Called Brown Red
It is less pure in hue and clear in its tints than light red, and is best reserved for dark and vigorous shades and touches. For draperi...

Once Known As Persian Red Is Brought From Bengal It Is A Natural
earth rich in peroxide of iron, of a purple russet hue and good body, and valued when fine for the clearness and soft lakey tone of its ...

Less Known As English Red Prussian Red And Scarlet Ochre True
Venetian red, that is, the red of the Venetians, was probably brought from India, and similar to our modern Indian red. The Venetian red...

Spanish Red Is An Ochre Differing Little From The Above
TTITLE PURE SCARLET, ...

Or Iodine Scarlet Is An Iodide Of Mercury Having The Body And
opacity of vermilion, and being as much inferior to it in permanence as it is superior in brilliancy. Of all artistic pigments, it is at...

Also Called Scarlet Chrome Is A Bright Chromate Of Lead Of An
orange-red colour, the red being predominant. Rank in tone, it is liable to the changes of the yellow chromes, though in a less degree. ...

Minium Or Saturnine Red Is An Ancient Pigment By Some Old Writers
confounded with cinnabar, and termed Sinoper or Synoper. It is an oxide of uncertain composition, prepared by subjecting massicot to the...

Vermilion Is So Called From The Italian Word Vermiglio (little Worm)
given to the kermes or "coccus ilicis," which was used as a scarlet dye before the introduction of cochineal. It is a sulphuret of mercu...

Pigment The [greek: Kinnabari] Of The Greeks And The Minium--a Term
now confined to red lead--of older writers. Pliny states that it was so esteemed by the Romans, as to have its price fixed by express la...

Include The Several Varieties Known As--vermilion Deep Vermilion
...

Pale Vermilion Scarlet Vermilion Chinese Vermilion Carmine
...

Vermilion Extract Of Vermilion Orange Vermilion And Field's
...

Orange Vermilion
TTITLE VERMILION, Deep or pale, when well made and pure is of strict permanence, not sensibly affected by light, time, or foul air;...

Or Carmine Vermilion Partakes Of A Crimson Hue And Is Adapted
mixed with white, for the rose and lilac-tints of some complexions. Like other vermilions, however, the colour needs much nicety of mana...

Opacity Is A Fine Tone; But It Must Be Remembered That Transparency
is the character of the sunset or sunrise, and hence arises the difficulty of employing such opaque colour effectively." Before the int...

Antimony Red
Or Mineral Kermes. We have obtained this colour ranging from light orange to deep carmine, of different degrees of brightness and sta...

Chica Red
Is extracted from the leaves of a tree growing in central and southern America. A sample examined by Mr. O'Neill was in small irregula...

Coal-tar Colours
Our work might be considered incomplete without some allusion to the coal-tar colours, even though they are rather dyes than pigments,...

Body Was Formerly Prepared From Indigo--in Spanish Anil Whence The
name; but is now produced on a larger scale from benzol, a coal-tar product. As the source of mauve and magenta, aniline must be conside...

Cobalt Reds
There are obtainable from cobalt by different processes rose and red colours of more or less beauty and intensity, but all vastly infe...

Copper Reds
A somewhat finely coloured red oxide is produced by exposing to a white heat for twenty minutes, a mixture of certain proportions of b...

Of The Gold Coast The Cape And Natal Turacine The Name Proposed
for it, is noticed here only because it is the first animal or vegetable pigment, with copper as an essential element, which has been hi...

Ferrate Of Baryta
Produced by adding aqueous ferrate of potash to an excess of dilute solutions of baryta salts, has been described as carmine-coloured ...

Gold Reds
Many organic substances added to gold solutions throw down either the metallic gold or the red oxide, which then unites with the organ...

Iodine Pink
There may be obtained from iodine and mercury a very pretty pink colour, analogous in composition to pure scarlet. It is apt to pass i...

Kermes Lake
Is an ancient pigment, perhaps the earliest of the European lakes, and ...

So Called From The Arabic Alkermes It Is Sometimes Spelt Cermes
whence probably cermosin and crimson, and kermine and carmine. In old ...

Books It Is Named Vermilion In Allusion To The Insect Or Vermes
from which it is prepared. This insect is the "coccus ilicis," which feeds upon the leaves of the prickly oak in the south of Europe. Li...

Lawson's Red
In 1861 it was stated that Professor Lawson had prepared a new dye of great richness, in the laboratory of Queen's College, Canada, fr...

Time On A Tree Of The Common Black Spruce (abies Nigra) In The
neighbourhood of Kingston. Having been but recently observed, a sufficient quantity had not been obtained for a complete series of expe...

Manganese Red
Bisulphide of arsenic combines with basic metallic sulphides forming a class of sulphur-salts, called by Berzelius, hyposulpharsenites...

Murexide
The red obtained from this substance created a great deal of interest among printers and dyers on its introduction in 1857, or thereab...

Compounds Termed Purpurates Among Them May Be Mentioned A Red
purpurate of lead, a purple-red and a rose-coloured purpurate of mercury, a purple-red purpurate of silver, a dark red-brown purpurate o...

Paille De Mil
Or African Cochineal, is a substance obtained from Africa. Whether it has received its name of cochineal from its appearance or origin...

Peganum Harmala
The seeds of which afford a red colour, has been investigated by the French, but described as inferior to existing reds both in brilli...

Persulphomolybdates
The metallic compounds formed by the combination of persulphomolybdic acid with a base are pulverulent, in many cases of a red colour,...

Red Chalk
The colouring matter of which is sesquioxide of iron, is used as a crayon. Some specimens are excessively hard, so much so that they a...

Red Precipitate
Or mercuric oxide, may be obtained either of a brick-red or orange-yellow colour. It is destroyed by impure air, and on exposure to s...

Rose Pink
Is a coarse kind of lake, produced by dyeing chalk or whitening with decoction of Brazil wood, peachwood, sapan, bar, camwood, &c. It ...

Rouge
The rouge vegetale of the French, is a species of carmine, prepared from safflower or carthamus, which is the flower of a plant growin...

Chinese Rouge And Pink Saucers Have Much Of The Qualities Of And
appear to be also prepared from, the safflower. ...

Rufigallic Red
When a duly proportioned mixture of gallic acid and oil of vitriol is carefully and gradually heated to 140 deg., a viscid wine-red li...

Sandal Red
We have kept this separate from other reds derived from woods, because it is said (by Professor H. Dussance) to be obtainable not only...

Silver Red
By adding monochromate of potash to an acid solution of nitrate of silver, a particularly fine ochre-red is obtained. It is, however, ...

Sorgho Red
Some nine years back there was found to be a carmine colouring matter in most parts of the Chinese sorgho, chiefly in the unpressed st...

Thallium Red
The orange-yellow precipitate formed by mixing a neutral salt of protoxide of thallium with bichromate of potash, is converted by nitr...

Tin Pink
By igniting strongly for some hours a mixture of stannic oxide, chalk, chromate of potash, and a little silica and alumina, a dingy re...

Ultramarine Red?
In Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry it is remarked that "Hydrogen gas passed over ignited ultramarine, colours it light red, from format...

Uranium Red
By treating the yellow sulphite of uranium with a prolonged current of sulphuretted hydrogen, and saturating gradually with ammonia, a...

Wongshy Red
There was imported a few years ago from Batavia a new colouring ...

Principle Under The Name Of Wongshy And Consisting Of The
seed-capsule of a species of gentian. The aqueous extract, freed from the pectin which it contains, yields with baryta- and lime-water y...

Than Themselves; And Into Painters Whose Motto Is Vita Brevis Est Ars
...

Quoque
TTITLE PRIMARY BLUE ...

The Third And Last Of The Primary Or Simple Colours Is Blue Which
bears the same relation to shade as yellow to light. Hence it is the most retiring and diffusive of all colours, except purple and black...

Greens And With Red In All Purples Blue Characterizes The Tertiary
...

Olive And Is Also The Prime Colour Or Archeus Of The Neutral Black
...

&c As Well As Of The Semi-neutral Gray &c: It Therefore Is Changed
in hue less than any other colour by mixture with black, as it is likewise by distance. Blue is present subordinately in all tertiary an...

But A Mixture Of Black And White; But Pure Or Neutral Black And White
...

Compound In Infinite Shades All Of Which Are Neutral Also Or Grey
...

It Is True That A Mixture Of Black And White Is Of A Cool Hue Because
black is not a primary colour, but a compound of the three primary colours in which blue predominates, a predominance which is rendered ...

Requires Its Contrast Orange In Equal Proportion Whether Of Surface
or intensity, to compensate or resolve its dissonances and correct its coldness. In nature, however, blue is not discordant with either ...

So On The Palette Of Nature Each Colour Is An Example Of Colouring:
no colour is too absolute or defined, no perfectly pure blue appears beside a perfectly pure green. A blue flower nestled in its green l...

Colours Are Advancing Or Retiring In Their Quality--as Depth
delicacy, &c., not in their hue. A blue object set side-by-side a yellow one will not look an inch farther off, but a red or orange clou...

Is In Reality We Grant That In Certain Objects Blue Is A Sign Of
distance, but that is not because blue, as a mere colour, is retiring; but because the mist in the air is blue, and therefore any warm c...

Of Late Years In The German Coelin Known Here As Cerulian Blue And
Coeruleum. What is chiefly wanted, however, is a colour combining the wonderful depth, richness, and transparency of Prussian blue with ...

Comprise Cerulian Blue Or Coeruleum Cobalt Blue Smalt
...

Royal Blue Dumont's Blue Saxon Blue Thenard's Blue
...

Leithner's Blue Hungary Blue Dutch Ultramarine Zaffre Or
...

Enamel Blue Vienna Blue Paris Blue Azure &c And Are
obtained by the action of heat on mixtures of earthy or metallic bases with cobalt. They are divisible into three classes--the stannic c...

Or Coeruleum Under The Name Coelin There Has Of Late Years Been
imported from Germany the cobalt blue with a tin base to which reference has just been made. This comparatively new pigment--which likew...

To Which The Various Appellations Have Been Given Of Thenard's Blue
...

Vienna Blue Paris Blue Azure Cobalt-ultramarine &c Is The
name now exclusively confined to that preparation of cobalt which has a base of alumina. It may, therefore, be not improperly called a b...

With Cobalt Blue The Name Azure Has Sometimes Been Given To It
Varying exceedingly in quality and colour, the rougher kinds have been employed by the laundress, and in the making of porcelain, potter...

A Coarse Gritty Texture Is Peculiar To Smalt Whether It Be The Powder
...

Blue Of The Washtub And Blue Sand Of The Pottery Or The Dumont's
...

And Royal Blue Of The Artist And High-class Manufacturer But The
strict stability which is a feature in smalt when used for painting on glass and enamel does not follow it to the studio: both in water ...

Fugitive But We May Briefly Explain It By Saying When Vitreous
pigments are reduced to that extreme state of division which the palette requires, they lose the properties they possess in a less finel...

State The Best Smalt In Lumps Appears Black Yields A Blue Powder On
grinding, becomes paler on further grinding, and may be almost decolourised by continued and excessive grinding. Smalt, it has been sta...

Artists' Colours Therefore Vitrification Does Not Impart
permanence. The grittiness to which we have referred is one of the defects of smalt, which cannot, consistently with preserving its c...

Beckmann Is Fully Convinced That The Cyanus Of Theophrastus And The
...

Coeruleum Of Pliny Were A Blue Copper Earth However That May Be In
these days both names signify cobalt compounds, coeruleum being a stannate of cobalt, and cyanine a mixture of cobalt and Prussian blue....

Under The Name Of Leitch's Blue
TTITLE INDIGO, ...

Or Indian Blue Was Known To The Ancients Under The Name Of Indicum
whence its present appellation. In modern Europe, it first came into extensive use in Italy; but about the middle of the sixteenth centu...

Chiefly Derived From A Genus Of Leguminous Plants Called Indigofera
found in India, Africa, and America. The colouring matter of these is wholly in the cellular tissue of the leaves, as a secretion or jui...

Otherwise Called Berlin Blue Paris Blue Prussiate Of Iron
...

Ferrocyanide Of Iron &c Was Accidentally Discovered In 1710 By
Diesbach, a colour-maker at Berlin. It is a compound of iron and cyanogen, of varying composition, formed by adding yellow prussiate of ...

A Sample Which Parts With Its Prussiate To Cold Water Is Quite
unfitted for the palette, for which the most perfect specimen is none too stable. In spite of the learned researches of Professor Wil...

Besides The Preceding There Is A Basic Prussian Blue Formed By
simply submitting to the air the bluish-white precipitate which falls on adding yellow prussiate of potash to green vitriol. This compou...

Variety Of This Pigment Known As Native Prussian Blue; Which Is
really a native phosphate of iron, occurring as a blue earthy powder, or as a white powder that becomes blue by exposure. TTITLE ANTW...

Haerlem Blue Berlin Blue Mineral Blue Is A Lighter And
somewhat brighter Prussian blue, with less depth and less permanence. It is a species of lake, having a considerable proportion of alumi...

Or Ferricyanide Of Iron Is Formed By Adding The Red Prussiate Of
potash to a protosalt of iron. This blue is lighter and more delicate than ordinary Prussian blue, and is believed to resist the action ...

Comprise The Varieties Known As French Ultramarine French Blue
...

Brilliant Ultramarine Factitious Ultramarine Guimet's
...

Ultramarine New Blue Permanent Blue Gmelin's German
...

Ultramarine Bleu De Garance Outremer De Guimet &c The
unrivalled qualities of native ultramarine prepared from the lapis lazuli rendered it most desirable to obtain an artificial compound w...

Or L500 For The Production Of Artificial Ultramarine By The Societe
...

D'encouragement Of Paris Which Was Won In 1828 By M Guimet It Is
fitting that the discoverer of a colour should excel in its manufacture, and to this day Guimet's ultramarine is the finest made. As an ...

Blackened The Cobalt Blue Greened The Genuine Ultramarine Remained
...

A Pure Azure Like A Spot Of Light While Their Ground The Prussian
...

Blue Sky Seemed By Contrast With The Ultramarine Of A Grey Or Slate
...

Colour
Other things being equal, those artificial ultramarines are most durable which possess the most colour; and all are, perhaps, most per...

Lately Called Factitious Ultramarine Is A Specially Fine Preparation
of M. Guimet, presenting the nearest approach to the natural product of any artificial ultramarine, both in transparency, purity of hue,...

Or French Blue Is A Rich Deep Colour But Less Transparent And Vivid
than the preceding variety, which is preferable in unmixed tints. For compound hues, French blue is sufficiently well adapted, and is e...

Native Ultramarine Natural Ultramarine Real Ultramarine True
...

Ultramarine Ultramarine Pure Ultramarine Azure Outremer
...

Lazuline Lazulite Blue And Lazurstein This Most Costly Most
permanent, and most celebrated of all pigments, is obtained by isolating ...

The Blue Colouring Matter Of The Lapis Lazuli A Stone Chiefly Brought
from China, Thibet, and the shores of Lake Baikal. About the antiquity of the stone, and its colour, much has been written, and many co...

Lazurium As We Are Told Is Made It Has Been Common To Confound
...

Ultramarine With The Cyanus And Coeruleum Of The Ancients; But
their cyanus, or Armenian blue, was a kind of mineral or mountain blue, tinged with copper; and their coeruleum, although it may sometim...

Contains Among Other Substances A Fine White Lazulite In The Musee
...

Mineralogique Of Paris Are Two Splendid Specimens Of The Stone In
which is seen the transition from the azure to the white. According to the quantity and quality of blue present, the lapis varies from a...

Blue Carmine
In a former edition of this work there appeared the following:--"Blue carmine is a blue oxide of molybdenum, of which little is known ...

Blue Ochre
which has been improperly called Native Prussian Blue, is a native hydrated phosphate of iron of rare occurrence, found with iron pyri...

Cobalt Prussian Blue
Gmelin states that yellow prussiate of potash yields with a solution of oxalate of sesquioxide of cobalt a blue resembling Prussian bl...

Copper Blues
are now seldom or never employed as artists' pigments. The following are the principal varieties:-- ...

140 Bice
Blue Bice, Iris, Terre Bleu, was prepared, when true, from the Armenian stone, which is a calcareous kind of stone coloured with coppe...

Blue Ashes Or Mountain Blue
are both hydrated carbonates of copper, the first being artificially prepared, and the second found native in Cumberland. Neither is d...

Blue Verditer
or Verditer, is an oxide of copper, formed by precipitating nitrate of copper with lime. It is of a beautiful light blue colour, littl...

Egyptian Blue
called by Vitruvius, Coeruleum, is frequently found on the walls of the temples in Egypt, as well as on the cases enclosing mummies. C...

Saunders Blue
...

A Corrupt Name From Cendres Bleues The Original Denomination Probably
of ultramarine ashes, is of two kinds, the natural and artificial. The first is a blue mineral found near copper mines, while the last i...

Schweinfurt Blue
or Reboulleau's Blue, is prepared by fusing together equal weights of ordinary arseniate of protoxide of copper and arseniate of potas...

Cotton Seed Blue
Cotton seed oil is bleached by treatment with either carbonate of soda or caustic lime. In both cases, a considerable residue is left ...

Gold Blue
Gold purple, under the name of Purple of Cassius, was once very well known: a like compound of tin and gold may be made to yield a blu...

Iodine Blue
It is curious that iodine, which gives a yellow with lead, should also afford a blue with the same metal. When a solution of iodine in...

Iridium Blue
The rare metal iridium affords a blue which is a mixture of the oxide and the sesquioxide. But being slightly soluble in water and de...

Manganese Blue
An aqueous solution of permanganate of potash yields with baryta-water a violet mixture, which afterwards becomes colourless, and depo...

Platinum Blue
With mercurous nitrate, the platinocyanide of potassium forms a thick smalt blue, and the platinidcyanide a dark blue precipitate. The...

Tungsten Blue
is an oxide formed by the action of various deoxidizing agents on tungstic acid. It remains unaltered in the air at ordinary temperatu...

Wood-tar Blue
The colours obtained from coal-tar have become household words, and it is not impossible that those from wood-tar may be some day equa...

Pitch And [greek: Kallos] Ornament The Blue Is Named Pittacal
The mode of separating pittacal has not been clearly described. Dumas states, that when precipitated in a flocculent state from its so...

Zinc-cobalt Blue
Cobalt, as furnishing a blue colour, is usually associated with alumina, silica, or tin; and, as furnishing a green colour, with zinc....

In All The Variety Of Its Hues Composed Of Yellow And Red A True Or
perfect orange is such a compound of red and yellow as will neutralize a perfect blue in equal quantity either of surface or intensity; ...

Yellow When Orange Inclines To Red It Takes The Names Of Scarlet
...

Poppy &c: In Gold Colour &c It Leans Towards Yellow Combined
...

With Green It Forms The Tertiary Citrine And With Purple The Tertiary
...

Russet: It Also Furnishes A Series Of Warm Semi-neutral Colours With
black, and harmonizes in contact and variety of tints with white. Orange is an advancing colour in painting:--in nature it is effectiv...

Pre-eminently A Warm Colour Being The Equal Contrast Of Or Antagonist
...

To Blue To Which The Attribute Of Coolness Peculiarly Belongs It Is
discordant when standing alone with yellow or with red, unresolved by their proper contrasts or harmonizing colours, purple and green. A...

Or Burnt Terra Di Sienna Is Calcined Raw Sienna Of A Rich
transparent brown-orange or orange-russet colour, richer, deeper, and more transparent than the raw earth. It also works and dries bette...

Firm Line--not Wash--of Carmine (of Madder Preferable--ed) Passed
within the outline on the shade side only of the leaf, will give to the whole the look of a bright scarlet surface, but with an indescri...

Orange Chrome Or Orange Chromate Of Lead Is A Sub-chromate Of Lead
of an orange-yellow colour, produced by the action of an alkali on chrome yellow. Like all the chromates of lead, it is characterized by...

Orange De Mars Is A Subdued Orange Of The Burnt Sienna Class But
without the brown tinge that distinguishes the latter. Marked by a special clearness and purity of tone, with much transparency, it affo...

A Mixture Will Slowly But Surely Lose The Colour For Which It Was
...

Compounded And Be As A Mixture Semi-stable Or Fugitive
It need hardly be observed that the number of permanent orange, green, and purple hues which the artist can compound, depends mainly o...

Or Penley's Neutral Orange Is A Permanent Compound Pigment Composed
of yellow ochre and the russet-marrone known as brown madder: it is chiefly valuable in water-colour. Paper, being white, is too opaque ...

Drive The Colour Too Bare Ie Never To Empty The Brush Too Closely
but always to replenish before more is actually required. This first wash of colour not only gives a tone to the paper, but secures the ...

Called Also Spanish Ochre Is A Very Bright Yellow Or Roman Ochre
burnt, by which operation it acquires warmth, colour, transparency, and depth. Moderately bright, it forms good flesh tints with white, ...

Anotta
Annotto, Annatto, Arnotto, Arnotta, Terra Orellana, Rocou, &c., is met with in commerce under the names of cake anotta, and flag or ro...

Of The Bixa Orellana And Appears Generally To Contain Two Colouring
matters, a yellow and a red, which are apt to adhere to each other and produce orange. Anotta dissolves with difficulty in water, but re...

Bixine Is A Purified Extract Of Anotta Made In France And Used By
dyers. ...

Antimony Orange
Golden Sulphur of Antimony, or Golden Yellow, is a hydro-sulphuret of antimony of an orange colour, which is destroyed by the action o...

Chromate Of Mercury
has been improperly classed as a red with vermilion, for though it is of a bright ochrous red in powder, when ground it becomes a brig...

Damonico
or Monicon, is an iron ochre, being a compound of raw Sienna and Roman ochre burnt, and having all their qualities. It is rather more ...

Gamboge Orange
On adding acetate of lead to a potash solution of gamboge, a rich bright orange is precipitated, which may be washed on a filter till ...

Laque Minerale
is a French pigment, a species of chromic orange, similar to the orange chromate of lead. This name is likewise given to orange oxide ...

Madder Orange
or Orange Lake. It has been said that the yellows so-called produced from madder are not remarkable for stability, differing therein f...

Orange Lead
of a dull orange colour, is an orange protoxide of lead or massicot. Like litharge, it may be employed in the preparation of drying oi...

Peculiar Red Mineral Orange
...

Orange Orpiment
or Realgar, has also been called Red Orpiment, improperly, since it is a brilliant orange, inclining to yellow. There are two kinds, a...

And An Artificial Of Which The Former Is The Sandarac Of The
ancients, and is rather redder than the latter. They possess the same qualities as pigments, and as such resemble yellow orpiment, to wh...

Thallium Orange
is produced when bichromate of potash is added to a neutral salt of the protoxide of thallium, as an orange-yellow precipitate. The sc...

Very Slight Solubility In Water Would Be A Fatal Objection; And
although they would be liable to suffer from a foul atmosphere, we are inclined to think the effects would not be so lasting as in the ...

Uranium Orange
is obtainable by wet and dry methods as a yellowish-red, or, when reduced to powder, an orange-yellow, uranate of baryta. It is an ex...

Zinc Orange
When hydrochloric acid and zinc are made to act on nitro-prusside of sodium, a corresponding zinc compound is formed of a deep orange ...

Colours It Is Composed Of The Extreme Primaries Yellow And Blue
and is most perfect in hue when constituted in the proportions of three of yellow to eight of blue of equal intensities; because such a ...

Citrine; While Mixed With Purple It Becomes The Other Extreme
...

Tertiary Olive: Hence Its Relations And Accordances Are More General
and its contrasts more agreeable with all colours, than those of any other individual colour. Accordingly it has been adopted very wisel...

Red On The One Hand And Of The Middle Tertiary Russet On The
other; while, unlike the other secondaries, all its hues, whether tending to blue or yellow, are of the same denomination. These attr...

Black For Of Such Subdued Tones Are Those Greens By Which The More
vivid tints of nature are opposed. Accordingly, the various greens of foliage are always more or less semi-neutral in hue. As green is t...

Opaque Oxide Of Chromium Green Oxide Of Chromium Chrome Oxide
...

True Chrome Green Native Green &c Is Found Native In An Impure
state as Chrome Ochre, but is always artificially prepared for artistic use. Obtained anhydrous by dry modes, this is the only chrome ox...

Or French Veronese Green Is A Comparatively Recent Introduction
similar in colour and general properties to the following; beside which, however, it appears dull, muddy, and impure. It is often adulte...

Are Commercially Known As Emerald Green Malachite Green Scheele's
...

Green Schweinfurt Green Verdigris Green Bice Green
...

Verditer Brunswick Green Vienna Green Hungary Green Green
...

Lake Mineral Green Patent Green Mountain Green Marine
...

Green Saxon Green French Green African Green Persian Green
...

Swedish Green Olympian Green Imperial Green Mitis Green
...

Pickle Green &c
The general characteristics of these greens are brightness of colour, well suited to the purposes of house-painting, but seldom adapte...

Schweinfurt Green Vienna Green Imperial Green Brunswick
...

Green Mitis Green &c Is A Cupric Aceto-arsenite Prepared On The
large scale by mixing arsenious acid with acetate of copper and water. It differs from Scheele's Green, or cupric arsenite, in being lig...

Or Swedish Green Resembles The Preceding Variety In Being A Compound
of copper and arsenic, and therefore rankly poisonous; but differs from it in containing no acetic acid, in possessing less opacity, and...

Or Mountain Green Is Met With In Cumberland And Is Also Found In The
...

Mountains Of Kernhausen Whence It Is Sometimes Called Hungary Green
It is prepared from malachite, a beautiful copper ore employed by jewellers, and is a hydrated dicarbonate of copper, combined with a w...

Or Viride Aeris Is Of Two Kinds Common Or Impure And Crystallized Or
...

Distilled Verdigris Or More Properly Refined Verdigris The Best Is
made at Montpellier in France, and is a sub-acetate of copper of a bright green colour inclining to blue. The least durable of the coppe...

Hues Required To Obtain A Pure Green Which Consists Of Blue And
yellow only, a blue should be chosen tinged with yellow rather than with red, and a yellow tinged with blue. If either a blue or a yello...

A Mixture Which Is Also Known As Brunswick Green Fine Bright Greens
they are suited to the ordinary purposes of mechanic painting, but are quite unfit for the artist's craft, chrome yellow reacting upon a...

Verde Vessie Or Iris Green Is A Vegetal Pigment Prepared From The
juice of the berries of the buckthorn, the green leaves of the woad, the blue flowers of the iris, &c. It is usually preserved in bladde...

Is Thence Sometimes Called Bladder Green When Good It Is Of A Dark
colour and glossy fracture, extremely transparent, and a fine natural yellowish green. This gummy juice, inspissated and formed into a c...

Or Green Earth Is A Sober Bluish Green With A Grey Cast It Is A
species of ochre, containing silica, oxide of iron, magnesia, potash, and water. Not bright and of little power, it is a very durable pi...

Chrome Arseniate
is an agreeable apple-green colour, prepared from arseniate of potash and salts of chromic oxide. It is durable, but possesses no adva...

Cobalt Green
Rinman's Green, Vert de Zinc or Zinc Green. True cobalt green is made by igniting a very large quantity of carbonate of zinc with a ve...

Copper Borate
is obtained by precipitating sulphate of copper with borax, washing the residue with cold water, and, after drying, igniting it, fusio...

Copper Chrome
may be prepared by several methods, but the colour is in no case so fine as Scheele's or Schweinfurt green, nor is it as stable. ...

Copper Stannate
or Tin-Copper Green, equals in colour any of the copper greens free from arsenic. The cheapest way of making it is to heat 59 parts of...

Elsner's Green
is also a combination of tin and copper. It is made by adding to a solution of sulphate of copper a decoction of fustic, previously c...

Green Bice
or Green Verditer, is the same in substance as blue verditer, which is converted into green verditer by boiling. This pigment is one o...

Green Ochre
By partially decomposing yellow ochre with prussiate of potash, we have produced a fine dark blue-green, resembling Prussian green, of...

Green Ultramarine
is French or artificial ultramarine before the final roasting. It is a somewhat bright bluish-green, becoming a dull greenish-blue on ...

Manganese Green
or Cassel Green. By several methods, manganate of baryta may be obtained either as an emerald-green, a bluish-green, or a pale green. ...

Mineral Green
...

Is The Commercial Name Of Green Lakes Prepared From Sulphate Of
copper. These vary in hue and shade, have all the properties of the common non-arsenical copper-greens, and, not being subject to change...

Molybdenum Green
A clear malachite green colour, when dried, is produced from molybdate of soda and potash-chrome-alum, or from the molybdate and alum ...

Quinine Green
is rather adapted for a dye than an artist-colour. It is furnished by acting on quinine with hypochlorite of lime, hydrochloric acid, ...

Roman Green
brought from Rome some years back by a President of the Royal Academy, appeared to be a mixture of Prussian blue and Dutch or Italian ...

Silicate Of Baryta
One part of silica heated to whiteness with three parts of baryta, yields a pale green solid mass, permanent, but deficient in colour ...

Titanium Green
has been proposed as a substitute for the green arsenical pigments in common use; but, apart from its expense, the colour is very infe...

Uranium Green
is an oxide of a deep dull green colour, inclining to olive, and nearly black when in lumps. A durable but unattractive preparation, e...

Vanadium Green
falls when ferrocyanide of potassium is added to vanadic acid dissolved in a strong acid. It is a beautiful green precipitate, but at ...

Red And Blue In The Proportions Of Five Of The Former To Eight Of
the latter; proportions which constitute a perfect purple, or one of such a hue as will neutralize and best contrast a perfect yellow, i...

With Its Co-secondary Colour Green Purple Forms The Tertiary Olive;
and, when compounded with the remaining secondary, orange, it ...

Constitutes In Like Manner The Tertiary Russet Of The Three Secondary
...

Colours It Is The Coolest As Well As The Nearest In Relation To Black
or shade; in which respect, and in never being a warm colour, it resembles blue. In other respects also, purple partakes of the propert...

When Inclining To Red Purple Takes The Name Of Crimson &c; And When
...

Leaning To Blue The Names Of Violet Lilac Mauve &c Blue Is
a colour which it serves to mellow, or follows well into shade. The contrast or harmonizing colour of purple is yellow on the side of li...

The Tertiary Citrine On The Side Of Shade And Less Perfectly So Of
...

The Semi-neutral Brown As The Extreme Primaries Blue And Yellow
when either compounded or opposed, afford, though not the most perfect harmony, yet the most pleasing consonance of the primary colours;...

Violet De Mars Purple Ochre Or Mineral Purple Is A Dark Ochre
native of the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire. It is of a murrey or chocolate colour, and forms cool tints of a purple hue with white....

Purple Being A Secondary Colour Composed Of Blue And Red It
follows of course that any blue and red pigments, which are not chemically at variance, may be employed in producing mixed purples of a...

Field's Purple Or Purple Rubiate Is The Only Durable Organic
purple the palette possesses. Marked by a soft subdued richness rather than by brilliancy, it leans somewhat towards marrone, and afford...

Root Of The Anchusa Tinctoria Commonly Known As Alkanet A Plant
growing in the Levant, and some other warm countries. It was used by the ancients as a dye, or as a groundwork to those stuffs which wer...

Paint Its Colouring Matter Or Anchusin Has The Character Of A Resin
and is dark-red, softened by heat, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and alkalis, and freely so in ether, fats, and volatile oils, ...

Archil Purple
Archil may be regarded as the English, cudbear as the Scotch, and litmus as the Dutch name for one and the same substance, extracted f...

Bismuth Purple
A purple powder is capable of being produced from bismuth by passing chlorine gas through the hydrated oxide suspended in a saturated ...

Burnt Madder
is obtained by carefully charring madder carmine until it becomes of the hue required. Bearing the same relation to madder carmine as ...

Cobalt Purples
are obtainable ranging from the richest crimson purple to the most delicate violet. We have produced them by wet and dry methods, vary...

Gold Purple
Purple of Cassius, or Cassius's Purple Precipitate, was discovered in 1683 by Cassius of Leyden. It is a compound of tin and gold, bes...

Prussian Purple
A prussiate of iron is obtainable of a violet hue, affording good shadow tints and clear pale washes. It has not, however, been introd...

Sandal Wood Purple
Sandal wood contains about 16 per cent. of colouring matter, soluble with difficultly in water, but readily dissolved by alcohol. From...

Tin Violet
By heating chromate of stannic oxide to bright redness, a dark violet mass is obtained, which is better adapted to enamel painting tha...

Secondaries Orange And Green Of Both Which Yellow Is A
constituent, the latter colour is of double occurrence therein, while the other two primaries enter singly into its composition. The mea...

Harmonizing Contrast Of Citrine Is A Deep Purple Which May Be Seen
beautifully opposed to it in nature, when the green of summer declines. As autumn advances, citrine tends towards its orange hues, inclu...

Brown Stil De Grain Citrine Lake Or Quercitron Lake Is Usually
prepared from the berries of Avignon (ramnus infectorius), better known as French, Persian, or Turkey berries; but a more durable and qu...

Or Brun De Mars Is Either A Natural Or Artificial Ochre Containing
iron, or iron and manganese. Of much richness and strict permanence, it resembles raw umber in being a brown with a citrine cast, but is...

Uniform Colour Thus Composed Is The Citrine Colour Of Fruit And
foliage, on inspecting which we distinctly trace the stipplings of orange and green, or of yellow, red, and green. The truth and beauty ...

Russet Hues Of Autumn Foliage Where Purple And Orange Have Broken Or
superseded the summer green, this interlacing of colour appears; and ...

Also In The Olive Foliage Of The Rose-tree Formed In The Individual
leaf by the ramification of purple in green. Besides the durable yellows, reds, and blues, the following orange and green pigments are ...

Cassia Fistula
is a native vegetal pigment, though it is more commonly employed as a medicinal drug. It is brought from the East and West Indies in a...

Citrine Brown
From boiling, hot, or cold solutions of bichromate of potash and hyposulphite of soda in excess, we have obtained an agreeable citrin...

Subordinates For Orange And Purple Being The Immediate Constituents
of russet, and red being a component part of each of those colours, it follows that red enters doubly into russet, while yellow and blue...

Deep Green; Or When The Russet Inclines To Orange A Gray Or
...

Subdued Blue These Are Often Beautifully Opposed In Nature Being
medial accordances or in equal relation to light, shade and other colours, and among the most agreeable to sense. Russet, as we have ...

Orange Russet Russet Rubiate Or Field's Russet This Is A Very
rich crimson russet with a flush of orange; pure, transparent, and of a middle hue between orange and purple. Prepared from the madder r...

Prussiate Of Copper
differs chemically from Prussian blue only in having copper instead of iron for its basis. It varies in hue from russet to purple brow...

More Directly Of The Secondaries Purple And Green In Each Of Which
blue is a constituent: hence blue occurs twice in the latter mode of forming olive, while red and blue enter therein singly and subordi...

A Deep Orange Like Blue Olive Is A Retiring Colour The Most So Of
all the colours, being the penultimate of the scale, or nearest of all in relation to black, and last, theoretically, of the regular di...

Called Green In Landscape And Invisible Green In Mechanic Painting
It is to be noted that in producing these and other compound colours on the palette or canvass, those mixtures will most conduce to the ...

Sometimes Called Dewint's Green Is An Arbitrary Compound Or Mixed
green, of a fine deep olive colour and sober richness. Advisedly or not, it is used in landscape, sketching, &c.; but only in water, oli...

Burnt Verdigris
is what its name expresses, and is an olive-coloured oxide of copper deprived of acid. It dries remarkably well in oil, is more durabl...

Olive Oxide Of Chromium
An olive oxide of this metal is obtainable, transparent, of strict stability, and altogether superior to any original or compound oliv...

Olive Rinman's Green
A compound analogous to cobalt green may be made, of an olive hue, with more body, and equally stable. ...

Olive Scheele's Green
Cupric arsenite, when heated, gives off arsenious acid and water, leaving a residue of arsenide of copper and copper arseniate. A seri...

Olive Schweinfurt Green
is likewise furnished by gentle calcination. It may be directly prepared by mixing boiling aqueous solutions of equal parts of crystal...

Olive Terre Verte
We have obtained a very beautiful olive from terre verte by simply changing its hue. In oil, especially, the colour so produced would ...

The Term Brown Then Denotes Rightly A Warm Broken Colour Of Which
...

Yellow Is A Chief Constituent: Hence Brown Is In Some Measure To Shade
what yellow is to light. Hence, also, proper quantities of either the three primaries, the three secondaries, or the three tertiaries, p...

Primary Yellow The Secondary Orange Or The Tertiary Citrine With
...

A Black The General Contrast Or Harmonizing Colour Of Such Compounds
will consequently be more or less purple or blue. The number of browns is great, as may be seen by the following list. This list, how...

Asphalt Bitumen Mineral Pitch Jew's Pitch Antwerp Brown
...

Liquid Asphaltum &c Is A Sort Of Mineral Pitch Or Tar Which Rising
liquid to the surface of the Lacus Asphaltites or Asphaltic Lake (the Dead Sea) concretes there by the natural action of the atmosphere ...

It Is Common To Call The Solution In Turpentine Asphaltum And The
...

Mixture With Drying-oil Bitumen: The Latter Is Likewise Known As
...

Antwerp Brown A Preparation For The Use Of Water-colour Artists Is
...

Employed Under The Name Of Liquid Asphaltum
TTITLE BISTRE is extracted by watery solution from the soot of wood fires, whence it derives a strong pyroligneous scent. It is a v...

And Ivory Brown Are Obtained By Roasting Bone And Ivory Until By
partial charring they become of a brown colour throughout. Though much esteemed by some artists, they are not quite eligible pigments, b...

Artificially The Old Italians Called It Falsalo
TTITLE CALEDONIAN BROWN is a permanent native pigment, the use of which is confined to oil. A magnificent orange-russet brown of co...

Or Cappagh Brown Is Likewise A Colour Peculiar To Oil It Is A
species of bog-earth or peat, mixed with manganese in various proportions, and found on the estate of Lord Audley at Cappagh, near Cork...

But Run Under The Names Of Euchrome And Mineral Brown They Have
been introduced into commerce for civil and marine painting. TTITLE CASSEL EARTH, ...

Terre De Cassel Or Corruptly Castle Earth Is Specially An Oil
pigment, similar to burnt umber but of a more russet hue. It is an earth containing bitumen, a substance which, with pit-coal, lignite o...

Incorrectly Called Cullen's Earth Is A Native Bituminous Earth
containing less bitumen than Cassel earth, and therefore drying more quickly. Darker than that variety, it is less transparent, and cove...

Known As Liquid Prout's Brown Has Been Extensively Employed This
contains less fixative than the indelible ink, and is the vehicle with which nearly all Samuel Prout's drawings were executed. TTITLE...

Mummy Brown Or Egyptian Brown Is A Bituminous Product Mixed With
animal remains, brought from the catacombs of Egypt, where liquid bitumen was employed three thousand years ago in embalming. By a slow ...

Liquid Sepia Seppia Or Animal Aethiops Is Named After The Sepia
or cuttle-fish, also called the ink-fish, from its affording a dark liquid, which was used as an ink and pigment by the ancients. All th...

Cory's Yellow Madder Or Cory's Madder Is Classed Among The Browns
for the same reason that Italian Pink was ranked among the yellows. It was stated in the eighth chapter that no true madder yellow, bril...

Cadmium Brown
By igniting the white carbonate of cadmium, among other methods, a cinnamon-brown oxide is obtainable, of a very clear and beautiful c...

Catechu Browns
...

Catechu Is An Extract Of The Khair Tree Or Acacia Catechu Of Bombay
Bengal, and other parts of India. With the exception of such earthy matters as are communicated to it during the preparation, or are add...

Recommended For Painting If Not Too Thinly Applied
...

Chrome Browns
are produced by various methods of several hues, tints, and shades, both by wet and dry processes. We have obtained them by many metho...

Copper Brown
varying in hue, is obtainable, in the form of prussiate, &c., but cannot be recommended, however made. ...

French Prussian-brown
According to Bouvier, a colour similar to that of bistre, and rivalling asphaltum in transparency, is produced by partially charring a...

Gambogiate Of Iron
Dr. Scoffern read a paper at the Meeting of the British Association of Science, in 1851, describing this combination as a rich brown, ...

Hypocastanum
or Chestnut Brown, is a brown lake prepared from the horse-chestnut. This now obsolete pigment is transparent and rich in colour, warm...

Iron Browns
native or artificial, are well represented on the palette, but nothing would be easier than to increase their number. Of all metals, i...

Manganese Brown
is an oxide of manganese, which is quite durable both in water and oil, and dries admirably in the latter. A fine, deep, semi-opaque b...

Nickel Brown
A very pleasing yellowish brown is obtainable from nickel, bright and clear in its pale washes, and of some richness in oil. Unless th...

Ochre Browns
The slight affinity of sulphur for yellow ochre, with its merely temporary effect thereon, was observed in the eighth chapter, where ...

Purple Brown
is a refuse manufacture from Indian red washings. A dull, heavy, coarse colour, it belongs to the class of common pigments which are ...

Rubens' Brown
still in use in the Netherlands under this appellation, is an earth of a lighter colour and more ochrous texture than the Vandyke brow...

Uranium Brown
Yellow, red, orange, green, have been previously noticed as being derived from uranium, and to this list of colours may now be added ...

Zinc Brown
A yellow-brown, so yellow that it might fairly have been classed with the ochrous colours of that denomination, is made by combining z...

We Have Adopted The Term Marrone Or Maroon As It Is Sometimes Called
for our second and middle semi-neutral, as applicable to a class of impure colours composed of black and red, black and purple, or black...

Browns And The Cold Semi-neutral Grays Marrone Is Practically To
shade, what red is to light; and its relations to other colours are those of red, &c., when we invert the scale from black to white. It ...

Chica Marrone
Chica, the red colouring principle alluded to in the ninth chapter, is ...

Extracted From The Bignonia Chica By Boiling Its Leaves In Water
decanting the decoction, and allowing it to cool, when a red matter falls down, which is formed into cakes and dried. Insoluble in cold ...

Chocolate Lead
or Marrone Red, is a pigment prepared by calcining oxide of lead with about a third of copper oxide, and reducing the compound to a un...

Cobalt Marrone
There is obtainable from cobalt a very rich marrone brown, which, like many other colours, is more beautiful while moist than when dri...

Madder Marrone
or Marrone Lake, was a preparation of madder, of great depth, transparency, and stability. Working well in water, glazing and drying ...

Mars Marrone
Under the heading of a New Marrone Pigment there appeared some months back in a chemical journal the following:--"The blood-red compou...

Semi-neutral Gray Is Distinguished From The Neutral Grey Which
springs in an infinite series from the mixture of the neutral black and white. Between gray and grey, however, there is no intermediate,...

Or Mineral Grey As It Is Often Improperly Spelt Is Obtainable From
the lapis lazuli, after the blue and ash have been worked out. So derived, it is a refuse article, worthless if the stone has been skil...

Or More Correctly Semi-neutral Tint Is A Compound Shadow Colour Of
a cool character. It is permanent, except that on exposure the gray is apt to become grey, a change which may be prevented by a slight a...

For Artists Such Are Harding's And Macpherson's Tints Composed Of
pigments which associate cordially, and sold ready prepared in cakes and boxes for miniature and water painting. Of the four grays in...

Between White And Black True Or Normal Grey Is Only Obtainable By
admixture of pure white with pure black, various proportions of which afford numerous tones of pure grey. In practice it may likewise be...

Produced By A Thin Wash Of Black Over White The Neutral Grey Differs
...

From The Semi-neutral Gray In Not Being Coloured By Any Primary
secondary, tertiary, or semi-neutral; hence any blue, purple, olive, or gray added to it, at once destroys the neutrality of grey, and c...

White And Pure Black; The Grays Known To The Palette As Mineral Grey
and Payne's Grey having been incorrectly named. Practically, the nearest approach to a normal grey is furnished by Black Lead, which for...

Light Colours; Thus It Blues White Greens Yellow Purples Red
...

And Cools Blue Hence The Artist Errs With Ill Effect Who Regards
black as of nearest affinity to hot and brown colours, and will do well ...

To Keep In Mind--the Glow Of Sunshine And The Cool Of Shade
It is a fault of even some of our best colourists, as evinced by their pictures, to be too fond of black upon their palettes, and then...

Should Be Of Some Colour--never Black Nor Approaching Black They
should be evidently and always of a luminous nature, and the black should look strange among them; never occurring except in a black ob...

Introduced With Caution When Hue Is Of Greater Importance Than Shade
Even when employed as a shadow, without much judgment in its use, black is apt to appear as local colour rather than as privation of lig...

Plumbago Or Graphite Contains In Spite Of Its Name No Lead Being
simply a species of carbon or charcoal. In most specimens iron is present, varying in quantity from a mere trace up to five per cent, t...

Charcoal Liege Or Vine Black Is A Well-burnt And Levigated
charcoal prepared from vine twigs, of weaker body than ivory or lamp black, and consequently better suited to the grays and general mixe...

Sometimes Called China Or Chinese Ink Is Chiefly Brought From
China in oblong cakes, of a musky scent, ready prepared for painting in water. Varying considerably in body and colour, the best has a s...

Juice Of A Plant Named Houng Hoa To Give It Brightness Of Tone
According to an analysis by M. Proust, the better kinds contain about two per cent. of camphor. By some, the pigment known as Sepia has ...

Liquid Indian Ink Is A Solution For Architects Surveyors &c
TTITLE IVORY BLACK is ivory charred to blackness by strong heat in closed vessels. Differing chiefly through want of care or skill ...

Or Lamblack Is A Smoke Black Being The Soot Procured By The Burning
of resins or resinous woods. It is a pure vegetal charcoal of fine texture, not quite so intense nor so transparent as the black made fr...

Oxide Of Manganese Which Gives The Red Hue And That Of Cobalt Which
...

Furnishes The Blue Are Added To Brown Or Yellow Frit To Obtain A
velvety black glass. Similarly the dyer proceeds to dye black upon a deep blue basis of indigo, with the ruddy colour of madder and the ...

Black Chalk
is an indurated clay, of the texture of white chalk, and chiefly used for cutting into crayons. Fine specimens have been found near Ba...

Black Ochre
Earth Black, or Prussian Black, is a native earth, combined with iron and alluvial clay. It is found in most countries, and should be ...

Bone Black
obtained by charring, is similar to that of ivory, except that it is a little warmer in tone, having a reddish or orange tinge, and is...

Coffee Black
though little known and not on sale, has been strongly recommended by Bouvier as one of the best blacks that can be used. Soft without...

Frankfort Black
is said to be made of the lees of wine from which the tartar has been washed, by burning, in the manner of ivory black; although the i...

Manganese Black
the common black oxide of that metal, is the best of all blacks for drying in oil without addition. It is also a colour of vast body a...

Mineral Black
is a native impure carbon of soft texture, found in Devonshire. Blacker than plumbago, and free from its metallic lustre, it is of a n...

Paper Black
a pigment unknown to the modern palette, like most of our numbered italicised colours, is of the nature of blue or vine black. Very so...

Peach Black
or Almond Black, made by burning the stones of fruits, the shell of the cocoa-nut, &c., is a violet-black, once much used by Parisian ...

Prussian Black
The same Prussian blue which gives a brown when burnt in the open air, yields a black when calcined in a close crucible. Very intense,...

Purple Black
is, or rather was, a preparation of madder, of a deep purple hue approaching black. Powerful and very transparent, it glazed and dried...

Spanish Black
or Cork Black, is a soft black, obtained by charring cork, and differs not essentially from Frankfort black, except in being of a ligh...

Softer Texture Some Of My Friends Says Bouvier Call It Beggars'
...

Ultramarine Because It Produces By Combinations Tints Almost As Fine
as ultramarine." A blue but not a velvet black, where intensity is required some other is to be preferred. For mixtures, however, it is ...

The Book; Lest His Aim Be Defeated Of Reflecting In A Moderate-sized
mirror the palette as it is and might be at the present day. Arrived at age, as it were, in its twenty-first chapter, this treatise may ...


Colours

Light Color Form Proportion And Dimensions
Whatever is good in interior decoration is the result of consistent relationship between Light, Color, Form, Proportion and Dimension...

Light
1. The white light of the sun is compounded of an almost innumerable number of color elements, as shown by the phenomena of the rai...

Color Nomenclature&mdashharmonies
9. Color nomenclature includes primary, secondary and tertiary colors, and innumerable hues, shades and tints. All these colors bea...

Contrasts
10. In music it is an established fact that certain notes used in pleasing combination produce sounds we call harmonies. The moment...

Contrast Analogies
17. Diagram III is of the utmost value to the colorist, illustrating not only the composition of color, but showing the origin of e...

Proportions
22. In the use of one color with another of contrasting character the question frequently arises, what proportion of each should be...

Color In Large Or Small Rooms
26. For a large room well lighted, yellow, red and orange in delicate shades are not as desirable as orange, violet and russet in l...

Color Proportions
28. But to arrive at proportions we must reduce the circular table to a geometrical table. We must straighten out the lines so that...

Black&mdashwhite&mdashgray
30. We do not wish to be understood as stating that the work of the colorist is solely mechanical; but we would emphasize that the ...

Room Combinations
Showing Four-Color Combinations.  ...

Sequence Of Harmonies
DIAGRAM VI As these twenty-one sections ar...

Contiguous Harmonies
44. For the lower floor he must arrange his colors so that while they moderate the direct glare of a sunny exposure or brighten the ...

Harmonies For The Room
48. The floor should usually enter into the color scheme as the low note in the scale. It is the background for the furniture, and...

Wall Proportions
62. The wainscoting or dado should be the same as the top border or frieze, but of a darker tone. The intermixture of white or blac...

Room Proportions
66. In small rooms harmonies of contrast are unsafe, because contrasts must involve advancing colors, which make a room look smalle...

Decorative Proportions
(SEE CHART) On the preceding pages we present a quick-reference chart of rules that should be followed in furnishing rooms un...

Colors That Give Size To A Room
76. The wall and fabric designs must be of a size proportionate to the size of the room. The color treatment of a well-lighted room...

Advancing And Receding Colors
80. Citrine is an advancing color, because while it contains some blue in the green of its composition, it contains a preponderance...

Floor Treatments
    84. Co...

Color Schemes For Rooms Under Normal Conditions
(TN: left page of two page table) ...

The Wall The Keynote Color
92. Our theory of color as applied to room furnishings provides always that the side-wall is the keynote and this keynote is usuall...

The Psychology Of Color
94. Whatever may be the charm conveyed by design there is a reason for it. We can analyze it. It has an inherent quality of...

To Determine The Color Sense
Color, like music, while subjected to positive rules of harmony, appeals to natures according to the responsiveness of their nerve se...

Period Uses Of Color
98. If our furniture is white and gold, it is clearly evident that the colorings of a room should be soft and harmonious. If we ado...

Illusion Effect And Expression In The Use Of Lines
107. We very often notice a room which has been carefully carried out but is utterly lacking in charm. The color seems right, and, ...

Illusion
111. A doorway looks wider that has at the top a drapery which crosses in one complete curved sweep. A side-wall is larger apparent...

Color Terms
120. In the study of color and its application authorities differ so materially that it is not only impossible to reconcile their t...

Color Vocabulary
126. In music, a tone which is formed by a certain number of vibrations per second is the same the world over, and each and every ton...

Artificial Lighting
135. In considering artificial light, we will avoid all efforts to analyze the different forms of energy, magnetic energy, electric...

Absorption And Reflection
138. The architect who designates the number and location of outlets for the lighting sources, and specifies the candle-power of the ...

Light Effect On Color
143. To illuminate a city, with the dull grim environment of streets and houses, a soft yellow glow will give warmth and tone; the gr...

Illumination
148. For the dining-room and living-room a different plan must be used, because of the different requirements. The table is usually i...

Reflective Power Of Color
The following table will give an idea of the percentage of light reflected from ordinary wall-hangings and papers: ...

The Color Of Artificial Lights
152. In planning or matching colors for a room, it is best to consider the purpose for which the room is to be used, and match the co...

Artificial Light Application
153. The introduction of light by the medium of a wire, which may be carried to any point in a room, encourages so many possibiliti...

Power Necessary
157. While the list which we give herewith is based largely upon area, it may be taken as a basis of calculation for lighting equi...

Color Control
158. Mechanical lighting is so easily undertaken that it predisposes one to extravagance. Properly applied, artificial light adds m...

Dress And Complexion
160. The nerves of the eye, exhilarated by any pronounced color, unconsciously observe the complement of that color when turned fro...

Color Terms
Broken Color. Color changed by the addition of black, white or gray. Chroma. Color. Cold Colors are colors conta...


Aesthetics

The Adjective Beautiful
THIS little book, like the great branch of mental science to which it is an introduction, makes no attempt to "form the taste" of the ...

Contemplative Satisfaction
WE have thus defined the word Beautiful as implying an attitude of contemplative satisfaction, marked by a feeling, sometimes amounti...

Aspects Versus Things
HAVING settled upon a particular point of view as the one he liked best, he remained there in contemplation of the aspect it afforded ...

Sensations
IN the contemplation of the Aspect before him, what gave that aesthetic man the most immediate and undoubted pleasure was its colour,...

Perception Of Relations
WHY should this be the case? Briefly, because colours (and sounds) as such are forced upon us by external stimulation of our organs of...

Elements Of Shape
LET us now examine some of these relations, not in the genealogical or hierarchic order assigned to them by experimental psychology, ...

Facility And Difficulty Of Grasping
OF this we get further proof when we proceed to another and less elementary relationship implied in the perception of shape: the rela...

Subject And Object
BUT before proceeding to this additional factor in shape-perception, namely that of Empathic Interpretation, I require to forestall an...

Empathy
THE mountain rises. What do we mean when we employ this form of words? Some mountains, we are told, have originated in an upheaval. B...

The Movement Of Lines
ANY tendency to Empathy is perpetually being checked by the need for practical thinking. We are made to think in the most summary fas...

The Character Of Shapes
IN my example of the Rising Mountain, I have been speaking as if Empathy invested the shapes we look at with only one mode of activit...

From The Shape To The Thing
SUCH are the satisfactions and dissatisfactions, impersonal and unpractical, we can receive, or in reality, give ourselves, in the co...

From The Thing To The Shape
THE necessities of analysis and exposition have led us from the Shape to the Thing, from aesthetic contemplation to discursive and pr...

The Aims Of Art
WE have thus at last got to Art, which the Reader may have expected to be dealt with at the outset of a primer on the Beautiful. Wh...

Attention To Shapes
TO explain how art in general, and any art in particular, succeeds in reconciling these contradictory demands, I must remind the Reade...

Information About Things
AMONG the facts which Painting is set to tell us about things, the most important, after cubic existence, is Locomotion. Indeed in the...

The Co-operation Of Things And Shapes
DURING the Middle Ages and up to recent times the chief task of painting has been, ostensibly, the telling and re-telling of the same ...

Aesthetic Responsiveness
OUR examination has thus proceeded from aesthetic contemplation to the work of Art, which seeks to secure and satisfy it while furthe...

The Storage And Transfer Of Emotion
IN dealing with familiarity as a multiplying factor of aesthetic appreciation, I have laid stress on its effect in facilitating the p...

Aesthetic Irradiation And Purification
THE storage and transfer of aesthetic emotion explain yet another fact, with which indeed I began this little book: namely that the w...

Conclusion Evolutional
SOME of my Readers, not satisfied by the answer implicit in the last chapter and indeed in the whole of this little book, may ask a fi...


Photography

How To Make A Negative Drawing
The drawing paper for designs to be reproduced by the cyantotype and the other processes described in this book should be of a fine ...

Choice Of Paper Sizing
In all the photographic processes by precipitation of metallic oxides the quality of the paper has a great influence on the results....

The Cyanotype Or Blue Process
This process gives white impressions on a blue ground with diapositives or drawings on transparent or semi-transparent materials, an...

The Cyanofer Pellet's Process
This process gives blue impressions on a white ground from positive cliches, and white impressions on a blue ground from negative cl...

The Black Or Ink Process Ferro-tannate Process
This process gives black positive impressions on white ground from positive cliches, and negative impressions from negative cliches....

The Cuprotype Burnett's Process
This process gives positive impressions from negative cliches. Uranic nitrate 10 parts Cupric nitrate 2 parts Water ...

The Aniline Process
The aniline process was published in 1865, by Mr. Willis, the inventor of the platinotype.(11) It is based on the oxidation of anili...

The Primuline Or Diazotype Process
Primuline, discovered in 1887 by Mr. A. G. Green, an English chemist, is a dye of a primrose color, possessing a great affinity for ...

Printing On Wood Canvas Opal And Transparencies
Printing on Wood.--To print on a wood block a design to be engraved on the same presents certain difficulties. In the first place, ...

Tracing Process On Metal
We call the attention of metal engravers to this process. It is well known that wood engravers have their original designs photogra...

Graphotypy
This process consists in converting a cliche in half tones into one in lines, which can be directly printed on paper, or impressed, ...

The Uranotype
This process, devised by J. Wothly, in 1864, did not receive from the photographers the attention it merits, as it is always the cas...

H Cooper's Process 1865
PREPARATION OF THE PAPER St. Vincent arrowroot 200 grains Boiling water 10 ounces Crush the arrowroot to fine p...

X's Process 1865 Secrets Of The Uranotype
Preparation of the Uranium Compound.--Precipitate the nitrate of uranium from its solution by concentrated liquid ammonia. Let sett...

The Platinotype
This process, discovered by William Willis,(16) yields very fine impressions which wholly consists of platinum and are, therefor...

Causes Of Failures
The images are veiled. This defect may result from various causes, viz.: 1st. The stock ferric oxalate solution is impaired by...

Artigues' Process
The Artigues process, so called, is, without any doubt, the best to be employed for the reproduction of plans and drawings in lines....

The Carbon Process
The carbon tissue is seldom prepared by photographers. However, for the sake of completeness, we shall give the formula of the mixtu...

Preparation Of Red Yellow Or Blue Tissues
Red Tissue.--Dissolve 10 grams of carmine in 1 liter of aqueous ammonia and evaporate. When the smell of the alkali has almost disa...

Cj Burnett's Process 1857
"A capital process for many purposes," says Mr. Burnett, "is to float or steep the paper in a mixed solution of bichromate of potash...

Godefroy's Process 1858
Float the paper upon the following solution for three minutes and hang it up to dry: Uranium nitrate 30 to 60 parts Silver nit...

De La Blanchere's Process 1858
Uranium nitrate 25 parts Distilled water 100 parts Filter the solution and keep it in the dark. The paper should be sized ...

Houdoy's Process 1858
The paper is floated upon a lukewarm solution of gelatine at 5:100, and when dry, on a bath of uranium at 10 or 15 per 100 of water....

Niepce De St Victor's Process 1859
Red Prints. Float the paper for fifteen or twenty seconds on a 20 per cent. solution of nitrate of uranium and dry before the f...

Dr Tl Phipson's Process 1861
Take a solution of perchloride of iron and, having precipitated the peroxide with ammonia, collect the precipitate on a filter and w...

Dr Jb Obernetter's Process 1863
Copper chloride 100 parts Ferric chloride, sol. sp. 13 parts gr. 1.5 Hydrochloric acid, conc. 12 parts C. P. Wa...

L Liesegang's Process 1865
Pour ammonia into a nitrate of uranium solution, wash the precipitate of uranate of ammonia in distilled water, then dissolve in cit...

Guarbassi's Process 1867
The paper is floated in the dark for four or five minutes on a saturated solution of bichromate of potash. When dry, it is printed ...

A Poitevin's Process 1870
"I use a paper prepared with iron sesquioxide rendered sensitive to light by tartaric or, better, citric acid in concentrated soluti...

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