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 Steel Making.ca

Learn about the process of making steel.




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  Steel (177)    Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery (43)  


Steel Making.ca

Learn about the process of making steel.


Steel

Bessemer Process
The bessemer process consists of charging molten pig iron into a huge, brick-lined pot called the bessemer converter, and then in blo...

Open Hearth Process
The open hearth furnace consists of a big brick room with a low arched roof. It is charged with pig iron and scrap through doors in t...

Crucible Steel
Crucible steel is still made by melting material in a clay or graphite crucible. Each crucible contains about 40 lb. of best puddled i...

The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric furnace. These furnaces are of various sizes and designs; their size may b...

Classifications Of Steel
Among makers and sellers, carbon tool-steels are classed by grade and temper. The word grade is qualified by many adjectives of more ...

Composition And Properties Of Steel
It is a remarkable fact that one can look through a dozen text books on metallurgy and not find a definition of the word steel. Some ...

Sulphur
SULPHUR is another element (symbol S) which is always found in steel in small quantities. Some sulphur is contained in the ore from w...

Phosphorus
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal from the ore. It remains in the steel when made by the so-called acid proc...

Silicon
SILICON is a very widespread element (symbol Si), being an essential constituent of nearly all the rocks of the earth. It is similar t...

Manganese
MANGANESE is a metal much like iron. Its chemical symbol is Mn. It is somewhat more active than iron in many chemical changes--notably...

Alloying Elements
Commercial steels of even the simplest types are therefore primarily alloys of iron and carbon. Impurities and their remedies are alw...

Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the gra...

Tensile Properties
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pounds a 1-in. bar will support just before breaking, a term called the ult...

Impact Tests
Impact tests are of considerable importance as an indication of how a metal will perform under shock. Some engineers think that the t...

Fatigue Tests
It has been known for fifty years that a beam or rod would fail at a relatively low stress if only repeated often enough. It has been...

Hardness Testing
The word hardness is used to express various properties of metals, and is measured in as many different ways. Scratch hardness is u...

Nickel
Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare alloys now used in steel manufacture. Originally nickel was added to give ...

Chromium
Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic function of opposing the disintegration and reconstruction of cementite. Thi...

Nickel-chromium
A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excelle...

Vanadium
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium, carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel ...

Manganese
Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel, but this is dependent on the carbon content. High carbon materially adds...

Tungsten
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a long time. The celebrated and ancient damascus steel being a form of tu...

Molybdenum
Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five years, but they have not been widely exploited until since the war. Very...

Silicon
Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubbles or blow holes forming while steel is solidifying. In fact, steel aft...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been the object of steel makers for years to eliminate it. On cheap grades o...

Sulphur
Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greater detriment to steel than phosphorus. High sulphur up to 0.09 per cent h...

Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering ...

Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches a...

Effect Of A Small Amount Of Copper In Medium-carbon Steel
This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012 ...

High-chromium Or Rust-proof Steel
High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from 11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery pur...

Annealing
ANNEALING can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from 1,290 to 1,380 deg.F. and cooling in air or quenching in water or oil. A...

Hardening
The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and 1,750 deg.F. ...

Corrosion
This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut surfaces will ...

Liberty Motor Connecting Rods
The requirements for materials for the Liberty motor connecting rods are so severe that the methods of securing the desired qualities ...

Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and ...

Application Of Liberty Engine Materials To The Automotive Industry
The success of the Liberty engine program was an engineering achievement in which the science of metallurgy played an important pa...

Carbon-steel Forgings
Low-stressed, carbon-steel forgings include such parts as carbureter control levers, etc. The important criterion for parts of this ty...

Highly Stressed Parts
The highly stressed parts on the Liberty engine consisted of the connecting-rod bolt, the main-bearing bolt, the propeller-hub key, e...

Gears
The material used for all gears on the Liberty engine was selected at the option of the manufacturer from the following standard S. A...

Rate Of Cooling
At the option of the manufacturer, the above treatment of gear forgings could be substituted by normalizing the forgings at a tempera...

Connecting Rods
The material used for all connecting rods on the Liberty engine was selected at the option of the manufacturer from one of two standa...

Crankshaft
The crankshaft was the most highly stressed part of the entire Liberty engine, and, therefore, every metallurgical precaution was tak...

Piston Pin
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is consid...

Application To The Automotive Industry
The information given on the various parts of the Liberty engine applies with equal force to the corresponding parts in the constructi...

Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
If the nickel content of this steel is eliminated, and the percentage of chromium raised slightly, an ideal transmission-gear material...

Heat Treatment Of Axles
Parts of this general type should be heat-treated to show the following minimum physical properties: Elastic limit, 115,000 lb. per sq...

Making Steel Balls
Steel balls are made from rods or coils according to size, stock less than 9/16-in. comes in coils. Stock 5/8-in. and larger comes in...

The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation must be carefully supervised. This is especially true because of the te...

Heating
Although it is possible to work steels cold, to an extent depending upon their ductility, and although such operations are commonly p...

Steel Worked In Austenitic State
As a general rule steel should be worked when it is in the austenitic state. (See page 108.) It is then soft and ductile. As the s...

Steel Can Be Worked Cold
As noted above, steel can be worked cold, as in the case of cold-rolled steel. Heat treatment of cold-worked steel is a very delicate...

Forging High-speed Steel
Heat very slowly and carefully to from 1,800 to 2,000 deg.F. and forge thoroughly and uniformly. If the forging operation is prolonge...

Carbon Tool Steel
Heat to a bright red, about 1,500 to 1,550 deg.F. Do not hammer steel when it cools down to a dark cherry red, or just below its hard...

Oil-hardening Steel
Heat slowly and uniformly to 1,450 deg.F. and forge thoroughly. Do not under any circumstances attempt to harden at the forging heat....

Chrome-nickel Steel
Forging heat of chrome-nickel steel depends very largely on the percentage of each element contained in the steel. Steel containing f...

Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-treating them to meet the specifications demanded by some of the foreign go...

Machineability
Reheating for machine ability was done at 100 deg. less than the drawing temperature, but the time of soaking is more than double. Aft...

Annealing
There is no mystery or secret about the proper annealing of different steels, but in order to secure the best results it is absolutely...

Annealing Of High-speed Steel
For annealing high-speed steel, some makers recommend using ground mica, charcoal, lime, fine dry ashes or lake sand as a packing in ...

Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or by being packed. Packing is by far the most satisfactory method as it pre...

Annealing Alloy Steel
The term alloy steel, from the steel maker's point of view, refers largely to nickel and chromium steel or a combination of both. Thes...

High-carbon Machinery Steel
The carbon content of this steel is above 30 points and is hardly ever above 60 points or 0.60 per cent. Annealing such steel is gene...

Annealing In Bone
Steel and cast iron may both be annealed in granulated bone. Pack the work the same as for case-hardening except that it is not necess...

Annealing Of Rifle Components At Springfield Armory
In general, all forgings of the components of the arms manufactured at the Armory and all forgings for other ordnance establishments ...

Surface Carburizing
Carburizing, commonly called case-hardening, is the art of producing a high-carbon surface, or case, upon a low carbon steel article. ...

Rate Of Absorption
According to Guillet, the absorption of carbon is favored by those special elements which exist as double carbides in steel. For examp...

Carburizing Material
The simplest carburizing substance is charcoal. It is also the slowest, but is often used mixed with something that will evolve large...

Quenching
It is considered good practice to quench alloy steels from the pot, especially if the case is of any appreciable depth. The texture o...

Effect Of Different Carburizing Material
[Illustrations: FIGS. 33 to 37.] Each of these different packing materials has a different effect upon the work in which it is heat...

Quenching The Work
In some operations case-hardened work is quenched from the box by dumping the whole contents into the quenching tank. It is common pr...

The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in case-hardening--possibly more so than in ordinary tempering. One reason fo...

Refining The Grain
This is remedied by reheating the piece to a temperature slightly above the critical temperature of the case, this temperature corres...

Case-hardening Treatments For Various Steels
Plain water, salt water and linseed oil are the three most common quenching materials for case-hardening. Water is used for ordinary ...

Carburizing By Gas
The process of carburizing by gas, briefly mentioned on page 88, consists of having a slowly revolving, properly heated, cylindrical ...

Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating. Th...

Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, Dayton, Ohio, they have a large quantity of small shafts, Fig. 40, that ...

The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufacture of automobile and other parts which are likely to be subjected to ...

Introduction Of Carbon
The matter to which these notes are primarily directed is the introduction of carbon into the case of the article to be hardened. In ...

Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the facilities available in the locality where the shop is situated and the nat...

A Satisfactory Luting Mixture
A mixture of fireclay and sand will be found very satisfactory for closing up the boxes, and by observing the appearance of the work ...

Gas Consumption For Carburizing
Although the advantages offered by the gas-fired furnace for carburizing have been generally recognized in the past from points of vie...

The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-treatment department, there is none that offers greater possibilities for ...

Separating The Work From The Compound
During the pulling of the heat, the pots are dumped upon a cast-iron screen which forms a table or apron for the furnace. Directly ben...

Blending The Compound
Essentially, this consists of the sturdy, power-driven separator and fanning mill which separates the foreign matter from the compound...

Heat Treatment Of Steel
Heat treatment consists in heating and cooling metal at definite rates in order to change its physical condition. Many objects may be...

Critical Points
One of the most important means of investigating the properties of pure metals and their alloys is by an examination of their heating ...

Hardening
Steel is hardened by quenching from above the upper critical. Apparently the quick cooling prevents the normal change back to definite...

Judging The Heat Of Steel
While the use of a pyrometer is of course the only way to have accurate knowledge as to the heat being used in either forging or hard...

Heat Treatment Of Gear Blanks
This section is based on a paper read before the American Gear Manufacturers' Association at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., Apr. 18, ...

Annealing Work
With the exception of several of the higher types of alloy steels, where the percentages of special elements run quite high, which ca...

Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed a dual steel, allowing f...

Effects Of Proper Annealing
Proper annealing of low-carbon steels causes a complete solution or combination to take place between the ferrite and pearlite, produ...

Temperature For Annealing
Theoretically, annealing should be accomplished at a temperature at just slightly above the critical point. However, in practice the ...

Care In Annealing
Not only will benefits in machining be found by careful annealing of forgings but the subsequent troubles in the hardening plant will...

The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obtained in steel by heat treatment. This has been worked out by E. J. Janitz...

Heat-treating Equipment And Methods For Mass Production
The heat-treating department of the Brown-Lipe-Chapin Company, Syracuse, N. Y., runs day and night, and besides handling all the hard...

Annealing Method
Forgings which are too hard to machine are put in pots with a little charcoal to cause a reducing atmosphere and to prevent scale. Th...

Heat-treating Department
The heat-treating department occupies an L-shaped building. The design is very practical, with the furnace and the floor on the same ...

The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal vertical flange aro...

Short Method Of Treatment
In the new method, the packed pots are run into the case-hardening furnaces, which are heated to 1,600 deg.F. On the insertion of the...

The Effect
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment which refines the core, which under the former high heat (1,700 deg.F.) wa...

Affinity Of Nickel Steel For Carbon
The carbon- and nickel-steel gears are carburized separately owing to the difference in time necessary for their carburization. Pract...

Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the least. Having passed this file test at several p...

Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures are in the hands of one man, who occupies...

Hardening Operation
Hardening a gear is accomplished as follows: The gear is taken from the furnace by the furnaceman and placed in the lower die, surrou...

Carburizing Low-carbon Sleeves
Low-carbon sleeves are carburized and pushed on malleable-iron differential-case hubs. Formerly, these sleeves were given two treatme...

Cyanide Bath For Tool Steels
All high-carbon tool steels are heated in a cyanide bath. With this bath, the heat can be controlled within 3 deg. The steel is evenl...

Drop Forging Dies
The kind of steel used in the die of course influences the heat treatment it is to receive, but this also depends on the kind of work...

S A E Heat Treatments
The Society of Automotive Engineers have adopted certain heat treatments to suit different steels and varying conditions. These have a...

Restoring Overheated Steel
The effect of heat treatment on overheated steel is shown graphically in Fig. 65 to the series of illustrations on pages 137 to 144. T...

Hardening Carbon Steel For Tools
For years the toolmaker had full sway in regard to make of steel wanted for shop tools, he generally made his own designs, hardened, ...

The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from the dirty, dark smithshop in the corner with the open coal forge. There, ...

Take Time For Hardening
Uneven heating and poor quenching has caused loss of many very valuable dies, and it certainly seems that when a firm spends from $75...

Carbon In Tool Steel
Carbon tool steel, or tool steel as it is commonly called, usually contains from 80 to 125 points (or from 0.80 to 1.25 per cent) of ...

Carbon Steels For Different Tools
All users of tool steels should carefully study the different qualities of the steels they handle. Different uses requires different k...

Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pressing and drop forgings. Mining drills to harden only. Easily weldable. ...

Steel For Chisels And Punches
The highest grades of carbon or tempering steels are to be recommended for tools which have to withstand shocks, such as for cold chis...

Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such tools as taps and form cutters, which must keep their shape after harden...

Annealing To Relieve Internal Stresses
Work quenched from a high temperature and not afterward tempered will, if complex in shape, contain many internal stresses which may ...

Double Annealing
Water annealing consists in heating the piece, allowing it to cool in air until it loses its red heat and becomes black and then imme...

Quenching Tool Steel
To secure proper hardness, the cooling of quenching of steel is as important as its heating. Quenching baths vary in nature, there be...

The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more brittle than is necessary, and in order to bring it to the condition that m...

Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (212 deg.F.) the transformation begins, increasing in intensity as the tem...

Knowing What Takes Place
How are we to know if we have given a piece of steel the very best possible treatment? The best method is by microscopic examinatio...

Hints For Tool Steel Users
Do not hesitate to ask for information from the maker as to the best steel to use for a given purpose, mentioning in as much detail a...

Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually very limited, often consisting of a forge, a small open hard-coal furnace...

Shrinking And Enlarging Work
Steel can be shrunk or enlarged by proper heating and cooling. Pins for forced fits can be enlarged several thousandths of an inch by...

Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in tool holders of turret lathes were required. No proper tempering oven was a...

The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and Electric Furnaces, Ltd., 6, Queenstreet, London, S. W.: Two gages of 3...

Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by the various colors, or oxides, which appear on steel in tempering. The ...

High Speed Steel
For centuries the secret art of making tool steel was handed down from father to son. The manufacture of tool steel is still an art w...

Standard Analysis
The selection of a standard analysis by the manufacturer is the result of a series of compromises between various properties imparted ...

Detrimental Elements
Sulphur and phosphorus are two elements known to be detrimental to all steels. Sulphur causes red-shortness and phosphorus causes col...

Quality And Structure
The quality of high-speed steel is dependent to a very great extent upon its structure. The making of the structure begins under the ...

Hardening High-speed Steels
We will now take up the matter of hardening high-speed steels. The most ordinary tools used are for lathes and planers. The forging s...

Cutting-off Steel From Bar
To cut a piece from an annealed bar, cut off with a hack saw, milling cutter or circular saw. Cut clear through the bar; do not nick o...

Lathe And Planer Tools
FORGING.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill, is particularly desirable in the winter, then heat slowly and carefully to a scal...

For Milling Cutters And Formed Tools
FORGING.--Forge as before.--ANNEALING.--Place the steel in a pipe, box or muffle. Arrange the steel so as to allow at least 1 in. of ...

Instructions For Working High-speed Steel
Owing to the wide variations in the composition of high-speed steels by various makers, it is always advisable to follow the direction...

Lathe And Planer Tools
TO FORGE.--Gently warm the steel to remove any chill is particularly desirable in the winter. Then heat slowly and carefully to a scal...

Heat Treatment Of Lathe Planer And Similar Tools
FIRE.--For these tools a good fire is one made of hard foundry coke, broken in small pieces, in an ordinary blacksmith forge with a f...

Heat Treatment Of Milling Cutters Drills Reamers Etc
THE FIRE.--Gas and electric furnaces designed for high heats are now made for treating high-speed steels. We recommend them for treat...

Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
HEATING.--The degree to which tools of the above classes should be heated depends upon the shape, size and use for which they are int...

A Chromium-cobalt Steel
The Latrobe Steel Company make a high-speed steel without tungsten, its red-hardness properties depending on chromium and cobalt inste...

Suggestions For Handling High-speed Steels
The following suggestions for handling high-speed steels are given by a maker whose steel is probably typical of a number of different...

Hardening High-speed Steel
In forging use coke for fuel in the forge. Heat steel slowly and thoroughly to a lemon heat. Do not forge at a lower heat. Do not let...

Air-hardening Steels
These steels are recommended for boring, turning and planing where the cost of high-speed seems excessive. They are also recommended ...

Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herewith. Figure 92 is a lead pot furnace, Fig. 93 is a vertical furnace with ...

Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from furnaces where high temperatures are maintained suffer in health as well...

Heavy Forging Practice
In heavy forging practice where the metal is being worked at a welding heat, the amount of flame that will issue from an open-front f...

Flange Shields For Furnaces
Such portable flame shields as the one illustrated in Fig. 106 may prove serviceable before furnaces required for plate work, where t...

Heating Of Manganese Steel
Another form of heat-treating furnace is that which is used for the heating of manganese and other alloy steels, which after having b...

Furnace Data
In order to give definite information concerning furnaces, fuels etc., the following data is quoted from a paper by Seth A. Moulton a...

Pyrometry And Pyrometers
A knowledge of the fundamental principles of pyrometry, or the measurement of temperatures, is quite necessary for one engaged in the...

Pyrometers
Armor plate makers sometimes use the copper ball or Siemens' water pyrometer because they can place a number of the balls or weights o...

The Thermo-couple
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of temperatures, between, say, 700 and 2,500 deg.F., was made more simple ...

The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely necessary that a measuring instrument be used which will give the operator an...

Calibration Of Pyrometer With Common Salt
An easy and convenient method for standardization and one which does not necessitate the use of an expensive laboratory equipment is ...

Complete Calibration Of Pyrometers
For the complete calibration of a thermo-couple of unknown electromotive force, the new couple may be checked against a standard inst...

Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured, that the cold junctio...

The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and substantial in that it is not affected by the jar and vibration of the factory...

Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Company show different applications of the thermo-couples to furnaces of vario...

Leeds And Northrup Optical Pyrometer
The principles of this very popular method of measuring temperature are sketched in Fig. 123. The instrument is light and port...

Optical System And Electrical Circuit Of The Leeds & Northrup Optical Pyrometer
For extremely high temperature, the optical pyrometer is largely used. This is a comparative method. By means of the rheostat the cur...

Correction For Cold-junction Errors
The voltage generated by a thermo-couple of an electric pyrometer is dependent on the difference in temperature between its hot juncti...

Correction By Zero Adjustment
Many pyrometers are supplied with a zero adjuster, by means of which the pointer can be set to any actual cold-junction temperature. ...

Compensating Leads
By the use of compensating leads, formed of the same material as the thermo-couple, the cold junction can be removed from the head of...

Brown Automatic Signaling Pyrometer
In large heat-treating plants it has been customary to maintain an operator at a central pyrometer, and by colored electric lights at...

An Automatic Temperature Control Pyrometer
Automatic temperature control instruments are similar to the Brown indicating high resistance pyrometer with the exception that the p...

Pyrometers For Molten Metal
Pyrometers for molten metal are connected to portable thermocouples as in Fig. 132. Usually the pyrometer is portable, as shown in th...

Protectors For Thermo-couples
Thermo-couples must be protected from the danger of mechanical injury. For this purpose tubes of various refractory materials are mad...

Steel Before The 1850's
In spite of a rapid increase in the use of machines and the overwhelming demand for iron products for the expanding railroads, the us...

Robert Mushet
Robert (Forester) Mushet (1811-1891), born in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, of a Scots father (David, 1772-1847) himself a note...

Ebbw Vale And The Bessemer Process
After his British Association address in August 1856, Bessemer had received applications from several ironmasters for licenses, which ...

Mushet And Bessemer
That Mushet was "used" by Ebbw Vale against Bessemer is, perhaps, only an assumption; but that he was badly treated by Ebbw Vale is su...

William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association was published in the Scientific American on September 13, 1856.[95] On Se...

Conclusions
Martien was probably never a serious contender for the honor of discovering the atmospheric process of making steel. In the present s...


Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery

Sources Of The Advantages Arising From Machinery And Manufactures
1. There exists, perhaps, no single circumstance which distinguishes our country more remarkably from all others, than the vast exten...

Accumulating Power
20. Whenever the work to be done requires more force for its execution than can be generated in the time necessary for its completion...

Regulating Power
27. Uniformity and steadiness in the rate at which machinery works, are essential both for its effect and its duration. The first ill...

Increase And Diminution Of Velocity
32. The fatigue produced on the muscles of the human frame does not altogether depend on the actual force employed in each effort, bu...

Extending The Time Of Action Of Forces
45. This is one of the most common and most useful of the employments of machinery. The half minute which we daily devote to the wind...

Saving Time In Natural Operations
47. The process of tanning will furnish us with a striking illustration of the power of machinery in accelerating certain processes i...

Exerting Forces Too Great For Human Power And Executing Operations Too Delicate For Human Touch
56. It requires some skill and a considerable apparatus to enable many men to exert their whole force at a given point; and when this...

Registering Operations
65. One great advantage which we may derive from machinery is from the check which it affords against the inattention, the idleness, ...

Economy Of The Materials Employed
77. The precision with which all operations by machinery are executed, and the exact similarity of the articles thus made, produce a ...

Of The Identity Of The Work When It Is Of The Same Kind And Its Accuracy When Of Different Kinds
79. Nothing is more remarkable, and yet less unexpected, than the perfect identity of things manufactured by the same tool. If the to...

Of Copying
82. The two last-mentioned sources of excellence in the work produced by machinery depend on a principle which pervades a very large ...

Of Printing From Cavities
83. The art of printing, in all its numerous departments, is essentially an art of copying. Under its two great divisions, printing f...

Printing From Surface
91. This second department of printing is of more frequent application in the arts than that which has just been considered. 92. Pr...

Of Copying By Casting
105. The art of casting, by pouring substances in a fluid state into a mould which retains them until they become solid, is essential...

Of Copying By Moulding
112. This method of producing multitudes of individuals having an exact resemblance to each other in external shape, is adopted very ...

Of Copying By Stamping
128. This mode of copying is extensively employed in the arts. It is generally executed by means of large presses worked with a screw...

Of Copying By Punching
133. This mode of copying consists in driving a steel punch through the substance to be cut, either by a blow or by pressure. In some...

Copying With Elongation
140. In this species of copying there exists but little resemblance between the copy and the original. It is the cross-section only o...

Of Copying With Altered Dimensions
147. Of the pentagraph. This mode of copying is chiefly used for drawings or maps: the instrument is simple; and, although usually em...

On The Method Of Observing Manufacturies
160. Having now reviewed the mechanical principles which regulate the successful application of mechanical science to great establish...

Distinction Between Making And Manufacturing
163. The economical principles which regulate the application of machinery, and which govern the interior of all our great factories,...

Of Money As A Medium Of Exchange
166. In the earlier stages of societies the interchange of the few commodities required was conducted by barter, but as soon as their...

On The Influence Of Verification On Price
181. The money price of an article at any given period is usually stated to depend upon the proportion between the supply and the dem...

On The Influence Of Durability On Price
197. Having now considered the circumstances that modify what may be called the momentary amount of price, we must next examine a pri...

Of Price As Measured By Money
201. The money price at which an article sells furnishes us with comparatively little information respecting its value, if we compare...

Of Raw Materials
210. Although the cost of any article may be reduced in its ultimate analysis to the quantity of labour by which it was produced; yet...

On The Division Of Labour
217. Perhaps the most important principle on which the economy of a manufacture depends, is the division of labour amongst the person...

On The Division Of Labour
241. We have already mentioned what may, perhaps, appear paradoxical to some of our readers that the division of labour can be applie...

On The Cost Of Each Separate Process In A Manufacture
253. The great competition introduced by machinery, and the application of the principle of the subdivision of labour, render it nece...

On The Causes And Consequences Of Large Factories
263. On examining the analysis which has been given in chapter XIX of the operations in the art of pin-making, it will be observed, t...

On The Position Of Large Factories
277. It is found in every country, that the situation of large manufacturing establishments is confined to particular districts. In t...

On Over Manufacturing
284. One of the natural and almost inevitable consequences of competition is the production of a supply much larger than the demand r...

Enquiries Previous To Commencing Any Manufactory
298. There are many enquiries which ought always to be made previous to the commencement of the manufacture of any new article. These...

On A New System Of Manufacturing
305. A most erroneous and unfortunate opinion prevails amongst workmen in many manufacturing countries, that their own interest and t...

On Contriving Machinery
318. The power of inventing mechanical contrivances, and of combining machinery, does not appear, if we may judge from the frequency ...

Proper Circumstances For The Application Of Machinery
329. The first object of machinery, the chief cause of its extensive utility, is the perfection and the cheap production of the artic...

On The Duration Of Machinery
340. The time during which a machine will continue to perform its work effectually, will depend chiefly upon the perfection with whic...

On Combinations Amongst Masters Or Workmen Against Each Other
353. There exist amongst the workmen of almost all classes, certain rules or laws which govern their actions towards each other, and ...

On Combinations Of Masters Against The Public
376. A species of combination occasionally takes place amongst manufacturers against persons having patents: and these combinations a...

On The Effect Of Machinery In Reducing The Demand For Labour
404. One of the objections most frequently urged against machinery is, that it has a tendency to supersede much of the hand labour wh...

On The Effect Of Taxes And Of Legal Restrictions Upon Manufactures
414. As soon as a tax is put upon any article, the ingenuity of those who make, and of those who use it, is directed to the means of ...

On The Exportation Of Machinery
437. A few years only have elapsed, since our workmen were not merely prohibited by Act of Parliament from transporting themselves to...

On The Future Prospects Of Manufactures As Connected With Science
453. In reviewing the various processes offered as illustrations of those general principles which it has been the main object of the...

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  Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery  


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