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 Sustainable Farming.ca

. Find Information on sustainable farming and agricultural practices.




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Sustainable Farming.ca

. Find Information on sustainable farming and agricultural practices.


Agriculture

Origin Of The Soil
The word _soil_ occurs many times in this little book. In agriculture this word is used to describe the thin layer of surface earth th...

Tillage Of The Soil
A good many years ago a man by the name of Jethro Tull lived in England. He was a farmer and a most successful man in every way. He fi...

The Moisture Of The Soil
Did any one ever explain to you how important water is to the soil, or tell you why it is so important? Often, as you know, crops enti...

Draining The Soil
A wise man was once asked, "What is the most valuable improvement ever made in agriculture?" He answered, "Drainage." Often soils unfi...

Improving The Soil
We hear a great deal about the exhaustion or wearing out of the soil. Many uncomfortable people are always declaring that our lands wi...

Manuring The Soil
In the early days of our history, when the soil was new and rich, we were not compelled to use large amounts of manures and fertilizer...

Roots
You have perhaps observed the regularity of arrangement in the twigs and branches of trees. Now pull up the roots of a plant, as,...

How The Plant Feeds From The Soil
Plants receive their nourishment from two sources--from the air and from the soil. The soil food, or mineral food, dissolved in water,...

Root-tubercles
Tubercle is a big word, but you ought to know how to pronounce it and what is meant by root-tubercles. We are going to tell you what a...

The Rotation Of Crops
Doubtless you know what is meant by rotation, for your teacher has explained to you already how the earth rotates, or turns, on its ax...

How A Plant Feeds From The Air
If you partly burn a match you will see that it becomes black. This black substance into which the match changes is called _carbon_. E...

The Sap Current
The root-hairs take nourishment from the soil. The leaves manufacture starch and sugar. These manufactured foods must be carried to al...

The Flower And The Seed
Some people think that the flowers by the wayside are for the purpose of beautifying the world and increasing man's enjoyment. Do you ...

Pollination
Nature has several interesting ways of bringing about pollination. In the corn, willow, and pine the pollen is picked up by the wind a...

Crosses Hybrids And Cross-pollination
In our study of flowers and their pollination we have seen that the seed is usually the descendant of two parents, or at least of two ...

Propagation By Buds
It is the business of the farmer to make plants grow, or, as it is generally called, to propagate plants. This he does in one of two w...

Plant Seeding
In propagating by seed, as in reproducing by buds, we select a portion of the parent plant--for a seed is surely a part of the parent ...

Selecting Seed Corn
If a farmer would raise good crops he must, as already stated, select good seed. Many of the farmer's disappointments in the quantity ...

Weeds
Have you ever noticed that some weeds are killed by one particular method, but that this same method may entirely fail to kill other k...

Seed Purity And Vitality
Seeds produce plants. The difference between a large and a small yield may depend upon the kind of plants we raise, and the kind of pl...

Grafting
By a process known as _grafting_ you can force your tree to produce whatever variety of apple you desire. Many people raise fruit tree...

Budding
If, instead of an apple tree, you were raising a plum or a peach tree, a form of propagation known as _budding_ would be better than g...

Planting And Pruning
The apple tree that you grafted should be set out in the spring. Dig a hole three or four feet in diameter where you wish the tree to ...

Market-gardening
The word _horticulture_ is one of those broad words under which much is grouped. It includes the cultivation of orchard fruits, such a...

Flower Gardening
The comforts and joys of life depend largely upon small things. Of these small things perhaps none holds a position of greater importa...

The Cause And Nature Of Plant Disease
Plants have diseases just as animals do; not the same diseases, to be sure, but just as serious for the plant. Some of them are so dan...

115
Showing how spores are borne] The little plants which make up these molds are called _fungi_. Some fungi, such as the toadstools, puf...

Yeast And Bacteria
Can you imagine a plant so small that it would take one hundred plants lying side by side to equal the thickness of a sheet of writing...

Prevention Of Plant Disease
In the last two sections you have learned something of the nature of those fungi and bacteria that cause disease in animals and plants...

Some Special Plant Diseases
=Fire-Blight of the Pear and Apple.= You have perhaps heard your father speak of the "fire-blight" of pear and apple trees. This is on...

Insects In General
The farmer who has fought "bugs" on crop after crop needs no argument to convince him that insects are serious enemies to agriculture....

Orchard Insects
=The San Jose Scale.= The San Jose scale is one of the most dreaded enemies of fruit trees. It is in fact an outlaw in many states. It...

Garden And Field Insects
=The Cabbage Worm.= The cabbage worm of the early spring garden is a familiar object, but you may not know that the innocent-looking l...

The Cotton-boll Weevil
So far as known, the cotton-boll weevil, an insect which is a native of the tropics, crossed the Rio Grande River into Texas in 1891 a...

174
WITH EGG OF WEEVIL, AND SHOWING THE HOLE WHERE THE EGG WAS DEPOSITED Greatly enlarged] In from one to two weeks the grub or larva bec...

Cotton
Although cotton was cultivated on the Eastern continent before America was discovered, this crop owes its present kingly place in the ...

Tobacco
The tobacco plant connects Indian agriculture with our own. It has always been a source of great profit to our people. In the early c...

Wheat
Wheat has been cultivated from earliest times. It was a chief crop in Egypt and Palestine, and still holds its importance in the tempe...

Corn
When the white man came to this country he found the Indians using corn; for this reason, in addition to its name _maize_, it is calle...

Peanuts
This plant is rich in names, being known locally as "ground pea," "goober," "earthnut," and "pindar," as well as generally by the name...

Sweet Potatoes
The roots of sweet potatoes are put on the market in various forms. Aside from the form in which they are ordinarily sold, some potato...

White Or Irish Potatoes
Maize, or Indian corn, and potatoes are the two greatest gifts in the way of food that America has bestowed on the other nations. Sinc...

Oats
The oat plant belongs to the grass family. It is a hardy plant and, under good conditions, a vigorous grower. It stands cold and wet b...

Rye
Rye has the power of gathering its food from a wider area than most other plants. Of course, then, it is a fine crop for poor land, an...

Barley
Barley is one of the oldest crops known to man. The old historian Pliny says that barley was the first food of mankind. Modern man how...

Sugar Plants
In the United States there are three sources from which sugar is obtained; namely, the sugar-maple, the sugar-beet, and the sugar-cane...

Hemp And Flax
In the early ages of the world, mankind is supposed to have worn very little or no clothing. Then leaves and the inner bark of trees w...

Buckwheat
Buckwheat shares with rye and cowpeas the power to make a fairly good crop on poor land. At the same time, of course, a full crop can ...

Rice
The United States produces only about one half of the rice that it consumes. There is no satisfactory reason for our not raising more ...

The Timber Crop
Forest trees are not usually regarded as a crop, but they are certainly one of the most important crops. We should accustom ourselves ...

The Farm Garden
Every farmer needs a garden in which to grow not only vegetables but small fruits for the home table. The garden should always be w...

Grasses
Under usual conditions no farmer expects to grow live stock successfully and economically without setting apart a large part of his ...

Legumes
Often land which was once thought excellent is left to grow up in weeds. The owner says that the land is worn out, and that it will no...

Horses
While we have a great many kinds of horses in America, horses are not natives of this country. Just where wild horses were first tamed...

Cattle
All farm animals were once called _cattle_; now this term applies only to beef and dairy animals--neat cattle. Our improved breeds ...

Sheep
The sheep was perhaps the first animal domesticated by man, and to-day the domesticated sheep is found wherever man lives. It is found...

Swine
The wild boar is a native of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The wild hogs are the parents from which all our domestic breeds have sprung. I...

Farm Poultry
Our geese, ducks, turkeys, and domestic hens are all descendants of wild fowls, and are more or less similar to them in appearance. ...

Bee Culture
Stock-raisers select breeds that are best adapted to their needs. Plant-growers exercise great care in their choice of plants, selecti...

Why We Feed Animals
In the first place, we give various kinds of feed stuffs to our animals that they may live. The heart beats all the time, the lungs co...

The Dairy Cow
Success in dairy farming depends largely upon the proper feeding of stock. There are two questions that the dairy farmer should always...

Milk Cream Churning And Butter
=Milk.= Milk is, as you know, nature's first food for mammals. This is because milk is a model food--it contains water to slake thirst...

How Milk Sours
At the left, pure milk; at the right, milk after standing in a warm room for a few hours in a dirty dish, showing, besides the fat-gl...

The Babcock Milk-tester
It is not sufficient for a farmer or a dairyman to know how much milk each of his cows yields. He should also know how rich the milk i...

Growing Feed Stuffs On The Farm
Economy in raising live stock demands the production of all "roughness" or roughage materials on the farm. By roughness, or roughage, ...

Farm Tools And Machines
The drudgery of farm life is being lessened from year to year by the invention or improvement of farm tools and machines. Perhaps some...

Liming The Land
Occasionally, when a cook puts too much vinegar in a salad, the dish becomes so sour that it is unfit to eat. The vinegar which the co...

Birds
What do birds do in the world? is an important question for us to think about. First, we must gain by observation and by personal acqu...

Farming On Dry Lands
Almost in the center of the western half of our continent there is a vast area in which very little rain falls. This section includes ...

Irrigation
Irrigation is the name given to the plan of supplying water in large quantities to growing crops. Since the dawn of history this pract...

Life In The Country
As ours is a country in which the people rule, every boy and every girl ought to be trained to take a wide-awake interest in public af...

Alfilaria And Winter Pasturage
Will alfilaria (Erodium cicutarium) grow well on the hills of Sonoma county partially covered with shrubs? I want something that w...

Grasses For Bank-holding
We desire a grass to be used on levees, to keep from washing. Bermuda or Johnson gross are dangerous to farming lands. What we des...

Alfalfa And Alkali
I sowed several acres of alfalfa seed with a disc this season and none of it has come up. I think the reason for it not coming up ...

Alfalfa On Adobe
Is adobe land good for alfalfa? Is it harder to start than in other soils or not? How much seed is required to sow an acre? Also s...

Alfalfa And Soil Depth
Do you consider soil which is from 4 to 6 feet deep to hardpan of sufficient depth for alfalfa? Is there hardpan in the region of ...

Black Medic
Will you kindly name the enclosed; also explain its value as forage! The plant is black medic. It has been very widely distribut...

Crimson Clover
About crimson clover in California. Has it proved satisfactory? If so, can you give me data how to plant, etc.! Crimson clover ...

California Winter Pastures
We have a great deal of pasture land on which the native grasses yield less feed each year. A great part of this land can be clear...

East? The Annual Rainfall Is From 12 To 15 Inches
The perennial grasses which they rely upon for pasturage in the East and which will maintain themselves from year to year, will not li...

Bermuda Grass
What is the value of Bermuda grass as a forage crop for cattle, more particularly dairy cows? Bermuda grass is generally condem...

Salt Grass And Alfalfa
I have some land in Sutter county and it has some of this salt grass in spots. I am about to take a twenty-acre piece and put in a...

Giant Spurry
I would like information about spurry. How much frost will it stand? What is time for sowing? Its value as crop to plow under? ...

Light Soil And Scant Moisture
Advise me as to plowing under a crop of last year's weeds where I intend to plant beans, corn, etc. The soil is "slickens," on the...

Clovers And Drought
I have sandy loam with some alkali. In wet years it is regarded as too damp in some places. Can you give me any information on the...

Clover For Wet Lands
What kind of alfalfa will do best on sub-irrigated land which is very wet? I have sown it in alfalfa and it grows finely for two o...

Frosted Grain For Hay
The freeze struck us pretty severely. I had 125 acres of summer-fallowed wheat which I had estimated to make 20 sacks to the acre ...

Forage Plants In The Foothills
We have 3,000 acres of foothill land and hope to be able to irrigate some land this spring and wish to know the best forage crops,...

Winter Forage
At what time of the year should I plant kale, Swiss chard, etc., so as to have them ready for use during the months from February ...

A Summer Hay Crop
What can I put on the land after the oat crop is taken off to furnish hay for horses during the coming winter? I had thought mille...

Teosinte
What about "Teosinte," its food value, method of culture, and adaptability to our climate, character of soil required? Teosinte...

Bermuda Objectionable
Bermuda grass as pasture for summer to supplement burr clover and alfilaria in winter on the cheap hill pasture lands along the co...

Rye Grasses Better Than Brome
I see in an Eastern seed catalogue "Bromus Inermis" very highly spoken of as pasturage. Do you know anything of it, and do you thi...

Johnson Grass
I am informed that Johnson grass makes fine hay. I have not sown the seed yet, but would like to know if the hay is good and if it...

Improving Heavy Land For Alfalfa
My land is very heavy, red loam, and crusts over very hard in dry seasons. I would like to know if it would be best to use barnyar...

Cultivating Alfalfa
When is the best time to cultivate alfalfa, and how often during the season is it advantageous to do so? Which is the best impleme...

Suburban Alfalfa Patch
How can we rid the alfalfa of weeds? As we are obliged to hire help, and do not succeed in getting the hay cared for until we have...

Alfalfa And Bermuda
I have land which was seeded to alfalfa some 15 years ago and has been pastured continuously until it was almost all Bermuda. I ha...

Whether You Will Fully Succeed Against Bermuda Grass Or Not Is Doubtful
It is probable, however, that you can reduce the Bermuda so that other cultivated crops can be continuously grown. Common experience is ...

Rye In California
Which kind of rye is the hardiest, the best yielding, and the best hay varieties in your State? Rye is the least grown of all t...

That Old Seven-headed Wheat
...

We Are Sending You Some Heads Of Grain Which Was Grown In This County
The land was planted with an imported Australian wheat, which we believe the smaller heads to be, but the wheat is about evenly mired wi...

Speltz
I have heard of a Russian grain called "Speltz" or "Emmer." Can I raise it successfully and, if so, what is the very best time of ...

Italian Rye Grass
What kind of grass is enclosed? Also the best method to eradicate it? The grass is the Italian rye grass, or as it is sometimes ...

Fall Feed
Can I irrigate and plant a forage crop n July to feed dairy cows this fall and winter? Would you recommend cow peas or some kind o...

Hurry-up Pasture
What can I plant this fall which would produce pasturage for a small amount of stock this winter, and until I can get the land und...

Cow Peas Not Preparatory For Corn
What time of the year can cow peas be planted, and can the entire crop be plowed under in time for planting field corn? Cowpeas...

Midsummer Hay Sowing
Can I sow oats or barley in July upon irrigated mesa land, with the object of making hay in the fall? Which of the two would do th...

Loose Hay By Measure
How many cubic feet should be allowed for a ton of alfalfa hay loaded on a wagon from the shock? I must sell more or less in that ...

When To Cut Oat Hay
To make the best red oat hay should it be cut when in the "milk," "dough" or nearly ripe! It should be cut in the "soft dough" ...

Rye For Hay
When is the best time to cut rye for hay, and how should it best be handled? Would it be well to cut it up and blow it into the ba...

Beets For Stock
Will sugar beets grow on black alkali land? How many pounds of seed per acre should be used and when is it time for sowing in the ...

Summer Start Of Stock Beets
How can I make Mangel Wurzels grow in hot weather? The land is level and can be irrigated by flooding or ditching between the rows...

Corn Growing For Silage
With fair cultivation, will an acre produce about 10 tons of ensilage without fertilization - it being bottom land? How should it ...

Irrigation For Corn
What amount of water is necessary per acre for the best possible yield of corn under acreage conditions and proper cultivation in ...

Eastern Seed Corn For California
The question has been raised as to Eastern-grown seed corn, comparing it with California-grown seed. Some claim that the former do...

Need Of Corn Suckering
To insure the best crop of corn possible, does it pay to sucker it or not? The removal of suckers is a matter of local conditio...

Sub-varieties Of California Barley
Can you tell where I can buy seed of varieties of California six-rowed barley, described as "pallidum" and "coerulescens," and wha...

Chevalier Barley
Has Chevalier barley more value to feed hens for egg production than common feed barley or wheat? Chevalier barley is no better...

Barley On Moist Land
What would you do with land subject to overflow by the Sacramento when that river rises 20 feet, and which you wanted to plant to ...

Barley And Alfalfa
I have some alfalfa which is a poor stand. Can I disc it up heavily and seed in some barley for winter pasture? You can get bar...

Beets And Potatoes
Which is the best for dairy cows, plain red mangels or a cross between these and sugar beets? Can you suggest a more profitable va...

Wants Us To Do The Whole Thing
Can you help, me to determine a good product to plant somewhere in California; also what particular section would be most suitable...

Pasturing Young Grain
Would it be advisable to herd milch cows for a few hours each day on a field of black oats which is to be grown for hay? The oats ...

Dry Plowing For Grain
We have land that we could very easily plow now with our traction engine and improved plows, but the people here claim that it doe...

Irrigating Tomatoes
How much water does it take (in gallons or cubic feet) to properly irrigate an acre of land for tomatoes? The soil is adobe, and t...

Less Water And More Heat
What chemicals should I put into the soil to insure a good crop of vegetables, such as tomatoes, string beans, or other over-groun...

Continuous Cropping With The Same Plant
What would happen on the crops of cucumbers, tomatoes and eggplants, etc., planted on the same place continuously? There would ...

Big Worms On Tomatoes
I have a nice patch of tomatoes in my garden, and only recently I notice large green worms on them with one large brown horn on th...

Loss Of Tomato Bloom
I have tomato plants which are very strong and healthy and full of blossoms, but there is something cutting the blossoms off and j...

Sweet Potatoes
What kind of soil and climate does it take to grow sweet potatoes, and can I grow them in any part of Contra Costa county, and abo...

Sweet Potatoes Between Fruit Trees
I am expecting to grow a fall crop of about twenty acres of sweet potatoes. The land is a heavy, sandy loam in the interior, which...

Giant Japanese Radish
In discussing sakurajima (giant Japanese radish) Eastern publications advise planting late, about August 1, and not earlier than J...

Rhubarb Rotting
I have planted rhubarb roots in the San Joaquin valley and find the root crowns rot below the surface. The old-fashioned summer...

Squashes Dislike Hardship
What caused these squashes, of which I send you samples, to be so hard and woody? They were grown without irrigation. Your squa...

Harvesting Sunflowers
What is the method used in saving or threshing the seed from the Giant Russian sunflower? Cut off the seed heads of your sunflo...

Potatoes And Frosts
Can I keep frost off of potato tops by building smudge fires! I would like to plant about February 1, but we usually have a few li...

Growing Sweet Potato Plants
How shall I make a hot-bed to raise sweet potato plants? I don't mean to put glass over bed, but want full description of an up-to...

Growing Sweet Potatoes
Please inform me how to keep sweet potatoes for seed; also how many pounds it takes for one acre, and what distance apart to plant...

Sweet Potato Growing
In planting sweet potatoes, do we have to make hotbeds just like those for tomatoes, or if just a plain seed-bed will do? Is it ne...

Potato Growing
In what locality are the best early potatoes grown in California? Can they be raised on wheat lands without irrigation as an early...

Potatoes After Alfalfa
I have been a successful potato grower in Ohio. I have the best alfalfa soil and it is now in its fourth year of productiveness in...

Flat Or Hill Culture For Potatoes
Is it better to hill potatoes or not? During the dry time of the year potatoes should be grown with flat cultivation, except as...

Bad Conditions For Potatoes
Our potatoes were planted early and were frosted several times while young. As we come to harvest them we find them with very larg...

Potatoes On Heavy Land
Will potatoes grow well in adobe land, or partly adobe, that has not been used for seven years except for pasturing? Although p...

Storage Of Seed Potatoes
We need potatoes for late planting and have found a good lot which is being held in cold storage at temperatures from 34 to 36 deg...

Double-cropping With Potatoes
I am told that here two crops of potatoes can be raised by planting the second crop in August. I have five acres which will be rea...

When To Plant Potatoes
I have been puzzled to understand Potato growing in California. Do you have more than one cropping season, and if so, about what d...

Keeping Potatoes
Advise me how to keep my potatoes. What is the best way? Would a dark room be suitable? Some people are digging holes in the groun...

Potato Yield
What is the yield per acre of potatoes on the best land around Stockton, Cal., where work is done properly; also what is the yield...

New Potatoes For Seed
Can I plant American Wonder potatoes for the first crop, and let enough of them mature to use for seed for the second crop, to be ...

Potato Balls
I find in potato writings of forty years ago that the seed from the potato balls which form on the tops of the plants is recommend...

Seed-ends Of Potatoes
Is it bad practice to plant the seed-ends of potatoes? The seed-end of the potato is the least valuable part of it, but it is b...

The Moon And Potato Planting
Is there any foundation to the oft-repeated story about potatoes in the light of the moon running to tops and the dark of the moon...

Planting Whole Potatoes
One man states the only way to cut seed is to take a potato and cut the ends off and not divide the potato any more; or, in other ...

How To Cut Seed Potatoes
Would it pay in returns to use large potatoes for seed in preference to culls? Large potatoes are better than culls, but medium...

Cutting Potatoes To Single Eyes
Some say only one eye to a piece; others say several eyes - which is better? In one experiment potatoes cut to single eyes with...

Potato Scab
Can potatoes be treated in any way before planting to prevent the new ones from being what is called "scabby"? There are two su...

Cutting Potatoes
What would be the most profitable potato to plant in the Salinas valley, and how small can a potato be cut up for planting? How ma...

Potato Planting
How many sacks of potatoes are to be planted to an acre, and how many eyes are to be left in a seed? If, for instance, we plant se...

Northern Potatoes For Seed
Do you regard northern-grown seed potatoes sufficiently better to make it worth while paying freight on them from the State of Was...

Potato Planting
I have ten acres of land in Placer county which I propose to put into potatoes next spring. It has been recommended to me to put p...

Potatoes Should Be Planted Early
I have Early Rose potatoes planted about May first. The tops look fine, but there are few potatoes and small, and, though not deve...

Growing Onion Seed And Sets
Will you give localities of the leading production of onion seed or dry sets in your State? Onion seed is grown in several part...

Ripening Onions
I am raising some onions from bottom sets and as they are growing nicely and are beginning to swell at the bulb some advise me to ...

Onions From Sets
Will onion sets planted in July grow and mature in the fall months? Good onion sets grown during the winter and spring should be...

Onions From Seed
Will onions from seed mature the same season if they are irrigated? Some tell us they will not, so we would be very much pleased t...

Dry Farming With Chili Peppers
If I set chili pepper plants down six or eight inches lower than the surface of the ground and fill in as the plants grow larger, ...

Harvesting Peanuts
I would like information regarding the curing of peanuts. Should they be bleached, and, if so, how is it done? Does bleaching affe...

Adobe And Peanuts
Is adobe land good for the peanut? Is it harder to start than in other soils or not? It is not good at all. Peanuts require the...

Growing Lentils
Give information regarding the planting and raising of lentils. Can they be grown in the Sacramento valley in the vicinity of Colu...

Canada Peas For Seed
I want to raise Canada peas for the seed. In what month of the year is the best time to plant them; also how many pounds to the ac...

Growing Niles Peas
How shall I plant and handle a crop of Niles peas? Niles peas are hardy and will make a good crop on any good soil, if planted ...

Transplanting Lettuce
I have lettuce plants that have been transplanted to head. Occasionally I find a head that has withered away and upon examining it...

Handling Winter Melons
Give particulars regarding harvesting, storaging, and shipment of winter melons. How do you harvest and pack them for distant mark...

Ripe Melons
How can I tell when a watermelon is fully ripe? What is the method used by growers in picking for commercial shipping? Gently p...

Forcing Cucumbers
Give information on growing hot-house cucumbers, and also if you think it would pay me to go into the business in southern Califor...

Cucumber Growing
I have a piece of red so-called orange land which has produced excellent wheat. Will you give information about its adaptability t...

Ginger In California
We have ginger roots in a growing condition with sprouts and bulbs growing an them, but we do not understand how to raise the plan...

Licorice Growing In California
I have for some time been seeking far some information as to the method of preparation for market and sale of licorice roots. I ha...

Topping Mangel Wurzels
Does it harm the mangel wurzels if their tops ore cut off once a month? Removing leaves will decrease the size and harden the ti...

Blooming Brussels Sprouts
Are Brussels sprouts male and female? Some of my plants are flowering and show no signs of sprouts, while those that are not, show...

Blanching Celery
I desire to know the different methods by which the celery is bleached, and particularly whether boards or other material other th...

Corn In The Sacramento Valley
Is it practical to raise corn in the Sacramento volley? Are the soil and climatic conditions suitable? The success of corn on p...

Plant Corn In Warm Ground
I also put in a lot of corn and none of it came up. The ground was damp and rather cold, as well as being alkali. Corn should n...

Sweet Corn In California
I have been informed that sweet corn cannot be raised in this part of the country, an account of worms eating the kernels before t...

Growing Castor Beans
Give information on the castor oil bean; the kind of bean best to plant, when to plant and harvest, the best soil, and where one c...

Legume Seed Inoculation
Is there any virtue in inoculating plants with the bacteria that some seed firms offer? I refer to such plants as peas and beans. ...

Beans On Irrigated Mesas
Would white and pink beans do well on the red orange land at Palermo with plenty of water? I have in mind hill land, the hills bei...

Leases For Sugar Beets
I have land in Yolo county that has made an average yield yearly of from 12 to 18 sacks of wheat and barley. A beet sugar company ...

Bean Growing
I want to plant beans of different varieties. The land is rich, black loam with a little sand. When is the best time to plant? If ...

The Yard-long Bean
I wish to ask about the very long bean which I think was introduced from China into California. I remember seeing one vine when I ...

Why The Beans Are Waiting
Can you tell me why pink beans which were planted early in Merced county, irrigated four times, hoed four times and cultivated, ha...

Blackeye Beans
What is the best way to prepare land for Black-eye beans? How much seed is required per acre, and what is the estimated cost of gr...

The Soil Is A Well-drained Clay Loam
The cost of growing is not particularly different from other beans, and will vary, of course, according to the capacity and efficiency...

Blackeye Beans Are Cow Peas
I sent for some Blackeye cow peas; they look like Blackeye beans. Am sending you a sample of what I got. What are they? Yes, th...

Growing Horse Beans
Does the soil need to be inoculated for horse beans? I intend to plant five acres about January 1, on the valley border in Placer ...

Jesusalem Artichokes
What is the best time for planting Jerusalem artichokes? Jerusalem artichoke tubers are planted in the spring after the ground ...

Globe Artichokes
I have land that will grow magnificent artichokes. Two plants last year (variety unknown) produced heavy crops of buds, but the sc...

Artichoke Growing
Is the Globe artichoke a profitable crop to raise commercially? Near Pescadero a company has been formed to raise it for Eastern s...

Asparagus Growing
What is the average commercial yield of asparagus to the acre in California? Also, how long it takes asparagus to come into full b...

Bean Growing
We have a small field of beans, and would like to know which is the best and most profitable way to crop them. Cultivate the be...

Hoeing Beans
Should beans be hoed while the dew is on the vine? Beans had better be hoed with the dew on them than not hoed at all. The only...

Beans As Nitrogen Gatherers
I grow string beans in my rotation to restore nitrogen, but I see it stated that not all beans are valuable for this purpose. Are ...

Grape Sugar In Canned Grapes
How can I prevent the formation of grape sugar in canned grapes? Take care that the syrup is of the same density as the juice of...

California Grown Seed
Which are the best garden seeds to use, those raised in Ohio and the East or those raised in Washington and Oregon or those raised...

Cloth For Hotbeds
Would cloth do to cover a hotbox to raise lettuce, radishes, etc., for winter use where we get a very heavy rainfall? Yes, if y...

Soil For Vegetables
Some of my soil bakes and hardens quickly after irrigation, but I have an acre or so of sandy soil. Would this be best for garden ...

Vegetables In A Cold Dark Draft
What vegetables will thrive in localities where the sun shines only part of the day? I have a space in my garden that gets the sun...

The Zante Currant
Is the currant that grows in the United States in any way related to the currant that grows in Greece? If so, could it be cured li...

States And The Two Plants Are Not In Any Way Related
...

Grape Vines For An Arbor
How shall I prune grape vines, viz: Tokay, Black Cornichon, Muscat, Thompson Seedless, Rose of Peru, planted for a grape arbor? ...

Pruning Old Vines
I have some Muscat grape vines 30 years old. Can I chop off most of the old wood with a hatchet and thereby bring them back to pro...

Topping Grape Vines
Is topping grape vines desirable? Topping of vines is in all cases more or less weakening. The more foliage that is removed, th...

Bleeding Vines
Will pruning grape vines when they bleed injure them? ...

It Has Been Demonstrated Not To Be Of Any Measurable Injury
...

Vines And Scant Moisture
Would it be well to sucker vines and take also some bearing canes off, or in a dry year will they mature properly as in other year...

Sulphuring For Mildew
For two years I have not sulphured my vineyard and had no mildew. My vines seem as healthy and thrifty as any of the neighbors' th...

Planting Bush Fruits
What is the best time to set out blackberries and Loganberries? Any time after the soil is thoroughly wet down and you can get g...

November And May Continue Until February Or Later In Some Places
...

Growing Strawberry Plants
In a patch of strawberries planted this spring, is it advisable to cut off runners or root some of them? In planting strawberri...

Strawberries In Succession
Is there any reason, in strawberry culture, when the vines are removed at the end of the fourth year, why the ground may not be th...

Limitations On Gooseberries
Why is it that gooseberries are not grown more in California? Is there any reason, climatic or other, why the gooseberry should no...

Dry Farming With Grapes
I have heard that they are planting Muscat grapes on the dry farming plan. Will it be successful? Grapes have been grown in Cal...

Cutting Back Frosted Vine Canes
Vines have been badly injured by the late frosts, especially the young vines which were out the most. Is there anything to be done...

Dipping Thompson Seedless
What is the process of dipping and bleaching Thompson seedless grapes? One recipe for dipped raisins is as follows: One quart ol...

Pruning Himalayas
Shall the old wood be cut away in pruning Himalayas? All the old wood which has borne fruit should be cut out in the fall and n...

Strawberries With Perfect Flowers
Has Longworth Prolific an imperfect bloom? I have Longworths in bearing which apparently are perfect. Is there another strain of L...

Pruning Loganberries
Should the new shoots of Loganberry vines, which come out in the spring, be left or cut away? If cut, will more shoots put out in ...

Strawberry Planting
Should I plant strawberries in the spring or fall? Whether it is wise to plant strawberry plants in the fall depends on several...

Blackberries For Drying Only
What variety of blackberries or raspberries are the best for drying purposes? Are berries successfully dried in evaporators? This ...

Temperature And Moisture For The English Walnut
What amount of freezing and drouth can English walnuts stand? Under what conditions is irrigation necessary? The walnut tree wi...

Walnuts From Seed
There is a reliable nursery company selling seedling Franquette walnut trees on a positive guarantee that they will come true to t...

High-grafted Walnuts
What is the advantage of a high-grafted walnut? I am about ready to plant 10 acres to nuts and do not know whether to purchase Fra...

Grafting And Budding The Mulberry
What is the most approved manner of grafting mulberry trees? Am told that they are very difficult to successfully graft. Most p...

August
...

Hardiness Of Hybrid Berries
How much cold will Phenomenal, Himalaya and Mammoth blackberries stand in winter? Is it safe to plant where the temperature goes b...

Ripening Of Walnuts
...

I Send You Two Walnuts I Am In Doubt If They Will Mature
...

The Nuts Are Well Grown The Kernel Fully Formed In Every Respect
Whether they will attain perfect maturity must be determined by an observation of the fact and cannot be theoretically predicated. Where...

Cutting Below Dead Wood
I have some seedling English walnut trees which are two years old, but they are not coming out in bud this year. They are about th...

Walnuts In Alfalfa
Will the walnut trees be injured in any way by irrigating them at the same time and manner as the alfalfa - that is, by flooding t...

Walnuts In The Hills
Will walnuts grow well in the foothill country; elevation about 600 feet, soil rich, does not crack in summer and seems to have sm...

Walnuts Will Do Well Providing The Soil Or Subsoil Is Retentive Enough
If you have water available for irrigation in case the trees should need it, they would do well, but if the soil is gravelly way down an...

To Increase Bearing Of Walnuts
We have a walnut orchard which does not bear enough nuts. The trees are all fine, even trees, 10 and 12 years old, and we are told...

How To Start English Walnuts
In starting English walnuts, shall we get nursery stock grafted on California black, or shall we start our black walnut seedlings ...

Walnut Planting
I am planning to plant walnuts on rather heavy soil. I have been told to put the nut six inches below the surface, but think that ...

Pruning Grafted Walnuts
Should English walnut trees be pruned? I have along the roadside English walnuts grafted on the California black, and they have gr...

Pruning Walnuts
When is the best time to remove large limbs from walnut trees? This work with walnuts or other deciduous fruit trees should be d...

Grafting Walnuts
In cleft grafting walnuts is it necessary to use scions with only a leaf bud, or with staminate or pistillate buds? Is cutting th...

Grafting Nuts On Oaks
I have 10 to 15 acres of black oak trees which I wish to graft over to chestnuts. Can grafting be done successfully? Some succe...

Grafting Walnut Seedlings
Would it be proper to graft one-year California black walnut seedlings that must also be transplanted? As the seedlings must be...

Pruning The Walnut
What is the proper time for pruning the walnut? Is it bad for the tree to prune during the active season? I have recently acquire...

Pruning Frosted Citrus Trees
How shall I prune two-year-old orange orchard, also nursery stock buds that are badly injured by frost; how much to prune and at w...

Pruning Oranges
Is it best to prune out orange trees by removing occasional branches so as to permit free air passage through the trees? Some are ...

Pecan Growing
Would you advise planting of pecans in commercial orchards here? Walnuts in their proper location constitute some of California's ...

Growing Filberts
...

Please Give Information About Growing Filberts
Filberts have been largely a disappointment in California and no product of any amount has ever been made. Good nuts have been produce...

Early Bearing Of Walnuts
Please inform me if young walnut trees grafted on black walnut stock will produce fruit within 18 months after being planted. I...

Handling Walnut Seedlings
What is the best time to transplant seedlings of the black walnut? Transplant during the dormant season (as shown by absence of ...

Soil And Situation For Oranges
Is it absolutely essential that orange trees be planted on a southern slope, or will they thrive as well on any slope? What is the...

Transplanting Orange Trees
Can you transplant trees two years old with safety to another location in same grove, same soil; etc.? Yes; and you can move th...

Protecting Young Citrus Trees
Is it necessary to have young orange trees covered or leave them uncovered during the winter months? It is desirable to cover w...

Not Orange On The Osage
Can the Navel orange be grafted on the osage orange? I understand it is done in Florida, and would like to know if it has been tri...

California
It cannot. It has not been done in Florida nor anywhere else. The osage orange is not an orange at all. The tree is not a member of th...

No Pollenizer For Navels
I read that the flowers of the Navel orange are entirely lacking in pollen, or only poorly supplied. If this is true, what variety...

Water And Frost
From how many acres could I keep off a freeze of oranges with 1000 gallons per minute? The water is at 65 degrees. The amount o...

What To Do With Frosted Oranges
What is the best plan of treatment for frosted orange trees? The crop will be a total loss. It does not show any tendency to fall ...

Citrus Budding
...

I Wish To Bud Some Maltese Blood Orange Trees To Pomelos And Lemons
Will they make good stock for them, and, if so, is it necessary to cut below the original bud? It is possible to bud as you propose, ...

No Citrus Fruits On Lemon Roots
Would it be any advantage to bud the Washington Navel on grapefruit and lemon roots? The grapefruit or pomelo is a good root fo...

Budding Oranges
My first attempt at budding, I cut 20 buds and immediately inserted in stock of Mexican sour orange "Amataca." I left bands on the...

Budding Orange Seedlings In The Orchard
What are the objections or advantages of planting sour stock seedlings where one wishes the trees and one or two years later bud i...

Grapefruit And Nuts
Peaches, pears and plums predominate in this section, but would not grapefruit, almonds and English walnuts be just as profitable?...

Curing Citron
I wish to know a way to cure citrons at home. I have a fine tree that has borne very fine-looking fruit for the past two years. ...

Crops Between Orange Trees
What crop can I plant between rows of young orange trees to utilize the ground as well as pay a little something? It depends no...

Navels And Valencias
Navel trees are being budded to Valencias in southern California, because of the higher price received for the late-ripening Valen...

Orange Seedlings
What about planting the seed from St. Michael's oranges or of grapefruit for a seed-bed to be budded to Valencias? Good plump S...

Acres Of Oranges To A Man
In your opinion, is it possible for one man, of average strength, to take perfect care of a twenty-acre citrus orchard? Are the se...

Roots For Orange Trees
What are the conditions most favorable to orange trees budded upon sour stock; also upon sweet stock and trifoliata? The sour s...

Under-pruning Of Orange Trees
My Washington Navels have a very heavy crop on the lower limbs, as is usual. These branches are so low down that many of the orang...

Keeping Citrus Trees Low
My tangerines last fall shot up like lemon trees - a dozen to twenty shoots two or three feet high. The trees are eight years old ...

Dying Back Of Fruit Trees
I have a few orange and lemon trees that are starting to die. One tree has died on the top. What kind of spray shall I use? The...

Young Trees Dropping Fruit
I have a few citrus fruit trees about three years old. They have made a good growth and are between seven and eight feet high with...

Orange Training
Is not a single leader in an orange tree more desirable than the much-forked tree so commonly seen! Can a single-leader tree be ma...

Wind-blown Orange Trees
What would you do for citrus trees five years old that have been badly blown out of shape? Such trees must be trued up by pruni...

Handling Balled Citrus Trees
I have some orange and lemon trees which were sent me with their roots balled up with dirt and sacks. As we are still having frost...

The Navel Not Thornless
I have lately purchased some Washington navel orange trees, and upon arrival I find they have thorns upon them. I thought the Wash...

Over-size Oranges
I have some orange trees in a disintegrated granite with a good many small pieces of rock still remaining in the soil. What I wish...

Budding Or Grafting In Orange Orchard
I have land now ready to be planted to oranges, but it is impossible for me to buy the necessary budded stock now or even later th...

Budding Oranges
How late in the fall can budding of orange trees be done - plants that are two years old - and what advantage, if any, is late bud...

Neglected Olive Trees
...

I Have A Lot Of Olive Trees Which Have Grown Up Around The Old Stumps
They are large trees and some of them have six or eight trunks. Should I cut away all but one trunk or let them alone? There are some of...

Olives From Cuttings
I have two choice olive trees on my place. I am anxious to get trees from these old ones and do not know how to go about it. Can I...

Water And Frost
I have in mind two pieces of land well adapted to citrus culture. Both have the same elevation, soil, climate and water conditions...

Thinning Oranges
Is it advisable to thin fruit on young citrus trees? Our trees have been bearing about three years, but they are still small trees...

Olives From Large Cuttings
I am about to take olive cuttings from one-half to one inch thick and 54 to 20 inches long, and wish to root them in nursery rows....

Trimming Up Olives
Limbs are shooting out too low on my olive trees. Would it be right to trim them up while dormant this winter, or should I let the...

18 To 20 Inches Above The Ground
Take off the lower shoots whenever your knife is sharp. Do not let them grow another year. Theoretically, the best time to remove them...

Canning Olives
What is the recipe for preserving olives by heat, and how long do they have to remain in the heated state? Canning olives is a ...

Renewing Olive Trees
...

I Have Olive Trees On First-class Land; No Pest Of Any Kind Is Apparent
The trees look healthy in every way, and average about 12 inches at the butt and 30 feet high. They have borne fruit, but for the last t...

Growing Olives From Seed
How are seedlings grown from olive seeds? Growing olives from seeds is promoted by assisting nature to break the hard shell. Th...

Darkening Pickled Olives
Is there anything that will make olives keep their black color when put into lye? When I put my first picking of ripe olives in ly...

Seedling Olives Must Be Grafted
Will olive trees grown from the olive seed be the right thing to plant? Will they be true to the parent tree or will they have to ...

Olives Oranges And Peppers
We have been told that olive trees easily become infested with a fungus disease which they then impart to the orange tree. The sam...

Budding Olive Seedlings
I have planted olive seeds which are just sprouting now. Can these be budded next June or July in the nursery row, or can they be ...

Budding Old Olives
I have seedling olive trees, set out in 1904, which I wish to change over to the Ascolano variety. Which is the best way to do it,...

Olives From Small Cuttings
In the rooting of small soft-wood olive cuttings is it necessary to cover same with glass - say perhaps prepare a cold-frame and p...

Pollinizing Plums
How many rows of Robe de Sergeant prune trees should be alternated with the French prune (the common dried prune of commerce) to i...

Cultivating Olives
How deep should an olive orchard be plowed? I was told that by plowing deep I would injure my trees, in cutting up small rootlets ...

Moving Old Olive Trees
Would there be anything gained by transplanting old olive trees 6 to 8 inches in diameter over nursery stock? They would have to b...

French Or Italian
In the prune-growing district around Salem, Oregon, Italian prunes are grown exclusively for drying purposes. French prunes were c...

Myrobalan Seedlings
I am sending two small plums which I am told are Myrobalan plum. I desire to grow seedlings on which later to bud and graft French...

Drying Plums And Prunes
I have plum trees of various kinds that are loaded with fruit. I do not know if any are of the variety used for drying as prunes: ...

The Sugar Prune
What is the commercial value of the Sugar prune? Is there any other early ripening variety better than the Sugar? It is selling...

Glossing Dried Prunes
Will you give the method for giving the gloss to dried French prunes? There are various methods. One pound of glycerine to 20 ga...

Price Of Prunes On A Size Basis
Explain the grading in price of prunes. For instance, if the base price is, say, five and three-fourths cents, what size does this...

Peach Budding
Which is easier with the peach, grafting or budding? The peach is rather a difficult tree to graft, and budding, on the other h...

Grafting On The Peach
Will pears do to graft on the peach, or will plums do well on the peach? How soon ought they to bear when grafted on the peach whi...

Young Trees Failing To Start
Some peach and almond trees set out last spring lived, but made no growth. Should they be replaced with new stock? If not, what ma...

Peach Planting In Alfalfa Sod
Is it advisable to plant canning peaches in April, and will I gain time in growth and development? I want to set out eight acres i...

Prune On Almond
What root is considered best for prune trees? The ranch lies above the creek. A friend is very partial to the almond root instead ...

Re-grafting Silver Prunes
I have five acres of Silver prunes which produce very little fruit. The trees are strong and healthy. French prune trees adjoining...

Peach Fillers In Apple Orchard
I have heard some talk against planting peach fillers in an apple orchard. What is your opinion on the subject? There is no obj...

Grafting Peach On Almond
May I expect to get good results by grafting some kind of peach to 19-year-old almond tree? If so, what kind of peach will be best...

Peaches On Apricot
I have a three-year-old peach orchard grafted or budded on apricot roots, and interspersed through the orchard are young apricot t...

Replanting After Root-knots
In digging out some old peach trees, I find now and then a tree affected with root knot. I am burning the root, of course, but as ...

Buds In Bearing Trees
In budding over some old peach trees, should I cut away the branch above the bud when the latter seems to have taken? The sap f...

Pollen Must Be Of The Same Kind
Do peaches, nectarines and apricots set fruit with the pollen of one another, and are the various peaches, nectarines and apricots...

Pollination Of Pears
Is it necessary in growing the Comice pear successfully, to put some other pear near for the purpose of pollination in order to ma...

Bartletts Solidly Without Reference To Preparation For Pollination
Taking the matter the other way around, the Bartlett will do for pollination of the Comice probably, if that should be necessary. ...

Lye-peeling Peaches
Please give the formula for peeling peaches by dipping them in caustic soda or lye. Lye for peeling peaches is used at the rate...

Aged Peach Trees
What should be done with peach trees 35 years old which are becoming unthrifty, bearing only at the ends of the limbs, etc.? O...

Renewing Peach Orchard
Which is the best way to renew an old peach orchard? The trees are about 18 years old, Muirs and Fosters, and are yielding good cr...

You Ought To Be Able To Tell Now How Full A Set Of Fruit Buds You Have
If you do not know what the fruit buds are, ask some neighbor who knows peaches to point them out. If you have a good show of fruit buds...

Dwarf Pears Not Commercially Grown
Will you kindly give the experience of pear growers in California who have grown the dwarfs? If you can give me the data or refer ...

Yield In Drying Pears
What is the loss of weight in drying Bartlett pears? They run from 7 to 8 lbs. of fresh pears to 1 lb. hard dried. There is qui...

Pear Problems
Kindly let me know the advisability of grafting Bartlett pears onto apple trees. In replanting pears in young orchard, how would i...

Bees And Pear Blight
A few years ago, I planted alfalfa between my pear trees and the trees bore a very heavy crop that year. Then blight made its appe...

Forage Under Sprayed Trees
Is it safe to use arsenical sprays in a pear orchard in which alfalfa is raised between the trees and afterward cut and fed to cat...

Pears On Quince
I saw some time ago a report of some French experiments in grafting the pear onto quince root. The report said the fruit produced ...

Treatment Of Fig Suckers
A few young fig trees are not growing from the tops, but are sending out suckers, in some cases above and others below the point o...

No Gopher-proof Fig Roots
Is it necessary that figs should be grafted in some other roots to keep the gophers from destroying the trees? What root should I ...

Pollination Of Bartletts
Would Clapp's Favorite be a good pollinizer for the Bartlett as well as the White Doyenne? The white Doyenne and the Clapp's Fa...

Comice Pears
Would you plant Comice pears instead of Bartletts, and why? What is their behavior as to bearing? Do they require any different tr...

No Pears On Peach
I saw, the other day, some Bartlett pear grafts in Salway peach trees, and the party informed me that he had seen three-year-old g...

Pigs In The Orchard
I have an orchard of Bartlett pears about fifteen years old, located on sediment land. I desire to set this to alfalfa, and to fee...

Restoring Cherry Trees
I have about two acres of cherry trees in Sonoma county said to be about 20 years old. They are in a very neglected condition and ...

Renewing Cherry Trees
We have cherry trees set out diamond shape about 16 feet apart. We cannot take out every other tree and have any order, so we ask ...

Pruning Cherries
I have cherry trees in their third season which have been given the usual winter pruning. The trees are putting forth a great many...

Pollination Of Black Tartarian
There are many old Tartarian cherry trees around our district that have only borne a few cherries in years. There are Bing, Royal ...

Renewing Old Apricots
Shall I prune back heavily a 15 to 20-year-old apricot tree which did not mature its fruit this season, I think on account of negl...

Summer Pruning Of Apricots
Is it feasible to prune five-year-old apricot trees in August? They seem in good growth and have been irrigated three times this s...

Wild Cherries
Where do the Mahaleb and Mazzard cherries grow naturally? How large are the trees, and what kind of fruit do they bear? The Maz...

Pruning Cherries
I have some cherry trees that have not been pruned. They are beautiful trees, but it a requires a 24-foot ladder to get near the t...

Training Cherry Grafts
I have grafted a lot of seedling cherries, leaving two or three buds on each piece of grafted wood. In planting these out, shall I...

Pollination Of Almonds
I have Drake's Seedling almonds. Some people have told me that I must plant some hardshell variety between them, otherwise they wi...

Prolific
...

Stick-tight Almonds
I have leased seven acres of bearing almond trees which have the appearance of being reasonably well cared for. I notice a few tre...

Shy-bearing Apricots
Why do my apricot trees not bring fruit? They seem healthy and are vigorous-looking trees. Five large trees have not borne 100 pou...

Pruning Apricots
In pruning apricots, if there should be a hollow center of a big branch in center of a seven-year-old tree, should it be cut out w...

It Is Always Desirable To Cut Below A Hollow In A Limb If Possible
Where, however, this would necessitate cutting below the desirable laterals, the cavity may be filled with cement and thus rendered ser...

Apricot Propagation
Can Royal apricots be grafted into seedling apricots? Do the scions do well? What is the best time to graft them? The apricot i...

Almond Planting
I am contemplating the planting of about five to eight acres of almonds: what variety is best to plant? Before planting so many...

Almond Pollination
My almond trees look healthy but the fruit seems to be diseased. Is it necessary to have male and female trees, and how can one di...

Roots For The Almond
Which is the best root to have the almond grafted on, peach or bitter almond? The soil is sandy. The bitter almond and the hard...

Longevity Of Almond And Peach
What is difference in life of peach and almond in California? The almond is the longer-lived, but we have seen both assuming the...

Almond Seedlings
I have been told that almond trees raised from seed, no matter what kind of seed planted, will produce bitter almonds. Is this a f...

Do Not Plant Almonds In Place
I have 30 acres which I intend to plant to almonds and peaches, and I thought of planting the sprouted nuts and pits where I wante...

As To Use Of The Land You Lose Time By Growing The Seedlings In Place
The peach does well on the almond root if soil conditions favor the almond. Perhaps it gives longer life to the peach, but the profitabl...

Almond And Peach
With water-table at 18 feet, which root is best for almond trees? The experience around here is that the peach root starts best. W...

Pruning Apple Trees
There is a great difference of opinion here regarding the pruning of three-year or older apple trees. Many people cut back three, ...

Grafting Almond On Peach
I had good success with the peach trees which I grafted to almond last spring, getting about 95 per cent of a stand, and many of t...

Pruning Almonds
Should the main branches be shortened in a three-year-old almond tree? Of course, I intend to thin out the branches. Some growers ...

Budding And Grafting Almonds
Is it better to bud or graft bitter almond seedlings of one year's growth, and, as they must be transplanted, would it be proper t...

Cutting Back Almonds
I have some nice thrifty two-year-old almond trees which I did not "top" this spring. The limbs are from about four to seven or ei...

Die-back Of Apple Trees
What causes the death of the top shoots in apple trees? New wood is sometimes diseased by mildew, but die-back is usually due to...

Storage Of Apples
We desire to store two or three thousand boxes of apples for three or four months and propose to do it in this way: Make an excava...

Putting Down Loose Apples In A Straw-lined Pit Would Be Very Expensive
It would invite decay by bruising the fruit, and the result would probably be a worthless mixture of rotten fruit and straw. The fruit ...

Apple Root-grafts
I have an old apple orchard and would like to have two or three of the best varieties positively identified, so that I can order t...

Pruning Old Apple Trees
I have an old orchard containing some apple trees about 40 years old - trees well shaped but with plenty of main branches and limb...

Top-grafting Apples
Can I graft over a few Ben Davis apple trees 25 years old or thereabouts, but thrifty and vigorous? It is certainly possible, b...

Places For Apples
What quality is it in the soil in the vicinity of Watsonville that makes that country peculiarly adapted to the culture of apples?...

Summer-pruning Apples
Will summer pruning cause apple trees to bear fruit instead of growing so much new wood? Over-growth can be repressed by summ...

Grafting Apple Seedlings In Place
I want to plant apple trees for home use. I have an idea to plant apple seeds instead of trees: planting three or four seeds for e...

Resistant Apple Roots
A few apple trees which are almost dead from ravages of the woolly aphis. I am going to dig them out and plant in their places oth...

Apples And Cherries For A Hot Place
What kind of apple do you think would do best in a dry, hot climate? What do you think of the Early Richmond cherry in such a plac...

Top Grafting
In grafting over apple and pear trees to some other variety, is it advisable to cut off and graft the entire tree the first year w...

Apple Budding
What is the best time to bud apples? Apples are budded in July and August and remain dormant until the following spring. ...

Mildew On Apple Seedlings
Why do young apple plants in the seed bed became mildewed? They are in a lath house. Because too much moisture was associated w...

Pruning Apples
Young apple trees set two years ago were cut back to 14 to 18 inches and cared for as to low branching, proper spacing, etc., but ...

Cutting Back Apples And Pears
"California Fruits" says the "apple does not relish cutting back, nor is it desirable to shorten in the branches." But when a thre...

Pruning Old Apple Trees
How would you prune apple trees eight or nine years old that have not been cut back? There are a great many that have run up 20 fe...

Spineless Cactus Fruit
I have about two acres of high land in Fresno county that can't be irrigated. It is red adobe soil and there is hardpan in it. Whi...

Cleaning Fruit Trays
What do you advise for killing and removing the whitish mold that forms on trays used for drying prunes? Would sunning the trays b...

Killing Moss On Old Trees
I have some Bartlett pear trees that are covered with moss and mold, and the bark is rough and checked. I have used potash (98%), ...

Shy-bearing Apples
I have some apple trees 10 and 12 years old that do not bear satisfactorily, but persist in making 5 to 6 feet of new wood each ye...

No Apples On Quince
How large a tree will the Yellow Bellefleur apple make if grafted or budded on quince root at the age of 15 years? I have been try...

Stock For Apples
Do you recommend French seedling stock as greatly to be preferred to that grown in this country? French seedling stock is gener...

Apples And Alfalfa
I have recently come across a proposition to sow apple orchards in the interior of southern California with alfalfa. The apples ar...

Repairing Rabbit Injuries
Your book says in Pruning young trees for the first time, about four main branches should be left and these cut back to 10 or 12 i...

For A Bark Wound
What is best to do with an apricot or prune tree when it has been hit with an implement and the bark knocked off? Cut around th...

Bridging Gopher Girdles
How shall I make the bridge-graft or root-graft over the trunks of trees girdled by gophers? Has this method proved successful in ...

Soil-binding Plant For Winter
What would be the best to plant in an orchard on ground of a light sandy sediment which, after plowing, will move with the strong ...

I Need Something That Will Make A Sod During That Period
We would, in all the valleys, advise a fall irrigation (if the rains are late) and the sowing of burr clover, which when started in Se...

Bananas In California
Is there any reason why bananas would not grow and bear in the vicinity of Merced if they had plenty of water? Or would the cool n...

Carobs In California
Will the carob tree (St. John's Bread) do well in the Sacramento valley, and is it a desirable tree for lining a driveway? Caro...

Transplanting Old Trees
Can I transplant fruit trees 2 to 3 inches through the butt, about one foot from the ground? Varieties are oranges, lemons, pears,...

The Orange And Lemon Will Do Better In Transplanting Than The Others
Take up the trees when the soil becomes warmed by the sun after the coldest weather is over. This may be in February. Cut back the branc...

Dwarfing A Fruit Tree
I am told that by pruning the roots of a young tree after the root system is well started (say three years old) that as a result t...

Seedling Fruits
I have been growing seedlings from the pits of some extra fine peaches and plums with a view to planting them. A man near San Jose...

Grafting
I did a little grafting last spring, and as it was my first attempt, about ten per cent of the scions failed to grow. Now shall I ...

Filling Holes In Trees
I have a number of trees that, on account of poor pruning and improper care, are decaying in the center. Many of them are hollow f...

Deferring Bloom Of Fruit Trees
Have any experiments ever been carried on definitely to decide what causes early blossoming of fruit trees? For instance, have adj...

Covering Tree Wounds
What is the best stuff to use on wounds and large cuts on my fruit trees? I have used grafting wax, but it is expensive and not al...

Covering Sunburned Bark
Would asphaltum do to use an sunburned bark? Owing to the attraction of the heat by the black color, asphaltum would increase t...

Too Much Pruning
Same peach trees entering the third year were pruned early in the winter very severely. The pruner merely left the trunk and the t...

For Broken Roots
When the root of an orange or other fruit tree is exposed or brakes by the cultivator, what is the best way to treat that root? ...

Pruning In Frosty Places
This appears to be a frosty section. Pruners are at work continuously from the time the apricots are harvested until spring arrive...

Low Growth On Fruit Trees
Should the little twigs an the lower parts of young fruit trees be removed or shortened? An important function which these smal...

Regular Bearing Of Fruit Trees
How can trees be induced to bear regularly instead of bearing excessively on alternate years? The most rational view is that in...

Scions From Young Trees
I have bought some one-year-old apple trees that are certified pedigree trees. Would it be practical to take the tops of these tre...

Late Pruning
Will I do injury to my peach trees if I delay pruning until the last of February, or until the sap begins to run and the buds to s...

Avoiding Crotches In Fruit Trees
How can I avoid bad crotches in fruit trees? Crotches, which means branches of equal or nearly equal size, emerging from a poin...

Crotch-splitting Of Fruit Trees
I have a young fig tree that is splitting at the crotches. I fear that when the foliage appears, with the force of the winds the l...

Strengthening Fruit Trees
I have read that some trees are propped by natural braces; that is, by inter-twining two opposite branches while the tree is young...

Time For Pruning
What is the proper time for pruning pear and apricot trees? Ordinary deciduous fruit trees can be successfully pruned from the t...

Grape Planting
What is the proper time for planting grape vines? Grape vines are most successfully planted after the heavy rains and low tempe...

Whitewashing Fruit Trees
When is the proper time to whitewash walnut trees to prevent sun scald? How high up is it advisable to apply the wash? Whitewas...

Shaping A Young Tree
In shortening back long, slim limbs the side shoots come out, and one soon has a lot of ugly, crooked limbs to look at. There are ...

Pruning Times
What is the best time to prune the French prune and most other trees? In Santa Clara volley they prune as soon as leaves are off; ...

Grafting Wax
How shall I make grafting wax for grafting fruit trees? There are many "favorite prescriptions" for grafting wax. One which is ...

Plowing In Young Orchard
How near can I plow to two-year-old orange trees safely? You can plow young orange orchards as close to the trees as you can ap...

Crops Between Fruit Trees
What would be best to grow between fruit trees, while the trees are growing, and what to alternate each season, so as not to use u...

Dipping Roots Of Fruit Trees
In planting an almond orchard would it be of any benefit to dip the young trees in a solution of bluestone and lime dissolved? ...

Preparing For Fruit Planting
What effect will a crop of wheat have on new cleared land, to be planted in fruit trees later on? One crop of wheat or barley w...

Depth In Planting Fruit Trees
...

I Have Been Advised To Plant The Bud Scar Above Ground In A Wet Country
Is that right? On ordinary good loam, plant the tree so that it will stand about the same as it did in the nursery: a little lower, p...

Fruit Trees In A Wet Place
...

One Part Of My Orchard Is Low And Wet Much Scale And Old Trees Loose
Will much spraying be a cure and can I use posts to hold the old trees firm, or would you take out and put in Bartlett pears! Sprayin...

Cutting Back At Planting
I have planted a lot of one-year-old cherry trees and would like to know if I should cut them down the same as the apple tree? I h...

Branching Young Fruit Trees
It is the practice in this locality to wrap all young trees to a point 24 inches above the bud, for the purpose of protection agai...

Coal Tar And Asphaltum On Trees
What is the effect of coal tar or asphaltum applied to the bark of trees? The application of coal tar to prevent the root borer...

Mailing Scions
Which is the best way to send scions by mail? Wax the ends of mature cuttings, remove the leaves and enclose in a tight tin can...

Nursery Stock In Young Orchard
How will it do to raise, for two or three years, a lot of orange seedlings between the rows of young three-year-old orange trees? ...

Square Or Triangular Planting
What is your opinion on triangular planting as compared with square planting? Planting in squares is the prevailing method....

Killing Stumps By Medication
Will boring into green stumps and inserting a handful of saltpeter kill the roots and cause the stump to readily burn up a few mon...

Planting Fruit Trees On Clearings
We wish to plant orchard trees on land cleared this winter: manzanita and chaparral, but also some oaks and large pines and groves...

Fruit Trees And Sunburn
How long is it wise to leave protection around young fruit trees set out in March in this hot valley? The trees are doing well, bu...

Replanting In Orchard
Is it considered a good plan to set the tree at once in the place where one has died, or is it better to wait a year before replac...

Whole Roots Or Piece Roots
For commercial apple orchards which is preferable, trees grafted on piece roots or on whole roots? On behalf of the piece-root tre...

Planting Deciduous Fruit Trees
In order to gain time, I have thought of planting apples and pears this fall, in the belief I would be just that much nearer a cro...

Budding Fruit Trees
Is it better to bud in old bark of an old tree or in younger wood bark? How do you separate old bark without breaking it in liftin...

Starting Fruit Trees From Seed
How shall I start, and when, the following seeds: Peach, plums, apricots, walnuts, olives and cherries? In the East we used to pla...

Trees Over Underflow
I have planted fruit trees near the creek, where they do not have to be irrigated as the ground there holds sufficient moisture fo...

The June Drop
I am sending four peaches which are falling off the trees. Can you tell me how to prevent falling of the fruit next year and what ...

Trees Over A Gravel Streak
I have an apricot orchard seven years old. Most of the land is a fairly heavy clay with a strip of gravel in the middle running ne...

Fruit And Overflow
I have 16 acres of rich bottom-land that overflows and is under water from 24 to 48 hours. I would like to set the ground to fruit...


...

Depth Of Soil For Fruit
Would four feet of good loose soil be enough for lemons? Four feet of good soil, providing the underlying strata are not charged...

Temperatures For Citrus Fruits
What is the lowest temperature at which grapefruit and lemons will succeed? The grapefruit tree is about as hardy as the orange...

Roots For Fruit Trees
I wish to bud from certain trees that nurseries probably do not carry, as they came from a seedling. Is there more than one variet...

Tree Planting On Coast Sands
I wish to plant fruit trees on a sandy mesa well protected from winds about a mile from the coast. The soil is a light sandy loam....

A Wrong Idea Of Inter-planting
What forage plant can I grow in a newly planted orchard? The soil is on a gently inclined hillside - red, decomposed rock, very de...

Curing Alfalfa With Artificial Heat
It is current rumor that "out in California they are hauling alfalfa green and curing it by artificial heat," thus reducing loss t...

Cheap Preparation Of Land For Alfalfa
I am about to put a piece of land into alfalfa, and want to use the most economical system of preparing the land for irrigation. M...

Where Alfalfa Is Grown
In what counties is alfalfa most successfully grown? By this I mean where three crops of hay may be had each growing season. Also,...

Sowing Alfalfa
What is the proper time to sow alfalfa? Some advocate fall and others spring sowing. What seasons are given for each sowing? We...

Foxtail And Alfalfa
Will foxtail choke out and exterminate alfalfa? Some fields look as though the foxtail had crowded the alfalfa out, but I hold tha...

Fall Sowing Of Alfalfa
We have summer-fallowed land which we know will grow good alfalfa, and as we have just had four inches of rainfall upon it, we wer...

Alfalfa Hay And Soil Fertility
We are feeding all our hay to dairy cows, returning the manure to the soil. At present prices of hay, my neighbors who sell theirs...

Dry-land Alfalfa
I am in a country of strictly dry farming. I have a wash or gulch on my place and would like to know if I could, with success, pl...

Inoculating Alfalfa
Is it profitable to inoculate alfalfa seed before planting to increase its yield? Can it be done by leaching soil from old alfalfa...

Irrigating Alfalfa
I am making parallel ridges for alfalfa, sending a full head of water down to the end of the field between each ridge. Should I ca...

Unirrigated Alfalfa
In what part of the State does alfalfa grow best without irrigation? Obviously the parts which have the greatest rainfall in con...

Alfalfa And Overflow
How long can alfalfa stand water without being drowned out? I have a piece of alfalfa on which the water will stand for considerab...

No Nurse-crop For Alfalfa
Is it advisable to use oats with alfalfa seeds in seeding for alfalfa? Some growers of alfalfa here advise it strongly, others adv...

Reseeding Alfalfa
This spring I planted alfalfa and only got about half a stand on some of the land. I want to reseed this fall and I thought of put...

Taking The Bloat Out Of Alfalfa
Will Italian rye grass and red top clover be a success under irrigation as cow pasture in this county, either separately or mixed ...

The Time To Cut Alfalfa
What is the best period to cut alfalfa hay for cow feed and the best method for curing? The best time to cut alfalfa is just wh...

Siloing First Crop Alfalfa
How about putting first cutting of alfalfa and foxtail into the silo? Do you think there is any danger of fire in a wooden silo, a...

Put It Through The Silo Cutter As Soon As You Can Get It From The Field
Do not let it cure at all, and be sure to cut and pack well. If at all dry, use water at the time of filling, and some salt then also, i...

Soil For Alfalfa
What kind of soil is best for alfalfa on a dairy ranch? An ideal soil for alfalfa is a deep well drained soil into which the ro...

Handling Young Alfalfa
I have alfalfa that is doing very well for the first year. My soil is sandy loam with light traces of white alkali, although it do...

Alfalfa Sowing With Gypsum
I intend sowing alfalfa this fall on land that has some very compact hard spots. I aim to doctor these spots with gypsum at the ra...

Red Clover For Shallow Land
What can you say of red clover on shallow soils in the Sacramento valley under irrigation? How many crops, etc.? Red clover is ...

It Is Good On Shallow Land Over Water Where Alfalfa Roots Decay Etc
Though we have no exact figures, we should expect to get about two-thirds as much weight from it as from an equally good stand of alfal...

Clovers For High Ground-water
Where, in California, is alfalfa being raised successfully above a water-table of, say, 4 feet or less, and are any unusual means ...

Vetches In San Joaquin
In Michigan I was familiar with the use of the sand vetch as a forage plant, for hay, for green manure, and as a nitrogen producer...

Growing Vetch For Hay
How many pounds of vetch seed should be sown to the acre? How many tons per acre in the crop? As I desire to change my crop, havin...

Cover Crop In Hop Yard
Will you please give information concerning cow peas or the most suitable crop to sow in a hop field for winter growth, to be plow...

Growing Cowpeas
What is the best variety of cow peas for a forage crap? I want a variety which with irrigation will come up after it has been cut,...

Cowpeas In The San Joaquin
How late in the season will it be profitable to plant cowpeas? What is the best manner of planting? Are there several varieties? I...

Cowpeas And Canadian Peas
Would Canadian field peas and cow peas be valuable as a forage crop for cows and hogs; also as fertilizer? Please tell us also whe...

Canadian Or Niles Peas
I send a sample of peas which I bought for Canada field peas, and they were so labeled. I would like to know what they are. The...

Sunflowers And Soy Beans
I would like information concerning cultivation, method of feeding and food value of soy beans. Also sunflowers. Soy beans are ...

Jersey Kale
...

Please Inform Me How To Plant Jersey Or Cow Kale
Jersey kale can be planted by thin scattering of seeds in rows 2 1/2 feet apart so as to admit of cultivation, or the plants can be gr...

Rape And Milo
Would rape be a good pasture crop sown broadcast? If so, at what time should it be planted? Will Milo maize grow profitable in Son...

Sweet Clover Not An Alfalfa
I send you a sample of alfalfa which grows very vigorous here on my place spontaneously and would like you to give me all the info...

Sweet Clover As A Cover Crop
How about melilotus as a cover crop? Last year in certain sections it proved very successful, while in others it did not give sati...

Experiment Station
...

Spineless Cactus
There seems to be two distinct kinds of cactus: One for forage, the other for fruit. It is claimed by some people that the spinele...

Probably Not Broom-corn
I have a side-hill ranch on which I would very much like to raise broom corn. The soil produces good grapes, fruit, corn, oats, pe...

I Wish To Know If There Are Possibilities Of Broom-straw
All the broom-corn which has been successfully produced in California has been produced on moist, riverside land. The plant is a sorgh...

The Outlook For Broom Corn
Broom corn is way up in price, but that is an indication that everyone who has ever grown broom corn is likely to plant it this ye...

Smutty Sorghum
The various plantings of Egyptian corn on the ranch have turned smutty, very much after the manner of wheat and barley. Is there a...

Late-sown Sorghum
How late can Egyptian corn be planted on good sediment soil capable of growing 40 to 50 socks of barley per acre in good years wit...

Kaffir And Egyptian Corn
Does Kaffir corn yield as well here as Egyptian corn? The fodder is good feed and the heads stand erect and at a more even height ...

Sorghums For Seed
Which sorghum is the most profitable to plant for the seed only White Egyptian, Brawn Egyptian or Yellow Mila? Which sorghum is...

Sorghum Planting
What is the best time to sow Egyptian corn; also how much per acre to sow? All the sorghums, of which Egyptian corn is one, mus...

Buckwheat Growing
Two or three farmers in this locality desire to plant buckwheat. Not having done so heretofore they are in doubt as to the soil an...

The Growing Of Buckwheat In California Is An Exceedingly Small Affair
The local market is very limited, as most California hot cakes are made of wheat flour. There is no chance for outward shipment, and the...

Variation In Russian Sunflowers
In an acre of mammoth Russian sunflowers there seems to be three varieties, some of the plants bear but one large flower; others b...

Sacaline
My attention has been brought to a plant called Sacaline by an Eastern plant dealer. He states that this plant will grow in any ki...

Mossy Lawns
What will destroy patches of moss which are spreading over our lawns and apparently destroying the grass? More sunlight would h...

Scattering Grass Seeds
We live on the west side of Sonoma valley, and want to seed some of our fields with a good wild grass. We want to carry bags of it...

Poultry Forage
...

I Have Light Sandy Loam On Which I Desire To Grow Forage For Chickens
...

It Lies Too High For Irrigation
You could probably grow alfalfa to advantage if the soil still deep and loose, getting less, of course, than by irrigation, but still ...

No Grain Elevators In California
Is California wheat shipped in bulk or in bags at the present time? There are no elevators in this State, owing to the fact that...

New Zealand Flax
Give information about Phormiun tenax (New Zealand flax), which I see is imported to San Francisco in large quantities yearly for ...

No Home-made Beet Sugar
Is there any simple process of making sugar from beets so that I could make my own sugar at home from my own beets while sugar is ...

Don't Get Crazy About Special Crops
I want information about flax as a crop. I have been having some land graded for alfalfa and I have had to wait so long I am now d...

California Insect Powder
What part of the plant is used in making insect powder and how is it prepared? Is the plant a perennial? What soil suits it best? ...

Rotations For California
I wish to work out a practical system of crop rotation suitable to the climate and conditions obtaining in southern California. Wo...

Heating And Fermentation
Please explain why dampness will cause anything like hay, Egyptian corn or other like products to heat. Heating is due to ferme...

Moonshine Farming
What influence, if any, has the moon on plant growth? Are there any reliable data of experiments available? Very prolonged inve...

Soil Depth For Citrus Trees
...

I Have A Top Soil Of Rich Loam Containing Small Rocks And Pebbles
Underneath it is washed gravel, rocks, boulders, yellow sand, etc. What is the limit as to thinness before trees will not grow, or thriv...

Soils And Oranges
I find this entire district underlaid with hardpan at various depths, from 1 to 6 feet down, and of various thicknesses. This hard...

Oranges Over High Ground Water
Does California experience show that citrus trees can be grown upon land successfully where the water-level is 6 feet from the sur...

Depth Of Ground-water
Is there probable harm from water standing 12 feet from the surface in an orchard? Also probable age of trees before any effect of...

W E Wahtoke
Water at twelve feet from the surface is desirable, and water at that point will be indefinitely desirable for the growing of fruit tr...

Summer Fallow And Summer Cropping
...

I Own Some Hill Land Which Has Been Run Down By Continuous Hay Cropping
I am told that a portion must be summer-fallowed each year, but I wish to grow some summer crop on this fallow ground that will both enr...

Soils And Crop Changes
Peas and sweet peas do not grow well continuously in the same ground. I know this practically in my experience, but in no book hav...

Summer-fallow Before Fruit Planting
I recently bought a ranch at Sheridan, Placer county, and was intending to put 10 acres to peaches and 50 acres to wheat or barley...

Defects In Soil Moisture
I have apricot trees that appear to be almost dead; all but a very few small green leaves are gone, and they look bad, still I thi...

Dry Plowing For Soil And Weed Growth
Is there any scientific reason to support the belief that it is injurious to the soil to dry-plow it for seeding to grain this fal...

Treatment Of Dry-plowed Land
We are plowing a piece of light sandy mesa land, dry, which has considerable tarweed and other weeds growing before plowing. Which...

For A Refractory Soil
What can I do to soil that dries out and crusts over so hard that it won't permit vegetable growth? A liberal amount of stable man...

More Manure Water And Cultivation Required
I have a small place on a hillside, with brown soil about one to two feet deep to hardpan and I am getting rather discouraged, as ...

Planting Trees In Alkali Soil
My land contains a considerable quantity of both the black and white alkalies, the upper two feet being a rather heavy, sticky cla...

Planting In Mud
Why does ground lose its vitality or its growing qualities when it is plowed or stirred when wet, and does this act in all kinds o...

Electro-agriculture
Kindly tell me of any one who is working upon the application of electricity to stimulating agricultural growth-especially here on...

High Hardpan And Low Water
What detriment is hardpan if 14 inches below the surface and in some places 12 inches? I have been plowing so I could set peach tr...

Depth Of Cultivation
I would be glad to know whether in cultivating an orchard a light-draft harrow could profitably be used, which cultivates three an...

Alfalfa Over Hardpan
I have land graded for alfalfa and some of the checks are low and water will stand on the low checks in the winter. There is on an...

Trees Over High-water
Which are the best fruit trees to plant on black adobe soil with water table between 3 and 4 feet from surface? The soil is very r...

We Would Not Plant Such Land To Fruit At All Except A Family Orchard
The fruits most likely to succeed are pears and pecans. On such land alfalfa should not hurt trees unless it is allowed to actually stra...

Soil Suitable For Fruits
I am sending samples of soil in which there are apricots and prunes growing, and ask you to examine it with reference to its suita...

For Blowing Soils
I am going to dry-sow rye late this fall. I want some leguminous plant to seed with the rye for a wind-break crop, not to plow u...

More Than Dynamite Needed
I have some peculiar land. People here call it cement. It does not take irrigation water readily, and water will pass over it for ...

Improving Heavy Soils
What is adobe? What kind of plants will grow best in adobe? In this Redwood City I find clay-like soil which looks very dark and h...

For A Reclaimed Swamp
I have land, formerly a pond which dried up in the summer months. It has been thoroughly drained now for several years. The land s...

Improving Uncovered Subsoil
What is the best treatment for spots that have been scraped in leveling for irrigation? The land can be improved by plowing dee...

Sand For Clay Soils
Will beach sand do adobe or clay soil any good? It gets hard at times and I thought that if I was to put beach sand in the ground ...

Plowing From Or Towards
Which is the proper way to plow an orchard? First to plow to the trees and then to plow from them, or to plow from the trees and t...

Dry Plowing And Sowing
I dry-plowed my grain field to a depth averaging seven inches; it turned up very rough. I then disked and harrowed it, but it is s...

Artesian Water
I have a large tract of adobe soil, a black clay top soil. For about five months in the year there is not sufficient water on the ...

Treatment Of Alkali
I am advised that in some cases alkali may be drained and that in others it is treated with gypsum. Gypsum is not a cure for al...

Alkali Gypsum And Shade Trees
Kindly advise how to apply gypsum, and how much, to heavy, sticky soil, the worst sort of adobe and heavily saturated with alkali....

Distribution Of Alkali
I am told by all the ranchers on the east and south sides of the valley that their wells are excellent. But they all say that on t...

Plants Will Tell About Alkali
Please give information as to the application of gypsum to my soil which is somewhat alkaline. I do not care to have an analysis m...

Litmus And Alkali
Is there any simple soil test for alkali that can be made without a chemical analysis? You can ascertain the presence of alkali...

Using Gypsum For Alkali
Is it better, to kill the black alkali in the soil with gypsum, just to scatter it over an alkalied spot or to plow the soil first...

Blasting Or Tiling
In planting trees where hardpan is four feet from the surface is it necessary to blast the hardpan, or is there no benefit derived...

Effects Of Blasting
I have land which is underlaid with hardpan two or three feet deep and this in turn is underlaid with sand or sandpan. What I woul...

The Sub-soil Plow
I am contemplating using a sub-soil plow for the purpose of breaking plow-sole on grain land. This is about 4 1/2 inches below the...

Sour Soil
What is "sour" soil? Is that the name by which it is commonly known, and what is the treatment for it? Sour soil is soil in whi...

Old Plaster For Sour Land
Can house plaster be used in reclaiming sour ground and how much per acre? The ground produces some sour grass - not a great deal....

Application Of Manure Ashes
Having recently got a lot of manure plentifully supplied with redwood shavings that had been used with the bedding, and being afra...

The Best Fertilizer For Sand
How can I best fertilize soil that is pure sand? The best fertilizer for pure sand is well-rotted stable manure, because it no...

Fertilizers In Tree Holes
Would it be harmful to add 2 or 3 pounds of steamed bone meal to the hole of a young tree just before planting? There would be ...

Wood Ashes And Tomatoes
Is there any harm to vegetable growing to dig sufficient of wood ashes in for mellowing heavy soil? My tomato plants grew splendid...

Prunings As Fertilizer
Is orchard and vineyard brush worth enough as a fertilizer to pay for cutting or breaking and putting back on the land? We shou...

Gypsum On Grain Land
Is there any profit in sowing gypsum on grain land, say on wheat or oat crop? At what stage should it be applied and in what quant...

Gypsum And Alfalfa
What is gypsum composed of? Is it detrimental to land in future years? Have the lands of California any black alkali in them? I no...

What Gypsum Does
I intend to fertilize alfalfa and should like to know about gypsum. I have heard it stimulates the growth temporarily but in three...

Wood Ashes In The Garden
There is available in my neighborhood a free supply of wood ashes. Can you tell me how best to distribute the same in a garden (fl...

Coal Ashes In The Garden
What is the effect of coal ashes on the red clay soil of Redlands or wood and coal ashes combined? Coal ashes are exceedingly d...

Liming A Chicken Yard
I have a small family orchard of half an acre, fenced in as a chicken yard, the soil of which has become very foul. When would be ...

Poultry Manure
Give directions for using chicken manure. For use of young trees, is there any difference in treatment of deciduous and citrus tre...

Ashes And Poultry Manure
It is said that ashes mixed with chicken manure is not good. I use ashes altogether on the drop boards because I can keep the boar...

They Also Have A Good Mellowing Effect On Heavy Soil
...

Caustic Lime Not A Good Absorbent
Would air-slackened lime be suitable to sprinkle over the dropping boards in hen houses? Gypsum is greatly superior to air-slac...

Too Much Chicken Manure For Young Trees
I have peach trees and apple trees, 3 to 6 years old, that are very thrifty but grow only wood. The soil was poor when planting, a...

Summer Pruning Is An Offset For Excessive Wood Growth
...

Suburban Wastes
We keep a cow and poultry and have a dry-earth toilet. We have been burying the manure in the little garden spot or along by the f...

Composting Garden Wastes
You recommend making a compost of all scrapings, garbage, weeds, etc. Is there any danger in having this in a pit near the house? ...

Composting Manure
Will the dry barnyard manure, when heaped up and dampened with water, make a valuable fertilizer? For garden use, dry manure in...

Barnyard Manure And Alkali
In spots my land is hard and has some black alkali. Will barnyard manure help the hard land if cultivated in? Use stable manure...

Stable Manure And Bean Straw
What are the approximate contents of common stable manure; also, how much of the above is contained in bean straw? The composit...

Roofing A Manure Pit
Is it necessary to roof a manure pit, if the pit is tight so that all rain on manure is caught in the liquid manure and nothing is...

Value Of Animals In Manure
In the operation of our fruit and dairy ranch we have the manure from some forty head of horses and cattle, which is distributed over ...

Value Of Fresh And Dry Manure
What is the relative value of the weekly or semi-weekly corral scrapings which are tramped fine and air-dried; and of the fresh, w...

Shavings In Stable Manure
Is barnyard fertilizer containing shavings instead of straw, desirable? Barnyard manure containing shavings is chiefly objection...

Handling Grape Pomace
In the case of grape pomace, would not the large value shown by analysis be chiefly in the seeds? My observation is that these are...

Sheep And Goat Manure
I can buy goat manure from an inclosure where this is deposited to an amount of about five carloads. Will goat manure be of great ...

Hog Manure And Potatoes
What is the fertilizing value of hog manure, and also what is the best fertilizer to use for potatoes? Our potatoes are planted ea...

January
Hog manure is rather a rank and strong fertilizer, usually very rich, although the quality of it depends upon how well the hogs have b...

Fertilizer For Sweet Potatoes And Melons
I have sandy soil that has been used for sweet potatoes until it is worn out for that crop, and would like your advice as to the b...

An Abuse Of Grape Pomace
I got in an argument with a neighbor of mine who stated that grape pomace is not a fertilizer. Is it so? My neighbor says that two...

Manuring Vineyard
Does barnyard manure have any injurious effect on the vines if applied on my vineyard? One of my neighbors claims barnyard manure ...

Bones For Grape Vines
I am going to plant out some grape vines, and would like to know if it is a good plan to put old bones, broken up fine, into the h...

Reviving Blighted Trees
I have a couple of apple trees here that were hurt by the pear blight three years ago and were cut back since then; they come out ...

Fertilizing Pear Orchard
I have pear trees 15 years old which have fruited heavily for years and have never been fertilized. What is the best fertilizer fo...

Fertilizing Olives
What is the best means of fertilizing an olive orchard? My orchard gives me a perfect quality of oil, but a poor quantity. My soil...

Consult The Trees
Can I send you a little soil out of my one-year-old pear orchard so that you can advise me what I can do to improve its fertilit...

Results Of Fertilizing Olives
We have 100 acres in olives about six miles northeast of Rialto in San Bernardino county. In 1908 we got about five tons from the ...

Nursery Fertilizers
I have light sandy loam, well drained. It has been in blackberries, and I now have it planted to nursery fruit tree stock. I have ...

Almond Hulls And Sawdust
Is there any fertilizing value in the hulls of almonds? Would pine sawdust from the lumber mills be a good substance to mix in and...

Fertilizing Fruit Trees
I have an orchard of prunes, apricots and cherries, which has been bearing since some 30 years ago, without fertilization, except ...

Fertilizing Oranges
What is the general and what do you consider the ideal, manuring, and when applied for orange trees from 15 to 12 years old under ...

Cow Stable Drainage For Fruit
I have been told that the drainings from a cow barn make an excellent fertilizer for orange and lemon trees, in fact, anywhere on ...

Seed Farm Refuse As A Fertilizer
Would cleanings from sweet peas or all kinds of seeds grown on a seed farm be of any value as a fertilizer on sandy loam soil for ...

Slow Stuff As A Fertilizer
How can we use sawdust and shavings from our high school shop so as to combine it with street sweepings, lawn cuttings, etc., and ...

Lime On Sandy Soil
Do you think 500 pounds of lime per acre would help a sandy soil which has not been enriched by pasturing or legumes? Of course, w...

Lime On Alfalfa
What effect does putting lime on land have in holding moisture? Also, will it pay to put it on a large field of alfalfa? The land ...

Fertilizing Alfalfa
Can new cow manure be put on alfalfa? Is not the best way to use the above as a fertilizer in form of liquid being run from barn v...

Fertilizing Corn
We are going to plant about 20 acres to corn on a sidehill and intend to put some fertilizer on, but want to give it to the corn o...

Scrap Iron As A Fertilizer
Is cast or other iron in small pieces plowed into the land of any benefit to trees as a fertilizer? If so, what would be the value...

Kelp As A Fertilizer
Are there ill effects from using sea kelp as a fertilizer for orange trees? There is no ill effect. Sea kelp has been dragged f...

Applying Thomas Phosphate
When is the best time to apply Thomas phosphate slag on orchard land? As Thomas phosphate is slowly soluble, it can be applied a...

Sugar Factory Lime For Fertilizing
Is the lime from a sugar factory a good fertilizer for either oranges or walnuts; if so, about what amount to the acre would you r...

- If Your Land Needs It At All
...

Nitrate With Stable Manure
I am going to plant about 2000 plants of rhubarb. I intend to put some cow and horse manure under the plants as a fertilizer, but ...

Nitrate Of Soda
How shall I apply nitrate of soda as fertilizer for roses and other flowers and lawns during the summer months? One has to be v...

Fertilizing Strawberries
I have half an acre of strawberries which will fruit their second season this spring, and half an acre set last month. I had inten...

Late Applications Of Nitrate
I have some prune trees which blossomed some time ago and the prunes are already set, and of small size. Would you recommend me to...

Charcoal Is A Medicine Not A Food
Recently a lumberyard burned, leaving quite a quantity of charcoal. I have a lot 50 x 150 feet in rhubarb. Would the charcoal be o...

Humus Burning Out
I would like to know whether or not dry-plowing land, in preparation for sowing oats for hay, injures the soil? I have heard that ...

Straw For Humus
Do you consider straw good to plow under for humus, and which kind, wheat, oat, or barley straw, is best? Straw, by its decay i...

The Best Legume For Cover Crop
What would you advise to sow as a crop to plow under? When should it be sowed, and when plowed under? The best crop for green-m...

Cowpeas For Cover Crop
I planted cowpeas between peach trees which I have kept irrigated; when should they be plowed under? Cowpeas will be killed by ...

Garden Peas For Green Manure
Would it be possible to plant the Yorkshire Hero pea in on orange grove as late as December 25 and get a crop from the peas? Would...

Grass For Green Manuring
I wish to sow this fall some green grass to be plowed in next spring to improve the soil of part of my land. I read for that purpo...

California That I Am Very Much Puzzled Which Kind To Select
There is no grass which grows quickly enough to be worth seeding in the fall for spring plowing. It is a good deal better to use a gra...

Manure With A Clover Crop
I have an old apple orchard in which I intend to sow burr clover. In order to get the clover to grow I know that I shall have to u...

Fenugreek As A Cover Crop
Fenugreek has been recommended to be as a nitrogen-gathering plant, but I cannot find information as to the amount of nitrogen it ...

Improvement Of Cementing Soils
I would like some advice in handling the "cementy" gravel soil. Manure is beneficial in loosening up the soil, but there is not en...

Needs Organic Matter
I have what I believe to be decomposed sandstone. Many rocks are still projecting out of land which I blast and break up. The soil...

Two Legumes In A Year
I have land on which I wish to plant to fruits, and I wish to build up the soil all I can, by planting cover crops and plowing und...

Handling Orchard Soil
We average about 35 inches of rainfall. With this heavy rainfall, is there any advantage to be gained by early plowing and clean c...

The Old Policy Of Clean Winter Cultivation Has Been Largely Abandoned
Nearly everyone is trying to grow something green during the rainy season to plow under toward the end of it. Even those who do not sow ...

Soaking Seeds
Do you think it a good practice to soak seeds before planting? It is more desirable with some seeds than others and when the gro...

Irrigating Palms
My palms are quite small, but they do not seem to grow; they seem to be drying up. The growth of palms is proportional to the a...

Water From Wells Or Streams
One of our neighbors insists that water from a well is, in the long run, very hard on the land, and that irrigation water is much ...

Condensation For Irrigation
If a circular funnel of waterproofed building paper, or some better cheap device, were fastened about the base of the tree in such...

Winter Irrigation
Last May I irrigated my prune trees for the first time, again during the first two weeks of last December. If no rain should come ...

Damping-off
My orange seed-bed stack has "damp-off." Same say "too much water;" "not enough water;" "put on lime;" etc. I use a medium amount ...

Irrigated Or Non-irrigated Trees
Is there any difference between the same kind of fruit trees grown without irrigation and with it? It does not make a particle ...

Too Little Rather Than Too Much Water
Looking through an orchard of 18-year-old prune trees on riverbottom land, I found a number of the trees had died. A well bored in...

Possibly Too Much Water
My trees are four years old and are as follows: Peach, fig, loquat, apple, apricot and plum. Last year they had plenty of blossoms...

Too Little Water After Dynamiting
In planting almonds on a dry hard soil I dynamited the holes and ran about 200 gallons of water into each hole before planting. Ab...

Irrigating Young Trees
We have just put out 50 acres to walnuts. The party who put them out wants me to have some boxes or troughs made 15 inches long wi...

Many Such Arrangements Of Boxes Perforated Cans Pieces Of Tile Etc
have been proposed during the last fifty years in California for accomplishing the purposes which are mentioned in your letter, and all ...

Underground Irrigation
How extensively used and with what results is the underground tile system for irrigation used, and what especial character of soil...

Irrigation Of Potatoes
Will you kindly tell me when is the proper time to irrigate potatoes, before they bloom or after they bloom, and do they require m...

Irrigated Or Non-irrigated Apples
Where soil and climatic conditions are favorable to the raising of apples, what effect has irrigation an them? The commercial p...

Irrigating Walnuts-checks Or Furrows
Which is the best method to irrigate a tract of 25 acres of sandy sediment sail, nearly level, preparatory to planting walnuts? ...

Summer And Fall Irrigation
Is it desirable to irrigate peach trees in the fall after the crop is gathered? The popularity of autumn irrigation for peaches...

Fertilizers In Irrigation Water
Do you recommend putting fertilizers in irrigating water? I am about to water the orchard and am thinking of putting some nitrate ...

Irrigating Alfalfa On Heavy Soils
How does alfalfa succeed on adobe and soils slightly modified from it? Does irrigation work well an adobe planted to alfalfa? I...

Sewage Irrigation
What is the usefulness or harmfulness of the outflow from septic tanks for use an fruits and vegetables? There is no question a...

Creamery Wastes For Irrigation
Will the waste water from a creamery, pumped into a ditch and used for irrigating sandy loam orchard land, or nursery stack, in an...

House Waste Water
Is it feasible to use wash water, etc., for watering fruit trees and vegetables? Kitchen sink water is not desirable because of...

Draining A Wet Spot
I have a spot of about an acre that in a wet winter becomes very miry and as a rule is wet up to July. Can I put in a ditch two an...

Legal Milk House
What is a legal milk house in California? The State dairy law says little concerning the construction or equipment of the milk ...

Cure For A Self-milker
What shall I do for a young cow that milks herself? Fit a harness consisting of two light side slats and a girth and neck strap...

Strong Milk
How can I overcome strong milk in a three-quarter Jersey cow? I had been feeding alfalfa hay with two quarts alfalfa meal and one ...

Separator As Milk Purifier
I have a neighbor who contends that a cream separator purifies the milk that passes through it. I say that it does not purify the ...

Butter Going White
I bought some butter and during the warm weather it melted. About 40 or ...

50 Per Cent Was White While The Balance Was Yellow And Went To The Top
When the butter remelted, the yellow portion melted, leaving the white portion retaining its shape. The white portion did not taste like...

Bureau
What Is "Butter-fat?" I would like to know what "butter-fat" means. I have asked farmers this question and no one seems to ...

Fahrenheit
...

Drying A Persistent Milker
My cow is to come fresh about the middle of next mouth, and in the last two weeks her milk has changed in some way so that the cre...

Butter-fat In Sweet And Sour Cream
The creamery wagon takes our cream every other day. Without ice it is almost impossible to keep the cream sweet during the hot wea...

Cream That Won't Whip
...

When I Sell My Cream From The Separator They Say They Cannot Whip It
Can you tell me if there is any way that I can make the cream whip? There appears to be no good reason for blaming the separator for y...

Jersey Shorthorn Cross
If I cross Registered Shorthorns with a Jersey bull, what dairying value will the progeny have? This makes an excellent cross. ...

A Free Martin
...

I Have A Jersey Cow Who Has Just Had Twin Calves A Heifer And A Bull
The heifer was born about five minutes before the bull and seems to be the stronger. My neighbors tell me to fatten both for the butcher...

Breeding A Young Mare
I have a beautiful colt 22 months old that will weigh 1200 or 1300 pounds; very compactly built, and has extra health, life and vi...

To Breed In The Purple
What is meant by breeding a sow in the purple? I have seen this statement used many times by breeders who advertised "sows safe in...

To Be Bred In The Purple Means To Be Of Royal Or Princely Parentage
It originally was used in reference to the nobility of Europe, as purple was the insignia of royal blood, due to the fact that purple wa...

Cows For Hill Country
What breed of dairy cows do you think would be preferable to keep for butter, at an altitude of about 1800 feet, in Nevada county ...

Foothill Dairying
Is there any risk to run in taking cows to an altitude of 2000 from a much lower one? There is no quarrel between a cow and a m...

Bad-tempered Jerseys
Jersey bulls are apt to become vicious after a time; is it so to the same extent with bulls of the other named breeds? The Jers...

Never Consider A Bull Gentle And You Will Be Safe With Him
...

Breeding In Line
Is it right and proper to breed a pedigreed registered bull to his daughter, who is the offspring of a grade cow? If it is not rig...

W M Carruthers
...

Whitewashes For Stock Buildings
I desire whitewash recipes which have given durable results on outbuildings. It is so desirable to make outbuildings neat and c...

Whitewash Requires Some Kind Of Grease In It To Make It Most Durable
Any kind of grease, even though it be old and partly spoiled, will answer all right, though tallow is best. The grease imparts to the w...

Government Whitewash
What is the government recipe for whitewash? "Take a half bushel of well-burned, unslaked lime, slake it with boiling water, co...

Whitewash For Spray Pump
Can you give a recipe for a durable whitewash which can be prepared simply and in large quantities? The whitewash will be applied ...

Strain For Work On Smooth Surface
Buttermilk Paint How is paint made with buttermilk for farm buildings? One gallon buttermilk, 3 pounds of Portland cement...

Trespassing Live Stock
Is there a fence law in this State? In other words, do I have to fence against my neighbors' stock, or does the law require him to...

Rat-proof Granary
How can I make a rat-proof granary for alfalfa meal and barley? Omit all boarding of the sides below the floor level and place a...

Concrete Stable Floor
Is a concrete floor good for a horse stable? Concrete floors are satisfactorily used for horse stables, provided the floor is r...

Silo-heating Not Dangerous
Is there any danger of a barn burning from spontaneous combustion due to a silo being built in the barn? ...

There Is No Danger Of The Silo Overheating And Setting Fire To A Barn
When the ensilage is curing, it often gets warm, but never anywhere near the point of combustion. ...

To Make Shingles Durable
What is the best material with which to coat the shingles on my barn roof? The best coating is a wood preservative, the princip...

Best Breed Of Hogs
What is the best breed of hogs for pen feeding, shutting them up in small pens from the time they are little pigs and feeding them...

Feed For Plow-horses
While doing heavy plowing, how many pounds of rolled barley per day should I feed to keep 1300-pound horses in good condition? If ...

Vetch For Horses
Does vetch make good feed for horses? Will vetch produce a heavier crop than grain? When is the best time to sow vetch for hay, an...

Vetch Makes Excellent Stock Feed Whether Used As Hay Or As Pasturage
Vetch falls to the ground so badly that it is very difficult to cut hay from it unless some grain is planted to hold it up. Oats make an...

Sorghum Feeding
Can I allow milk cows to pasture on growing Kaffir and Egyptian corn during the summer? Which one is the best for pasture and milk...

Salting Hay
What kind of salt is used for salting hay, how much to use and how to apply it? Any good commercial salt such as is used for po...

Stover
What is stover? How is it cut and handled? Stover is corn fodder after the ears are taken off. The best time to cut the corn fo...

Feed For Cows
What shall I feed cows when they are fresh and when they are dry! When they commence to freshen, give some green feed, such as a...

Sorghum Silage
Will Egyptian corn make good ensilage and at what time should it be cut to make the best feed for dairy cows? Sorghum makes goo...

Barley For Hay Feeding
Should the barley for hog feeding be rolled, ground or fed whole, dry or wet? Also, how much should be fed and how often to get be...

Sugar Beets And Silage
Will sugar beets keep in a silo and how sugar beets rank as a hog feed? Sugar beets would probably keep all right if stored in a...

Feeding Value Of Spelt
What is the food value of spelt? It is a Russian variety of wheat, and yet, I am informed, it has about the same value as a stock ...

Concentrates And Corn Stalks
Is it necessary to feed mulch cows any hay or concentrated feed in addition to green corn stalks? It is necessary. Green corn i...

Dry Sorghum Fodder
Is Egyptian corn fodder good for cows? I have been told it would dry up the milk. I have several acres and would like to feed it i...

Steers On Alfalfa
How much alfalfa hay will a two or three-year-old steer eat per day, and about what is the gain in weight per day? A steer will...

1/2 Pounds Gain In Weight Per Day
...

Concentrates With Alfalfa
I have a good supply of alfalfa hay and have been feeding this as a straight feed for my dairy cows. They are not, however, doing ...

Chopping Hay For Horses
What saving may be made by chopping all oat hay when fed to horses? There is no particular saving in chopping hay unless the hor...

Grain For Horses
What is the best formula for feeding work horses with oat hay, alfalfa, barley (crushed) and corn as rations? Feed one-half oat...

3/4 To 1 Pound Of Rolled Barley Or Corn For Each 100 Pounds Live Weight
If the corn is on the cob, four-fifths of its weight is corn; that is to say, 5 pounds of corn on the cob has 4 pounds of grain. ...

Feeding Cut Alfalfa Hay
Would alfalfa hay, cut, say, from one-half to three inches in length be better than whole hay for hogs, cattle and horses, and if ...

P Denny
...

Storing Cut Alfalfa Hay
We are planning on cutting our next season's crop of alfalfa with a feed cutter and storing it in a barn for winter feeding. Th...

Alfalfa Grinding
Is the curing of alfalfa for grinding different from ordinary; has it to be chopped before grinding, and what is the cost of grind...

Feeding Calves
How soon can calves be weaned and not hinder their growth? After weaning, what would you advise to feed them? After the calf ha...

Winter Feed For Sheep
What would be the best to sow for sheep pasture - barley, oats, rye, vetch or rape? Of the grains, rye is usually found to be b...

Balanced Rations
What is a balanced ration for milk cows and brood sows? When plenty of alfalfa is available many dairymen feed that alone. It is...

Pasture And Cover Crop
I am thinking of sowing burr clover with rye to be plowed under in the spring. Is it good policy to sow rye with clover? Burr c...

Cutting Corn For Silage
What is the best time to cut corn for the silo? What length is it cut? Is water put on it when it is put in the silo? The best ...

Fall And Winter Pasturage
What do you advise for planting in the fall for winter pasture in the Sacramento valley? Are field peas suitable? The common Ca...

Essex Rape Or Kale
...

Summer Pasture For Hogs
...

I Want To Pasture Hogs In The San Joaquin Valley This Spring And Summer
Have water for irrigation, but will not have time to get alfalfa started sufficient to pasture. ...

Sorghum Can Be Planted With Pumpkins Or Some Root Crop Between The Rows
The root crop or the pumpkins could be used in the later summer, while the sorghums could come between the natural grasses of the early ...

Size Of A Silo
I am planning to build a silo 8 feet high and 10 feet across. Will ensilage (corn, oats) keep well in a silo of those dimensions? ...

Diameter Height Capacity Diameter Height Capacity
10 feet 25 feet 36 tons 14 feet 34 feet 115 tons 10 " 28 " 42 " 15 " 34 " 131 " ...

Soiling Crops In California
What are the dates for planting crops to be used for soiling in your State? We are using Indian corn and sorghums of various ki...

Brewer's Grains For Cows
Are sprouted barley grains that may be had from breweries good for milch cows? Will it increase the milk, or will it dry up the co...

Feeding Pumpkins
What is the proper way to feed pumpkins to cows? Some say to cut them in halves; while others say they must be chopped fine enough...

Feeding A Family Cow
What shall I feed family Jersey cow in addition to alfalfa hay to insure a good supply of milk? One of the best things to feed ...

Rolled Barley For Cows
Will rolled barley hurt milk cows, say two light feeds a day? Will it not do about as much good as the same amount of bran? Cer...

Horse Beans And Pie-melons
Would it pay me to raise horse beans for fattening hogs? Horse beans do well. Would citrons do well there without irrigation, and ...

Horse Beans
Are "horse beans" a leguminous crop and how does their feeding value for hogs compare to cowpeas and Canadian field peas? They ...

Storing Stock Beets
What is the best method of storing stock beets and stock carrots in this climate? We can let them remain in the ground and grow un...

March And Would Like To Preserve Them For Feeding As Long As Possible
Stock beets and carrots can be stored in California without recourse to covering with ground or use of a cellar. They keep very well d...

Kale For Cow Feed
What is kale worth for cow feed as compared with alfalfa, also can it be cut and cured the same as alfalfa and what variety is the...

Grow A Large Stock Of Beet By All Means - Either A Mangel Or A Tankard
Usually you will get more weight than with sugar beets; the cost of harvesting is far less, and the nutritive contents high enough. ...

Keeping Pumpkins
What is the best way of storing pumpkins, under ordinary farm conditions, in a climate such as we have here in northern California...

Grape Pomace As Hog Feed
What is the value of grape pomace as a hog feed? It has been sold for 50 cents a ton as it comes from the press at the winery a...

Proper Feeding Of Young Pigs
If I put two 50-pound shoats to an acre of barley that will yield 10 or 12 sacks of grain, how many months could they be kept ther...

Pie-melons And Pigs
I have 14 sows which were fed almost entirely on pie-melons and milk, not much of the latter. Out of the 14, only 3 sows have save...

Wheat Or Barley For Hogs
Which would be the better grain for me to buy for hog feed; wheat at $1.30 per hundred, or barley at $1? Would it be worth paying ...

10 Cents A Hundred For Crushing And The Hauling
...

Grain And Pasture For Pigs
What is the most profitable amount of grain to feed to spring pigs while on alfalfa pasture, from the time of weaning to the time ...

Growing Pigs On Roots And Barley
We can raise all kinds of root crops, such as carrots, sugar beets, rutabagas, etc., and cow peas and pumpkins do wonderfully well...

Wheat And Barley For Feeding
What is the difference in the feeding value of wheat and barley for hogs and horses? There is very little difference in the che...

Abscess Of Parotid Gland
My horse has had a bad cold and it has a large lump on its neck which keeps running and does not seem to get any better; it has be...

Forage Poisoning
Last fall one of our horses was taken ill and had a swollen jaw. He died soon and we supposed that he had been kicked and died of ...

For A Scabby Swelling
One of my cows has a swelling on her hind leg with little scabs on it, first it was on the front leg. It is as big as your hand. Us...

An Easement In Bloat
What can be done for bloating? It does not seem to be generally known that to put a bridle on a cow or put a stick in her mouth...

Fatal Skin Disease
About two months ago a horse was turned out in pasture. Several of the horses in the pasture started to lose their hair. It seemed...

Shoulder Injury On Mare
A young mare that bruised her shoulder on the point with collar. It was lanced and now has a hard lump or callous, about three inc...

Horse With Worms
What is the best remedy for a horse that has worms? I would like to know, as I have a horse that is getting poor with this trouble...

Horse With Itch
For about a year my horse has been itching so badly that he has rubbed off all the hair on certain parts of his body. Lately he bi...

For A Bowel Trouble
What can I do to relieve a horse that balls up on alfalfa at the time of the first symptoms? I have been bothered considerably wit...

Abnormal Thirst Of Horse
I have a horse with an abnormal desire for water. I notice that in drinking she always wants more than the others. I also notice s...

Scours
Kindly recommend a treatment for a horse troubled with scours. He is on dry feed, but the trouble continues. Give very little w...

Depraved Appetite
I have a colt about one year old that continually delights in chewing up harness, ropes, chews on the manger and, in fact, anythin...

Good Dentist Needed
I have an old horse which has always been fat and quite full of life until right lately. Now he is getting thin and looks bad. He ...

Kidney Trouble
My horse has some trouble in passing water. What can I give him that may be put in the mash? I don't think his trouble is due all ...

For Chronic Indigestion
I have given my horse condition powders for indigestion, but her hair is rough still. Do you advise feeding on the road when a hor...

5:30 P M Being Fed At 7 A M?
A great majority of condition powders contain resin and antimony. While a slight amount may be beneficial, continued use results in af...

Wound Sore
My colt got its hind leg cut on barbed wire some weeks ago. There is a hole about an inch and one-half deep in the center of the s...

Warts On Horse
How can warts be removed from a horse's hide? ...

We Use Sulphuric Acid The Results Were Favorable From The Very Start
The warts rapidly shrunk away and finally disappeared entirely. The acid is applied to the crown of the wart with a small swab or simila...

Kidney Trouble In Horse
What is the remedy for a horse that stops often to urinate while working? The horse is affected by an irritation of the kidneys...

Castration Of Colt
Which is the correct and best way to castrate a yearling colt, with an emasculator or a blade, and when is the proper time? An ...

For A Chronic Cough
We have a mare seven years old that is troubled with a chronic cough, and at times shows symptoms of heaves, and also has occasion...

Mix And Give Tablespoonful Three Times Daily
...

Chronic Indigestion
I have a mare eleven years old. Give her plenty of oats, hay, grain and a little alfalfa hay three nights per week and leave salt ...

Have Had Her Teeth Attended To So She Chews Her Food Well
This condition is caused by the animal not being able to properly masticate the food. Have your dentist examine the mouth again, or yo...

For Short-wind Or Heaves
I have a mare that has something wrong with her wind. About six months ago I noticed her wind was not good and she had a slight co...

Side-bone
I have a 1500-pound 3-year-old colt with small brittle feet that has side bone coming on left front foot caused by driving him bar...

Fungus Poisoning
One of my mares, every evening after a full day's work harrowing, stands for an hour or so with her head to the ground, shaking it...

Treatment For Horse's Feet
The soles of the fore feet of a fine 4-year-old horse, weight 1350, are rather spongy and grow down faster than the hoof, sometime...

Use Leather Tar And Okum And A Dish-shoe
...

For A Cleft Hoof
I have a horse with a cracked hoof. One hind foot has been in a bad condition, the other seems to be beginning to crack. Can anyth...

Stiff Joints
I have a horse that was bruised on the ankle about two years ago. This is now producing an enlargement of the bone and stiffness o...

Treatment For Nail Puncture
Our horse got a nail in his foot. It was a wire nail, rusty, entering about one inch from the point of the frog, and just puncturi...

Pregnancy Of Mare
Is there any way to tell when a mare is in foal? I have had a veterinarian and he could not tell me. There is no very good way ...

Diseased Uterus Of Mare
I have a brood mare that has given me two fine colts, but for the last two years I have not been able to get her with foal. She ta...

Solution Of Arsenic
...

Deep-seated Abscess
I have a mule which has a swelling on the throat about where the throatlatch touches. It just seems to be swollen hard and not sor...

This Mule Should Be Operated Upon At Once By A Qualified Veterinarian
The application of liniments or blisters are useless; the knife only will effect a cure. The fact that the mule is losing flesh makes th...

Cure For Cocked Ankles
I have a 4-year-old mare that has cocked ankles, and would like to know what treatment to give her. Cocked ankles are due to an...

Dehorning
Which is the best way to dehorn cows and calves? The best time to dehorn cows is in the spring, before the fly season starts. I...

Paralysis During Pregnancy
I have a cow that will freshen in a few days. About six days ago she seemed weak in her hind legs and on going downhill would drag...

Bloody Milk
What can be done to stop bloody milk? Milk each teat in a separate glass jar, let stand to ascertain which teat the red specks ...

To Cleanse Cows
My cows are healthy and calves all right, but seem to have trouble throwing the afterbirth. Wash out twice daily with about 1 g...

Treatment For Caked Bag
I have a cow whose udder is caked hard and has been swollen from the udder to the forelegs. This latter swelling has gone down by ...

Garget
I have a cow which gave rich milk all the time, but now every time I milk her some yellow, hard substance will come out instead of...

Infectious Mastitis
We have a 2-year-old heifer, which, two weeks before she was due to freshen, had a large udder slightly caked. Upon pressing the t...

A Mangy Cow
I have a milk cow with some trouble about her head, neck and shoulders, which causes her to rub herself enough to make raw spots a...

The Sheds Should Be Cleaned And Whitewashed
...

Irritation On Back Of Udder
I have a yearling heifer which has sore teats and blotches just back of her bag which seem to itch. Her mother had a sort of eczem...

Enlarged Gland On Neck
I have a calf that has a lump on her neck, which appeared when she was two days old. The lump is getting larger. This is probab...

Lumpy Jaw
Some of my cows have hard lumps on their jaws, or lumpy jaw. Can that be cured, and how? This is Actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) and ...

A Neck-swelling
My cow has a swelling under her neck between her jaw bones about the size of a baseball and almost as hard. It is not attached to ...

This May Be Tubercular Or The Result Of Foxtail Etc
...

Cow Chewing Bones
One of my cows is continually chewing bones. What can I do to prevent it? Give the cow good clean hay; some root crop, cocoanut...

Swelling On The Dewlap
I have a cow that has a large lump at the point of the breastbone, the dewlap. This lump is as large as a cocoanut, and was caused...

Barren Heifers
I have three heifers, 3 years old, which have run with the bull right along and have failed with calf; have had three different bu...

A Sterile Cow
I have a very fine Jersey cow. I have had her to the bull every month, and can't get her with calf. In an isolated case of this...

Supernumerary Teat
On the upper part of one of the hind teats of a young Jersey cow that freshened recently for the first time, there is a small grow...

Infection Of Udder
Last year one of my cows had milk fever which affected her udder. This year after freshening she milked two months when she sudden...

The Cow Has Infectious Mastitis Due To Introduction Of Some Infection
Give a saline purge (1 pound. glauber salt), inject peroxide of hydrogen, after which pump in, sterile air. Apply externally camphorated...

Lumps In Teats
My cow has hard lumps in, her teats and lower part of the bag. These cause pain to her on milking, but there are no other symptoms...

Wound In Teat
I have a cow with an open slit about one-fourth to one-third of an inch in the side of one teat. I have lacerated the edges and st...

Injury To Udder
I have a cow which has a gathering in the back of her udder which seems to be some sort of injury. It has been there but a few day...

Blind Teat
What can I do for a "blind teat"? The cow has just freshened and that quarter of her udder is very full, but there is no milk in t...

Cow Pox
I have a yearling heifer which is in fine condition and making good growth. But all four of her teats have sores on them and are m...

Cause Of Loss Of Cud
About three months ago a pure-bred Jersey commenced to fail on her milk and soon went dry, although on good feed. Did not seem to ...

Calf Dysentery
I would like to know the reason for bloody discharges from the bowels of a young six-day-old calf. There is a looseness of the bow...

The Discharge Is Very Dangerous To Other Animals
...

Bovine Rheumatism
Our Jersey cow got somewhat lame one year ago in one hip or leg after calving but soon got better. Last June when she came in one ...

Bleeding For Blackleg
I have read several articles on blackleg, and it seems strange to me that no mention is made of an operation that is an absolute p...

Poor Feeding Depraved Appetite
I have three cows. They have been fed alfalfa hay all winter and are in very good condition and seem otherwise in good health, and...

Cows Swallowing Foreign Substances
We recently lost a valuable cow, and when we opened her we found a large tumor or abscess at the top of the heart as large as a ga...

Defective Urination
...

I Have A Cow That Seems To Be In Good Health And Gives Plenty Of Milk
Nearly every morning when she is being milked she seems to want to urinate and will stand letting the water drip from her. This troub...

Infectious Conjunctivitis (sore Eyes)
I have several cows and heifers that are affected with sore eyes. The disease first makes its appearance by excessive watering of ...

What To Do Against Tuberculous Milk
I should like to know what could be done with a dairy where cows are dying with tuberculosis and the owner knows, but is selling t...

Effects Of Ill-feeding Pigs
I have a couple of pigs, out of about 75 head farrowed last spring, which seem to have the staggers. They are looking fairly well,...

Sore Eyes In Pigs
What is the matter with young pigs when their eyes swell shut? Before they shut they look as if there was a white milky scum over ...

Hog Cholera
...

I Have A Number Of Pigs Which Have Been Ailing For Three Weeks Or So
They discharge a yellowish kind of manure at times, running of the bowels. The most striking symptom seems to be a partial paralysis of ...

Pneumonia In Pigs
What is the disease which may be said to confine itself, with few exceptions, to young pigs weighing 100 pounds or less? Its sympt...

B Wintringham
...

General Prescription For Hog Sickness
My hogs seem to be mangy and scabby, but am unable to find any lice on them. They eat well, but vomit a good deal and are falling ...

Pigs Out Of Condition
Of a litter of pigs weaned about a month several of them have itchy scabs on their legs, ears and noses, and those having white fe...

Paralysis Of Sow
During the last few days one of my sows appears to be paralyzed in her hind quarters and now cannot use her hind legs at all. She ...

4 Ounces Olive Oil She Will Recover After Parturition
...

Rickets In Hogs
A fine boar, 16 months old, weight about 380 pounds, well built, with little surplus fat, until lately has been very thrifty, but ...

Pigs Losing Tails
We have five pigs, 17 days old, and when they were farrowed they had rings around the roots of their tails, and now their tails ar...

Over-fat Sow
My brood sow is awfully fat; how should I feed her so that she don't get too fat? She is bred and it will be her third litter. She...

I Give Her Half A Dozen Potatoes Every Day
You need not worry about getting her thin. She simply requires less food. An animal excessively fat brings forth an inferior offspring...

Musty Corn For Pigs
Would Egyptian corn that has been musty and then dried in the sun be fit for pigs? It heated and musted quite a good deal, but is ...

Wounds And Wound Swellings
What is the proper treatment for a fresh wire cut on a horse? How should saddle galls be treated? Is there any way to make the hai...

Fly Repellants
Can you tell me what to use as a spray to kill the flies in my stable? In the early, morning the ceiling and sides are thickly cov...

To Destroy Fleas
My barn, is full, of fleas I tried to destroy them by using creso-dip, but did not kill them, all. Fleas can only be permanentl...

Largely Compiled From The Writings Of Mrs W Russell James And Mrs
...

Susan Swapgood
...

Teaching Chicks To Perch
What is a good method of breaking in young brooder chicks to use the roosts? At from six to eight weeks old the chicks should b...

Liver Disease
I have hens which seem well in every respect up to the time of their combs changing color, when they die within three days. The co...

The Droppings Are Loose And Very White
The fowls were victims of jaundice, which is a form of liver disease and caused by over-feeding on rich starchy foods that also cause ...

Rupture Of Oviduct
I have had two other hens die suddenly when on the nest. The second one - we opened and found one egg broken near the vent and ano...

Melons For Fowls
Have "stock melons" or "citrons" any merit as a green food for laying hens? Are the seeds of the above injurious to hens or cows? ...

Rape And Vetch For Chickens
What time do you sow rape and vetch and are they good for chickens? They surely are good for chickens or for any other stock tha...

Neither Plant Likes Dry Heat Or Dry Soil
...

Preserving Eggs
What is a good way to preserve eggs for home use? In a cool cellar, eggs will keep very well in a mixture of common salt and br...

Dipping Fowls
How do you dip hens to kill lice? To dip fowls you must have a very warm day, or a warm room where you can turn them in to dry....

Cure For Feather-eating
What is the cure for feather-eating? ...

Feather Eating Is The Result Of Idleness Or A Shortage Of Green Feed
The best way to cure it is to furnish the fowls with exercise. Boil some oats until soft, and when cooked stir in salt enough to taste a...

Cannibal Chicks
What can I do to cure my chicks of eating each other? Some kind of animal food is necessary when the chicks begin to pick toes,...

Sunflower Seeds For Poultry
What is the food value of sunflower seed as a ration for fowls, mostly laying hens? Should it be fed whole or crushed? Sunflowe...

Clipping Hens For Cleanliness
My hens foul all the feathers below the vent; they appear healthy, but do not look nice. What can I do? Take a pair of scissors...

Bowel Trouble In Chicks
What is the cause of bowel trouble in young chicks, and what to do for it? Bowel trouble in very young chicks is usually caused...

Quick Roosters And Laying Hens
How can I get the young roosters off quick and the hens to lay in winter? These two happy results come from correct methods of ...

Poultry Tonic
What is a good poultry tonic? The following is a very good tonic for general purposes: Tincture of red cinchona, 1 fluid ounce;...

Poultry In The Orchard
Kindly advise me about keeping hens in an orchard. I would like to know if they will injure the trees in any way if kept in large ...

Caponizing
Can three to four month old cockerels be caponized successfully in summer, and if so, what care, feed, etc., do they require after...

Roup Treatment
...

Up To A Week Ago The Chickens Had Been Exceptionally Well In Every Way
Now they seem to have a cold and a running at the nose and with it a bad odor. It was suggested that this might be the beginning of roup...

Bad Food For Chickens
My chicks are about three weeks old and have always been strong and sturdy, but when taken sick first appear a little dumpish, the...

Your Chicks Have Eaten Soured Food Decayed Vegetables Or Tainted Meat
Baby chicks are just like other babies and the same care should be used that their food be always sweet and fresh. Wet food should never...

Open-front Chicken Houses
In what direction shall I face open-front poultry houses? North or northeast is the proper direction to face the open fronts of ...

A Point On Mating
I have fine roosters a year old this April; would you advise keeping them for mating with the same hens next season, or do you adv...

Age For Mating
At what age may a cockerel be mated with hens? ...

From Nine Months To A Year Is The Proper Age To Mate A Leghorn Cockerel
...

Cockerels Of The Larger Breeds Should Not Be Mated Before A Year Old
...

White-yolk Eggs
Why are eggs watery and light-colored? The trouble is in the feed somewhere. Too much green feed, especially green feed that sp...

Poultry Diarrhea
Will you kindly tell me the cause and cure for bowel trouble among hens? The "quick cure" for chick diarrhea has not yet been fo...

Limber-neck
A very peculiar disease is taking off my fowls. The head of the fowl bends down to the breast and the fowl looks like dead, there ...

Chicken Pox
My one and two-year-old fowls are getting scabby combs. It starts with a round blackish spot and swells into many spots, finally n...

Roup In Turkeys
My turkeys have a disease that is spreading rapidly. They commence with a running at the nose, have swelling under the eyes which ...

Disinfectants
What can I use to disinfect poultry belongings? Sulphuric acid spray is good, but you will need to be very careful that you do ...

Cloth For Brooding Houses
Would some good grade of white cloth on a frame do as well, or would it be better than glass, for a brooder house, or would it kee...

Grains For Chickens
What variety of grain adopted for poultry food will be the best to grow, with and also without irrigation? Wheat is a standard ...

Plucking Ducks And Geese
I would like to know about how, when and how often to pick old ducks so as to get the feathers for pillows and not kill the ducks,...

Feeding Hens For Hatching Eggs
Should soft feed be given to the mothers of chicks intended for broilers? How about dry mash? How would you advise feeding animal ...

A Dry Mash
Will you give a formula for a dry mash? Wheat bran, 500 pounds; middlings, 200 pounds; cracked corn, 200 pounds; charcoal, 20 p...

Depluming Mites
My chickens are losing the feathers from their necks, some three inches down the front and then extending around the neck. The ...

Control Of Grasshoppers
This county is having trouble with the grasshoppers as are other counties. Would you kindly inform me what I could do to extermina...

Sunburn And Borers
Please state the best remedy for keeping the borer out of young fruit trees. Sunburn can be prevented in many ways. The manufac...

Gumming Of Prune Trees
I write to ask for information concerning my prune trees. They are from two to six years old and the gum is exuding from them. As ...

Borers In Olive Twigs
There are quite a number of olive trees in this locality that have something wrong with them. They make a growth of five or six in...

Raspberry Cane Borer
Can you tell me what to do for my Loganberries and raspberries? A small worm got into them in the new growth of wood lost summer, ...

Control Of Red Spider
Can you give directions for the prevention of injury by the red spider to almond and other trees in the Sacramento volley? The ...

Liquid Spray For Red Spider
Is there any liquid spray I can use in my spraying that will kill the red spider without injuring the foliage of the almond? A ...

Apple-leaf Aphis
I am sending herewith a small piece from one of my young apple trees. If you can, will you kindly tell me what the insects are an ...

Woolly Aphis
Will you kindly inform me what you consider the best treatment for apple trees affected by woolly aphis? The best way to kill t...

Blister Mite On Walnuts
I am sending you some walnut leaves with some swellings an them. They are very plentiful on some trees here. Is the trouble seriou...

Scale On Apricots
...

I Would Like To Know How To Check The Scale On Apricot Trees
The most common scale on apricots, the brown apricot scale, is usually held in check by the comys fusca, which is as widely distribute...

Fumigating For Black Scale
I would like to know the best method of eradicating the black scale from my orange trees, whether by spraying or fumigation? Sp...

Finding Thrips
How can the presence of pear thrips be detected in a prune orchard? Will the distillate emulsion-nicotine spray control brown scal...

Control Of Pear Slug
I am sending, under separate cover, some samples of cherry tree leaves that have been attacked by a small snail or slug. Kindly le...

Cutworms And Young Trees
What method should be used to protect young fruit trees from cutworms? Hoe around the trees or vines and kill the fat, greasy gr...

Control Of Squash Bugs
...

We Are Troubled With Pumpkin Bugs Please Tell Us What To Do For Them
When the bugs first make their appearance in the field they can be easily disposed of by hand picking and dropping into a bucket conta...

The Corn Worm
Last year all my ears of corn were infested with maggot, growing fat thereon. Can you help me scare them away? You have to do w...

Melon Lice
I have in about four acres of watermelons, and there seem to be lice and a small gnat or fly, and also some small green bugs and w...

Wire Worms
Is there any way to destroy or overcome the destructive work of the wireworm, which I find in some spots takes the lion's share of...

Bean Weevil
How can I keep certain insects from getting into my dry beans? I have finished picking the crop. Every year a little, short, stubb...

Slugs In Garden
Can you advise me how I can get rid of slugs in my garden? When barriers of lime, ashes, etc., are ineffective, traps consisting...

Cause Of Mottle Leaf
What is the cause and cure of mottle leaf of citrus trees? There are apparently a number of causes of this trouble, all more or ...

Potato Scab
I think most of my potatoes will have some scab. Will you please tell me if my next crop would be apt to have scab, provided I got...

Gopher Poison
I have some alfalfa, some hogs and some gophers, also some strychnine and carrots. If I put the strychnine on the carrots, and end...

How To Make Bordeaux
Use copper sulphate (bluestone) 5 pounds; quick-lime (good stone lime), 6 pounds; water, 50 gallons. Put the bluestone in a sack a...

Formula For Lime-sulphur
To make lime-sulphur take quick-lime, 20 pounds; ground sulphur, 15 pounds and water 30 gallons. Slake the lime with hot water in ...


...

The Unproductive Farm
When a soil expert visits an unproductive farm to determine its needs, he gives his chief attention to four possible factors in his pro...

Soil Acidity
Lime performs various offices in the soil, but farmers should be concerned chiefly about only one, and that is the destruction of acids...

Irrational Use Of Lime
Some refusal to accept the facts respecting soil acidity and its means of correction is due to a prejudice that was created by an unwis...

Where Clover Is Not Wanted
The ability to grow heavy red clover is a practical assurance that the soil's content of lime is sufficiently high. When clover fails o...

Determining Lime Requirement
It is wasteful to apply lime on land that does not need it. As has been said, the man who can grow heavy clover sods has assurance that...

The Litmus-paper Test
A test of fair reliability may be made with litmus paper. A package of blue litmus paper can be bought for a few cents at any drug stor...

A Practical Test
The importance of alkalinity in soils is so great, and the prevalence of acidity has such wide-spread influence to-day, limiting the va...

Duration Of Effect
Soil acidity is not permanently corrected by a lime application. The original supply failed to prove lasting, and the relatively small ...

Forms Of Lime
There is unnecessary confusion in the mind of the public regarding the forms of lime that should be used. If amounts greatly in excess ...

Definitions
The use of the various forms of lime will become general, and the terms employed to designate them should be understood. They vary in t...

The Kind To Apply
If a soil contains free acid, the amount of calcium needed is definite. The form of lime that can supply the need in that particular fi...

The Fineness Of Limestone
Experiments at the Pennsylvania experiment station have shown that limestone has practically immediate availability in an acid soil if ...

Hydrated Lime
Many salesmen are too enthusiastic in their claims for hydrated lime. It has advantages over pulverized limestone, stone-lime, and pulv...

Stone-lime
Stone or lump-lime is composed of the 56 per cent of a pure limestone that gives value to the limestone. Forty-four pounds of waste mat...

Ashes
Hard-wood ashes have ceased to have much importance as a source of lime for land, but their use is held in high esteem even by those wh...

Marl
Marls vary widely in composition. When quite pure, they contain 90 or more per cent of carbonate of lime, and have a value per ton abou...

Magnesian Lime
Some limestone is a nearly pure calcium compound, and yields a pure lime, while much limestone contains a high percentage of magnesia. ...

Amount Per Acre
The amount of lime that should be applied to an acre of land depends upon the degree of its acidity, the nature of the soil, the cheapn...

Time Of Application
The use of lime on land should be associated in the land-owner's thoughts with the growing of clover. It does help soil conditions so t...

Office Of Organic Matter
The restoration of an impoverished soil to a productive state usually is a simple matter so far as method is concerned. It may be a dif...

The Legumes
Any plant that grows and rots in the soil adds to the productive power of the land if lime is present, but plants differ in value as ma...

Storing Nitrogen
Man needs protection from his own greed, and nature's checks are his salvation. An illustration is afforded in the case of legumes grow...

The Right Bacteria
The word "bacteria" has had a grudging admission to the vocabulary of practical farmers, and the reason is easily stated. The knowledge...

Soil Inoculation
The belief that the right kind of bacteria may be absent from the soil when a new legume is seeded, and that they should be supplied di...

Method Of Inoculation
The bacteria can be transferred to a new field by spreading soil taken from a field that has been growing the legume successfully. The ...

Red Clover
Wherever red clover thrives there is no more valuable plant than this legume for making and keeping soils productive under ordinary cro...

Clover And Acid Soils
There are limited areas in which some clover disease has flourished, and in some years insect attacks are serious. Barring these factor...

Methods Of Seeding
It is a common practice to sow clover in the spring, either with spring grain or with wheat or rye previously seeded in the fall. This ...

Fertility Value
Attempts have been made to express the actual value of a good clover crop to the soil in terms of money. The number of pounds of matter...

Taking The Crops Off The Land
The feeding value of clover hay is so great that the livestock farmer cannot afford to leave a crop of clover on the ground as a fertil...

Physical Benefit Of The Roots
While the roots and stubble contain less than two fifths of the total plant-food in a clover crop, one may not safely infer that the re...

Used As A Green Manure
Where dependence must be placed upon clover as a fertilizer, little or no manure being returned to the land, at least one of the two cl...

When To Turn Down
When the maximum benefit is desired for the soil from a crop of clover, the first growth should not be plowed down. Its office should b...

Mammoth Clover
When clover is grown with timothy for hay, some farmers prefer to use mammoth clover in place of the medium red. It may be known as sap...

Alsike Clover
A variety of clover that may have gained more popularity than its merit warrants is alsike clover. It is more nearly perennial than the...

Crimson Clover
Wherever crimson clover is sufficiently hardy to withstand the winter, as in Delaware and New Jersey, it is a valuable aid in maintaini...

Adaptation To Eastern Needs
The introduction of alfalfa into the eastern half of the United States will prove a boon to its depleted soils, encouraging the feeding...

Fertility And Feeding Value
Vivian says that "the problem of the profitable maintenance of fertility is largely a question of an economic method of supplying plant...

Climate And Soil
The experimentation with alfalfa by farmers has been wide-spread, and the percentage of failure has been so large that many have believ...

Free Use Of Lime
The conditions requisite to success in alfalfa-growing are not numerous, but none can be neglected. Alfalfa should be given a calcareou...

Inoculation
The necessity of inoculation has been discussed in Chapter IV. Eastern land would become inoculated for alfalfa if farmers would adopt ...

Fertilization
The ability of alfalfa to add fertility to the farm, and directly to the field producing it when all the crops are removed as hay, does...

A Clean Seed-bed
Much failure with alfalfa is due to summer grasses and other weeds. The moisture in our eastern states favors plant-life, and most soil...

Varieties
There is only one variety of alfalfa in common use in this country, and the western-grown seed sold upon the market is known simply as ...

Clean Seed
Care should be exercised to secure seed free from impurities. If one is not a competent judge, he should send a sample to his state exp...

The Seeding
When alfalfa has become established on eastern farms, the difficulties in making new seedings will be smaller. The experience of grower...

Seeding In August
Much land is infested with annual grasses and other weeds, and in such case seedings should be made in August, as described in Chapter ...

Subsequent Treatment
If the alfalfa plants find the bacteria at hand, they will begin to profit from them within the first month of their lives. A large per...

Value Of Sods
The character of the sods is a faithful index of the condition of the soil in any region adapted to grass. The value of heavy sods to a...

Prejudice Against Timothy
Timothy, among the grasses, is especially in disrepute as a soil-builder, and yet its value is great. The belief that timothy is hard o...

Object Of Sods
The land's share of its products cannot be disregarded without loss. The legumes and grasses come into the crop-rotation primarily to r...

Seeding With Small Grain
The usual custom is to sow grasses with small grain, and there is much to commend it. The cost of preparing the seed-bed rests upon the...

Seeding In Rye
When thin land is desired for pasture, and available fertility cannot well be applied, a sod may be formed more surely by seeding with ...

Good Soil Conditions
When the grasses and clovers desired for a sod are sown with small grain, there is competition between them and the grain crop for fert...

Seeding In Late Summer
The natural time of beginning life, in the case of timothy, blue-grass, red-top, red clover, and alfalfa is in the summer or autumn. Th...

Crops That May Precede
Farms that are under common crop-rotations may adopt the practice of August seeding. The winter wheat comes off in time for preparation...

Preparation
A seed-bed for small seeds planted in mid-summer must be able to retain moisture. Nothing robs a soil of water more surely than a break...

The Weed Seed
The seeds of tilled crops are planted in ground containing much weed seed, and no harm may result. The cultivation needed to keep the s...

Summer Grasses
One of the worst pests is the annual grasses, springing up in June, July, and August. They are responsible for many failures to obtain ...

Sowing The Seed
Partial failure with August seeding is due to faulty methods. We are accustomed to broadcasting clover seed on top of the wheat fields ...

Deep Covering
In August the air is hot, and the surface of the ground is dry nearly all the time. A shower may be followed by hot sunshine, and the w...

Seed-mixtures
When grass is wanted for hay as well as fertility, the clovers and timothy compose the greater part of a desirable mixture wherever the...

Permanent Pastures
There is a large total area of land that can be brought into profitable production of food only by means of pasture grasses. A small pa...

Seed-mixtures
Several varieties of grasses should be used when making a sod for grazing. They occupy all the surface more quickly and surely than a s...

Yields And Composition Of Grasses
The Ohio station has compared the yields of various grasses and their composition. The following table is arranged from its data, as gi...

Suggested Mixtures For Pastures
For ordinary conditions, Williams suggests the following mixture for an acre of land: Blue-grass 10 pounds Timoth...

Renewal Of Permanent Pastures
There is much pasture land that could not be broken with profit for reseeding. There is neither time, nor money, nor opportunity at the...

Destroying Bushes
The absence of sheep is evident in the appearance of the greater area of permanent pasture in the mountainous regions of the eastern st...

Close Grazing
Much harm results from turning livestock on pastures too early in the spring. The ground is kept soft by spring rains, and the hoofs cu...

A Southern Legume
The soils of the cold north are protected from leaching during the winter by the action of frost. The plant-food is locked up safely fo...

Characteristics
The cowpea is closely related to the bean, and is very unlike the Canada pea, which is a true pea, thriving only in a cool climate. The...

Varieties
There are many varieties of the cowpea, and confusion of names prevails, although some stations have done good service in identificatio...

Fertilizing Value
A heavy growth of the cowpea is worth as much to the soil as a good crop of red clover. When the equivalent of two tons of hay is produ...

Affecting Physical Condition
The cowpea has marked influence upon the physical condition of heavy soils, even when the vines are not plowed down. This is due in som...

Planting
The land should be fitted as it is for corn. Light, sandy soils require little preparation, and too often the seeding is made in a woef...

Inoculation
The inoculation of the soil with cowpea bacteria is necessary to best results in most regions new to the plant. Self-inoculation is qui...

Fertilizers
The light soils of Maryland, New Jersey, and the southern states are not naturally rich in phosphoric acid or potash. The cowpea can dr...

Harvesting With Livestock
When the cowpea is made into hay, there is always danger that the most of the plant-food contained in it never will get back to the soi...

The Cowpea For Hay
The hay is one of our most palatable feeding-stuffs. Livestock may reject it the first time it is put into the manger, but a taste for ...

As A Catch Crop
A leading use of the cowpea is that of a catch crop, either between other crops or in a growing crop, such as corn. Early maturing vari...

The Soybean
The soybean is gaining a place among the valuable legumes of the United States, and the acreage is increasing as its merits become know...

Fertility Value
There are so many varieties of the soybean and the cowpea, and adaptation to soil and climate varies so widely, that a fair comparison ...

Feeding Value
The soybean makes a rich hay, surpassing clover, but it is coarse, and its unattractive appearance has caused many farmers to condemn i...

Varieties
There are many varieties of the soybean, and their characteristics are modified by climatic conditions. Each region will find the varie...

The Planting
Early varieties of the soybean in the south can be planted as late as mid-summer, but farther north a profitable crop requires nearly a...

Harvesting
The soybean is not an easy crop to handle without loss. When grown for seed, the tendency of the pods to split and to drop the seed com...

The Canada Pea
Among field peas there are many varieties, but the one chiefly grown in the United States under the general name of the Canada pea is t...

Vetch
A variety of vetch known as winter, sand, or hairy vetch is coming into great usefulness as a catch crop. It is a winter annual, and be...

Sweet Clover
Much interest has been aroused within recent years in sweet clover, a legume that formerly was regarded as a more or less pernicious we...

Rye As A Cover Crop
As has been stated elsewhere, the plant that stores nitrogen in its organic matter is most desirable, but the greater part of the soil'...

When To Plow Down
If rye has made a good growth before spring, the roots run deeper than the plow goes, and holds the soil much like a grass sod. In such...

Buckwheat
An excellent crop for green-manuring is buckwheat. It has such unusual ability to grow in a poor soil that the farmer who makes free us...

Oats
When a fall growth is wanted for the soil, and it is preferred that the plants be dead in the spring, oats make a good catch crop. Th...

Livestock Farming
The fertility of the soil is most safely guarded in regions devoted to livestock farming. "Selling everything off the farm" is a practi...

The Place For Cattle
There are general trends in human practice that cannot be changed by man. A change in human diet that makes the percentage of meat lowe...

Sales Off The Farm
The day is now here when the major portion of human food must be provided in grain and vegetables and fruit, and the demand for hay and...

The Value Of Manure
It is not possible to put a commercial valuation upon farm manures that may be a sure guide to any farmer. The value depends upon what ...

The Content Of Manure
When the crops of a farm are fed, the manure contains nearly all the plant-food that went originally into the crops. In the case of idl...

Relative Values
The plant-food content of manure is determined chiefly by the feed. The animals add nothing: they subtract. The kind of animals consumi...

Amount Of Manure
Vivian states that the amount of manure that may be made from feed can be determined by multiplying the total weight of dry matter in t...

Analysis Of Manure
As has been stated, the content of the manure must depend chiefly upon the character of the feed. We are accustomed to combine feeding ...

Common Source Of Losses
When we bear in mind that four fifths of all the fertility removed from the land in the grains and coarse stuffs fed on the farm may be...

Caring For Liquid Manure
If all manure were in solids, one great difficulty in caring for it would not exist. The nitrogen is the most valuable element in manur...

Use Of Preservatives
The use of land-plaster in stables helps to prevent loss of the nitrogen-content through fermentation. Its value does not lie chiefly i...

Spreading As Made
When farm conditions make it feasible to draw and spread manure fast as made, the danger of heavy loss in storing is escaped. There is ...

The Covered Yard
If the possible value of manure were realized, provision for its care would be made as promptly and surely as provision for the care of...

Harmless Fermentation
There is a kind of fermentation in manure that goes on in the absence of air. It is due to bacteria that break up the organic matter, p...

Rotted Manure
Mixed stable manure contains in a ton as many pounds of potash as it does of nitrogen, and yet we speak of it as a highly nitrogenous f...

Composts
The compost, involving the handling of manure and soil, has no rightful place on the average farm. The gardener or trucker using great ...

Poultry Manure
The value of poultry manure often is overestimated. Its content of plant-food is one half greater than that of horse manure, ton for to...

Controlling Factors
The farm supply of stable manure is a carrier of plant-food, returning to the soil four fifths of all the fertility removed in the crop...

Direct Use For Corn
The practice of spreading manure on grass land for corn is based upon much good experience. The custom is nearly universal in regions w...

Effect Upon Moisture
Coarse manures should not be plowed down late in the spring, as they increase the ill effects of drouth. Decayed vegetation, well mixed...

Manure On Grass
When the crop-rotation embraces two or more years of grass, or one of clover followed by only one of grass, it is better practice to us...

Manure On Potatoes
There are excellent cash crops that may get more than their fair share of the farm supply of fertility, and against the interest of fie...

When To Plow Down
Excellent farmers differ regarding the relative efficiencies of manure plowed down and that mixed with the top soil. Both classes may b...

Heavy Applications
When the farm supply of manure is small, applications should be light. The manure should not be the dependence for plant-food on a part...

Reenforcement With Minerals
A ton of mixed manure in the stable contains about ten pounds of nitrogen, five pounds of phosphoric acid, and ten pounds of potash. Th...

Durability Of Manure
Tests of the durability of manure in the soil involve some uncertain factors, but we are interested only in the effects of applications...

The Farm Scheme
Notwithstanding some of the theorizing that does not commend itself to the practical man, farm management is taking on the form of a sc...

Value Of Rotation
Experience has shown the benefit of variety in crops grown on land. Among the advantages of crop-rotation are the following: 1. ...

Selection Of Crops
The natural inclination of the farmer is a consideration that cannot be ignored. If a man does not like certain kinds of animals or cro...

An Old Succession Of Crops
In the corn belt of the northern states some time-honored crop-rotations have been formed by corn, oats, wheat, clover, and timothy. Th...

Corn Two Years
Hunt says that the prosperity of the east, as a whole, would be greatly increased if the rotations of crops were so modified as to incr...

The Oat Crop
In the northern part of the corn belt the oat crop is profitable. In the southern half of Ohio and regions of like temperature the oat ...

Two Crops Of Wheat
A common practice has been to grow two crops of wheat, seeding first in the corn stubble-land, and plowing the ground for the second wh...

The Clover And Timothy
The timothy and clover sod is made inexpensively so far as labor is concerned. The first crop of hay is chiefly clover, and the soil is...

Two Legumes In The Rotation
If all the crops of this five years' rotation, excepting wheat, were fed on the farm, and if all the manure were saved and rightly appl...

Potatoes After Corn
When potatoes are grown in the corn belt, a five years' rotation of corn, potatoes, oats, wheat, and clover, or corn, potatoes, wheat, ...

A Three Years' Rotation
Farm conditions may require that certain fields in the farm go under a crop-rotation covering three years. In the winter wheat belt thi...

Grain And Clover
In the case of some soils it is possible to grow a wheat or corn crop each year, clover being grown as a catch crop. In the long run, t...

Potatoes And Crimson Clover
In some potato-producing sections in warm latitudes it is a not uncommon practice to grow potatoes year after year on the same land, se...

Loss Of Plant-food
The soil is composed chiefly of material that never will enter into the structure of plants, but that serves us by affording a congenia...

Prejudice Against Commercial Fertilizers
The owner of land that was made very fertile by nature, and that has not been cropped long enough to reduce the supply of available fer...

Soil Analysis
There is wide misconception regarding the value of chemical analysis of the soil as an aid in making choice of a fertilizer. Analysis h...

Physical Analysis
Chemical analysis is costly and unsatisfactory as a guide to fertilization. Physical analysis by a competent man may have distinct valu...

The Use Of Nitrogen
There is no fully satisfactory way of determining the kind and amount of fertilizer that should be used at any particular time for any ...

Phosphoric-acid Requirements
Soil analyses show that the content of phosphoric acid in most soils of this country is relatively small. The results of experiments wi...

The Need Of Potash
Land which is deficient in organic matter ordinarily is lacking in available potash, and responds with profit to applications, provided...

Fertilizer Tests
Every farmer should conduct some fertilizer tests for himself. It is only the soil itself that can make an adequate reply to a question...

Variation In Soil
The difficulty in determining the character of fertilizer for a field, due to variation in the soil, is overestimated. Very often a lan...

Acquaintance With Terms
The hesitation of many users of commercial fertilizer to master the few technical terms used in analyses of the goods, for which over o...

Nitrate Of Soda
One of the best carriers of nitrogen is nitrate of soda, which is imported from Chili, South America, where great beds exist. The most ...

Sulphate Of Ammonia
This is a by-product in the manufacture of coke and also of illuminating gas. Hunt estimates that the amount of nitrogen lost annually ...

Dried Blood
There is no more satisfactory source of organic nitrogen than dried blood of high grade. The best blood, red in color, contains nearly ...

Tankage
The waste from the slaughter of animals goes into a product called tankage. The refuse is cooked for removal of the fat, and then groun...

Fish
Near the Atlantic coast a large quantity of ground fish, after the extraction of oil, is used as a fertilizer, but the cost of the nitr...

Animal Bone
The original source of phosphoric acid as a fertilizer was animal bone, just as hard-wood, unleached ashes were the source of potash. T...

Raw Bone
Stable manure lasts several years in the soil because decay is slow. Raw bone has appealed to many because its action is likewise neces...

Steamed Bone
When animal bone is boiled or steamed under pressure for removal of the fat and the cartilage, the content of nitrogen is reduced, and ...

Rock-phosphate
While the greater part of our soils contain relatively scant stores of phosphoric acid, the deposits of this plant constituent in combi...

Acid Phosphate
When animal bone is treated with sulphuric acid, the result is an acid phosphate, but treated animal bone is so rare on the market that...

Basic Slag
When iron ores contain much phosphorus, its extraction by use of lime gives a by-product in the making of steel that has agricultural v...

Muriate Of Potash
The mines of Stassfurt, Germany, contain an inexhaustible supply of potash in various compounds. Muriate of potash is prepared from the...

Sulphate Of Potash
Some sulphate of potash is imported into this country. Its content of potash may vary 1 or 2 per cent below or above 50. Its physical c...

Kainit
Unlike muriate and sulphate of potash, kainit is a crude product of the German mines, having received no treatment to remove impurities...

Wood-ashes
Wood-ashes contain lime and potash, with a small percentage of phosphoric acid. The market price is above agricultural value, and any n...

Other Fertilizers
Manufacturers of commercial fertilizer make use of other materials, some of which, like manufactured nitrogen, are excellent, and other...

Salt
Salt is not a direct fertilizer, and its use is not to be advised unless it can be secured at a very low price per ton. Some soils have...

Coal-ashes
There is no plant-food of value in coal-ashes. The physical condition of heavy soils is improved by an application, and their use may b...

Muck
The use of muck pays in stables, as it is a good absorbent and contains some nitrogen which gains in availability by mixture with manur...

Sawdust
As a fertilizer, sawdust does not have much value, but serves as an excellent absorbent in stables. Its presence in manure need not cau...

Necessity Of Purchase
The necessity of buying plant-food in the form of commercial fertilizers is a mooted question in any naturally fertile agricultural reg...

Fertilizer Control
The dreams of the patent-medicine vender never pictured more favoring conditions for his activity than were found by fertilizer manufac...

Brand Names
Notwithstanding all that has been done by the state to acquaint the buying public with the composition of fertilizers, many purchasers ...

Statement Of Analysis
It would be well if the law refused to the manufacturer the privilege of printing unnecessary detail in the statement of analysis that ...

Valuation Of Fertilizers
The manufacturer of a mixed fertilizer must make use of the unmixed materials he finds upon the market. The prices of the various plant...

A Bit Of Arithmetic
This paragraph is intended to serve the man who is willing to be reasonably near right if he cannot be wholly so: A ton is 2000 pounds,...

High-grade Fertilizers
A high-grade fertilizer is not necessarily a high-priced one. What we want in a fertilizer is a high content of the plant-food needed, ...

The Practice Of Home-mixing
The business of compounding fertilizers has been involved in a great deal of unnecessary mystery. Many of our best station scientists h...

Effectiveness Of Home-mixing
Van Slyke says ("Fertilizers and Crops," p. 477): "Manufacturers of fertilizers and their agents have persistently sought to discourage...

Criticisms Of Home-mixing
The manufacturer's advocate formerly laid much stress upon the danger attending the treatment of bones and rock with sulphuric acid. Th...

The Filler
There has been much misleading use of the word "filler," as applied to fertilizers. We have seen that a pure grade of dried blood conta...

Ingredients In The Mixture
The matters of interest to the farmer are the determination of the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash that he should appl...

Materials That Should Not Be Combined
The advocate of factory-mixed goods warns the farmer against the danger of making combinations of materials that will cause loss by che...

Making A Good Mixture
The process of mixing is simple, and careful station tests have shown that it is fully as effective as factory-mixing. The unmixed mate...

Buying Unmixed Materials
Acid phosphate, animal bone, and tankage can be bought of any fertilizer agent, but when one pays cash, he does well to get quotations ...

Composition Of Plant Not A Guide
It has been pointed out that a chemical analysis of a soil is not a dependable guide in the selection of a fertilizer. Years ago the th...

The Multiplication Of Formulas
Fertilizer manufacturers have made all possible combinations of fertilizer materials, using them in various quantities. Each manufactur...

A Few Combinations Are Safest
It is the best judgment of scientists to-day that greater results would be obtained from the use of commercial fertilizers if the numbe...

Amount Of Application
In common practice fertilizers are not applied freely enough when they are used at all. The exception to this rule may be found in the ...

Similarity Of Requirements
Many of our staple crops are very similar in their fertilizer requirements, and this simplifies fertilization. Setting aside the impres...

Maintaining Fertility
A heavy clover sod gives assurance that a good crop of corn or potatoes can be grown. If the amount of plant-food in the sod is not exc...

Fertilizer For Grass
A fertile soil will make a good sod. A thinner soil should have a liberal dressing of complete fertilizer at seeding time, and the form...

All The Nitrogen From Clover
The Pennsylvania station has shown in a test of thirty years that when good clover is grown in a four-years' rotation of corn, oats, wh...

Method Of Applying Fertilizers
If a fertilizer is used in small amount with the purpose of merely giving the plants a start, it should be near the seed. If the applic...

An Excess Of Nitrogen
Too much nitrogen, due to heavy manuring or other cause, produces an excessive growth of stalk or straw, at the expense of grain produc...

Desirable Physical Condition Of The Soil
Successful cropping of land is dependent upon favoring soil conditions. The plants to be grown must have ease in root extension, so tha...

The Breaking-plow
Land containing enough clay to give it an excellent soil inclines to become firm. During the growth of a crop, when plant roots fill th...

Types Of Plows
The kind and condition of the soil, and the character of the crop, determine the type of plow to be used. A plow with a short and quite...

Subsoiling
The theory of subsoiling always has been captivating. Most soils are too shallow, inviting injury from drouth. Enthusiasm regarding sub...

Time Of Plowing
In great measure the time of plowing is determined by the effect upon soil moisture, and is discussed in the next chapter. ...

Method Of Plowing
The depth of plowing should be fixed largely by the amount of organic matter in the soil. It is essential that a good percentage of thi...

The Disk Harrow
The purpose of the plow is to break up the soil so that it will be crumbly and mellow. The frequency with which land should be thorough...

Cultivation Of Plants
If a soil would remain mellow throughout the season, there usually would be no reason to disturb the roots of plants by any deep stirri...

Controlling Root-growth
The exception to the rule that plant-roots should not be pruned by deep cultivation is found in the case of a close soil in a wet seaso...

Elimination Of Competition
Weeds pump the water out of the soil, use up available plant-food, and compete for the sunlight. Tillage is given for several reasons, ...

Length Of Cultivation
Most tilled crops grow rapidly until they shade and mulch the soil. Tillage should continue, if possible, until this occurs. The except...

Value Of Water In The Soil
The amount of water in the soil each day of the growing season determines in large measure the possibility of securing a profitable cro...

The Soil A Reservoir
The rains of the summer rarely are adequate to the needs of growing plants. Some water runs off the surface, some passes down through c...

The Land-roller
The breaking-plow is a robber of soil water when used in warm weather. The air carries the water away rapidly. The air-spaces are large...

The Plank-drag
An excellent implement on a farm is the plank-drag. It is usually made of over-lapping heavy planks, and when floated over the surface,...

The Mulch
In conserving the supply of water in the soil the mulch plays an important work. The dry air is constantly taking up the water from the...

Mulches Of Foreign Material
The truth that moisture is a leading factor in soil productiveness is evidenced by the value of straw and similar material as a mulch. ...

Plowing Straw Down
The practice of plowing straw under as a manure is unsafe, when used in any large quantity per acre. It rots slowly, and while lying in...

The Summer-fallow
Bare land loses in total plant-food, but may make a temporary gain in available fertility. The practice of leaving a field uncropped fo...

The Modern Fallow
The modern method of making a grass seeding in August partakes of the nature of the old-fashioned summer-fallow. The desire is to eradi...

Underdrainage
There are great swamps, and small ones, whose water should be carried off by open ditches. Our present interest is in the wet fields of...

Counting The Cost
Thorough underdrainage is costly, but it is less so than the farming of fields whose productiveness is seriously limited by an excess o...

Where Returns Are Largest
The total area of land needing drainage is immense. Swamps form only a small part of this area. Yields of much old farm land are limite...

Material For The Drains
Doubtless there are places and times when stone, or boards, or brush should be used in construction of underdrains, but they are relati...

The Outlet
The value of any drainage system is dependent upon the outlet. Its location is the first thing to be determined. If the land is nearly ...

Locating Main And Branches
There are various systems of drainage. Wherever a branch or lateral joins the main, the means of drainage is duplicated within the area...

The Laterals
Small lines of tile are used to bring the water to the main when the wet land extends beyond the influence of the main. The distance be...

Size Of Tile
The size of the main depends upon the area that eventually may be drained, the amount of overflow from higher land, the nature of the s...

Kind Of Tile
When clay tile is used, it should be well burned. Some manufacturers offer soft tile for sale, as the loss from warping and cracking is...

The Grade
The outlet may fix the grade. If it does not, the main, branches, and laterals should have a fall of 3 inches, or more, to the 100 feet...

Establishing A Grade
If the grades are light, they should be established by use of a telescope level. Most of the cheap levels are a delusion. A stake drive...

Cutting The Trenches
There are ditching-machines that do efficient work. The best are costly. Most of the work on farms will continue to be done with ditchi...

Depth Of Trenches
Underdrains may be placed too deep in close soils for best results. In an early day it was advised that the drains be put down 4 feet d...

Connections
The laterals should enter the branches and mains near the top, so that the water will be drawn out rapidly. The tile should be laid wit...

Permanency Desired
The expense of underdrainage demands care in every detail of the work. The grade of the trenches should be carefully tested. Every piec...

Will Farming Pay?
I commence my essays with this question, because, when I urge the superior advantages of a rural life, I am often met by the objecti...

Good And Bad Husbandry
Necessity is the master of us all. A farmer may be as strenuous for deep plowing as I am--may firmly believe that the soil should be...

Where To Farm
When my father was over sixty years old, and had lived some twenty years in Erie County, Pennsylvania, he said to me: "I have severa...

Preparing To Farm
I write mainly for beginners--for young persons, and some not so young, who are looking to farming as the vocation to which their fu...

Buying A Farm
No one need be told at this day that good land is cheaper than poor--that the former may be bought at less cost than it can be made....

Laying Off A Farm Pasturing
Whoever finds himself the newly installed owner and occupant of a farm, should, before doing much beyond growing a crop in the ordin...

Will Farming Pay?
I commence my essays with this question, because, when I urge the superior advantages of a rural life, I am often met by the objecti...

Good And Bad Husbandry
Necessity is the master of us all. A farmer may be as strenuous for deep plowing as I am--may firmly believe that the soil should be...

Where To Farm
When my father was over sixty years old, and had lived some twenty years in Erie County, Pennsylvania, he said to me: "I have severa...

Preparing To Farm
I write mainly for beginners--for young persons, and some not so young, who are looking to farming as the vocation to which their fu...

Buying A Farm
No one need be told at this day that good land is cheaper than poor--that the former may be bought at less cost than it can be made....

Laying Off A Farm Pasturing
Whoever finds himself the newly installed owner and occupant of a farm, should, before doing much beyond growing a crop in the ordin...

Will Farming Pay?
I commence my essays with this question, because, when I urge the superior advantages of a rural life, I am often met by the objecti...

Good And Bad Husbandry
Necessity is the master of us all. A farmer may be as strenuous for deep plowing as I am--may firmly believe that the soil should be...

Where To Farm
When my father was over sixty years old, and had lived some twenty years in Erie County, Pennsylvania, he said to me: "I have severa...

Preparing To Farm
I write mainly for beginners--for young persons, and some not so young, who are looking to farming as the vocation to which their fu...

Buying A Farm
No one need be told at this day that good land is cheaper than poor--that the former may be bought at less cost than it can be made....

Laying Off A Farm Pasturing
Whoever finds himself the newly installed owner and occupant of a farm, should, before doing much beyond growing a crop in the ordin...

Will Farming Pay?
I commence my essays with this question, because, when I urge the superior advantages of a rural life, I am often met by the objecti...

Good And Bad Husbandry
Necessity is the master of us all. A farmer may be as strenuous for deep plowing as I am--may firmly believe that the soil should be...

Where To Farm
When my father was over sixty years old, and had lived some twenty years in Erie County, Pennsylvania, he said to me: "I have severa...

Preparing To Farm
I write mainly for beginners--for young persons, and some not so young, who are looking to farming as the vocation to which their fu...

Buying A Farm
No one need be told at this day that good land is cheaper than poor--that the former may be bought at less cost than it can be made....

Laying Off A Farm Pasturing
Whoever finds himself the newly installed owner and occupant of a farm, should, before doing much beyond growing a crop in the ordin...

Good And Bad Husbandry
Necessity is the master of us all. A farmer may be as strenuous for deep plowing as I am--may firmly believe that the soil should be...

Where To Farm
When my father was over sixty years old, and had lived some twenty years in Erie County, Pennsylvania, he said to me: "I have severa...

Preparing To Farm
I write mainly for beginners--for young persons, and some not so young, who are looking to farming as the vocation to which their fu...

Buying A Farm
No one need be told at this day that good land is cheaper than poor--that the former may be bought at less cost than it can be made....

Laying Off A Farm Pasturing
Whoever finds himself the newly installed owner and occupant of a farm, should, before doing much beyond growing a crop in the ordin...

Will Farming Pay?
I commence my essays with this question, because, when I urge the superior advantages of a rural life, I am often met by the objecti...

Good And Bad Husbandry
Necessity is the master of us all. A farmer may be as strenuous for deep plowing as I am--may firmly believe that the soil should be...

Where To Farm
When my father was over sixty years old, and had lived some twenty years in Erie County, Pennsylvania, he said to me: "I have severa...

Preparing To Farm
I write mainly for beginners--for young persons, and some not so young, who are looking to farming as the vocation to which their fu...

Buying A Farm
No one need be told at this day that good land is cheaper than poor--that the former may be bought at less cost than it can be made....

Laying Off A Farm Pasturing
Whoever finds himself the newly installed owner and occupant of a farm, should, before doing much beyond growing a crop in the ordin...

Trees Woodland Forests
I am not at all sentimental--much less mawkish--regarding the destruction of trees. Descended from several generations of timber-cu...

Growing Timber Tree-planting
In my judgment, the proportion of a small farm that should be constantly devoted to trees (other than fruit) is not less than one-fo...

Planting And Growing Trees
Whoever has recently bought, inherited, or otherwise become the owner of a farm, has usually found some part or parts of it devoted ...

Draining My Own
My farm is in the township of Newcastle, Westchester County, N. Y., 35 miles from our City Hall, and a little eastward of the hamlet...

Draining Generally
Having narrated my own experience in draining with entire unreserve, I here submit the general conclusions to which it has led me: ...

Irrigation Means And Ends
While few can have failed to realize the important part played by Water in the economy of vegetation, I judge that the question--"Ho...

The Possibilities Of Irrigation
I have given an account of my poor, little experiment in Irrigation, because it is one which almost every farmer can imitate and imp...

Plowing Deep Or Shallow
Rules absolutely without exception are rare; and they who imagine that I insist on plowing all lands deeply are wrong for I hold tha...

Plowing Good And Bad
There are so many wrong ways to do a thing to but one right one that there is no reason in the impatience too often evinced with tho...

Thorough Tillage
My little, hilly, rocky farm teaches lessons of thoroughness which I would gladly impart to the boys of to-day who are destined to b...

Commercial Fertilizers Gypsum
Prices vary so widely in different localities that no fertilizer can be pronounced everywhere cheapest or best worth buying; and yet...

Alkalis Salt Ashes Lime
I do not know a rood of our country's surface so rich in all the materials which enter into the production of the Grains, Grasses, ...

Soils And Fertilizers
A farmer is a manufacturer of articles wherefrom mankind are fed and clad; his raw materials are the soil and the various substances...

Bones Phosphates Guano
I hate to check improvement or chill the glow of Faith; yet I do so keenly apprehend that many of our people, especially among the S...

Muck How To Utilize It
The time will be, I cannot doubt, when chemists can tell us the exact positive or relative value of a cord of Muck--how this swamp o...

Insects Birds
If I were to estimate the average absolute loss of the farmers of this country from Insects at $100,000,000 per annum, I should doub...

About Tree-planting
I have had so little experience in Tree-Planting that I should have preferred to say no more about it; but letters that have reached...

Fruit-trees The Apple
If I were asked to say what single aspect of our economic condition most strikingly and favorably distinguished the people of our No...

More About Apple-trees
In my opinion, Apple-trees, in most orchards, are planted too far apart and allowed to grow taller and spread their limbs more widel...

Hay And Hay-making
The Grass-crop of this, as of many, if not most, other countries, is undoubtedly the most important of its annual products; requirin...

Peaches Pears Cherries Grapes
Our harsh, capricious climate north of the latitudes of Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and St. Louis--so much severer than that of corres...

Grain-growing East And West
I disclaim all pretensions to ability to teach Western farmers how to grow Indian Corn abundantly and profitably, while I cheerfully...

Esculent Roots Potatoes
In no other form can so large an amount and value of human food be obtained from an acre of ground as in that of edible roots or tub...

Roots Turnips Beets Carrots
If there be any who still hold that this country must ultimately rival that magnificent Turnip-culture which has so largely transfor...

The Farmer's Calling
If any one fancies that he ever heard me flattering farmers as a class, or saying anything which implied that they were more virtuou...

A Lesson Of To-day
The current season is quite commonly characterized as the coldest, the hottest, the wettest, or the dryest, that was ever known. Men...

Intellect In Agriculture
If a man whose capital consists of the clothes on his back, $5 in his pocket, and an ax over his right shoulder, undertakes to hew f...

Sheep And Wool-growing
Ours is eminently an agricultural country. We produce most of our Food, and export much more than we import of both Grain and Meat. ...

Accounts In Farming
Farmers, it is urged, sometimes fail; and this is unfortunately true of them, as of all others. Some fail in integrity; others in so...

Stone On A Farm
This earth, geologists say, was once an immense expanse of heated vapor, which, gradually cooling at its surface, as it whirled and ...

Fences And Fencing
Though I have already indicated, incidentally, my decided objections to our prevalent system of Fencing, I deem the subject of such ...

Agricultural Exhibitions
I must have attended not less than fifty State or County Fairs for the exhibition (mainly) of Agricultural Machines and Products. Fr...

Science In Agriculture
I am not a scientific farmer; it is not probable that I ever shall be. I have no such knowledge of Chemistry and Geology as any man ...

Farm Implements
A good workman, it is said, does not quarrel with his tools--which, if true, I judge is due to the fact that he generally manages to...

Steam In Agriculture
As yet, the great body of our farmers have been slow in availing themselves of the natural forces in operation around them. Vainly f...

Co-operation In Farming
The word of hope and cheer for Labor in our days is COOPERATION--that is, the combination by many of their means and efforts to achi...

Farmers' Clubs
Farmers, like other men, divide naturally into two classes--those who do too much work, and those who do too little. I know men who ...

Western Irrigation
I have already set forth my belief that Irrigation is everywhere practicable, is destined to be generally adopted, and to prove sign...

Sewage
The great empires of antiquity were doomed to certain decay and dissolution by a radical vice inherent in their political and social...

More Of Irrigation
I have thus far considered Irrigation with special reference to those limited, yet very considerable districts, which are traversed ...

Undeveloped Sources Of Power
The more I consider the present state of our Agriculture, the more emphatic is my discontent with the farmer's present sources and c...

Rural Depopulation
Complaint is widely made of a decrease in the relative population of our rural districts; and not without reason, or, at least, plau...

Large And Small Farms
There is fascination for most minds in naked magnitude. The young colonel, who can hardly handle a brigade effectively in battle, wo...

Exchange And Distribution
The machinery whereby the farmer of our day converts into cash or other values that portion of his products which is not consumed in...

Winter Work
THE dearth of employment in Winter for farm laborers is a great and growing evil. Thousands, being dismissed from work on the farms ...

Summing Up
In the foregoing essays, I have set forth, as clearly as I could, the facts within my knowledge which seem calculated to cast light ...


Rural Architecture

Prefatory
This work owes its appearance to the absence of any cheap and popular book on the subject of Rural Architecture, exclusively intended f...

General Suggestions
In ascertaining what is desirable to the conveniences, or the necessities in our household arrangement, it may be not unprofitable to l...

Style Of Building—miscellaneous
Diversified as are the features of our country in climate, soil, surface, and position, no one style of rural architecture is properly ...

Position
The site of a dwelling should be an important study with every country builder; for on this depends much of its utility, and in additio...

Home Embellishments
A discussion of the objects by way of embellishment, which may be required to give character and effect to a country residence, would e...

Material For Farm Buildings
In a country like ours, containing within its soils and upon its surface such an abundance and variety of building material, the compos...

Outside Color
We are not among those who cast off, and on a sudden condemn, as out of all good taste, the time-honored white house with its green bli...

A Short Chapter On Taste
The compound words, or terms good-taste and bad-taste have been used in the preceding pages without, perhaps, sufficiently explaining w...

The Construction Of Cellars
Every farm house and farm cottage, where a family of any size occupy the latter, should have a good, substantial stone-walled cellar be...

Ventilation Of Houses
Pure air, and enough of it, is the cheapest blessing one can enjoy; and to deny one's self so indispensable an element of good health, ...

Interior Accommodation Of Houses
Ground, in the country, being the cheapest item which the farmer can devote to building purposes, his object should be to spread over, ...

Chimney Tops
Nothing adds more to the outward expression of a dwelling, than the style of its chimneys. We have just shown that independent chimney ...

Preliminary To Our Designs
We have discussed with tolerable fullness, the chief subjects connected with farm buildings—sufficiently so, we trust, to make ourselve...

Farm House
Design I. We here present a farm house of the simplest and most unpretending kind, suitable for a farm of twenty, fifty, or an hun...

Farm House 1 Interior Arrangement
The front door, over which is a single sash-light across, opens into a hall or entry 9×7 feet, from which a door opens on either side...

Farm House 1 Chamber Plan
The roof story is partitioned into convenient-sized bedrooms; the ceiling running down the pitch of the roof to within two feet of the ...

Farm House 1 Miscellaneous
In regard to the surroundings, and approach to this dwelling, they should be treated under the suggestions already given on these subje...

Farm House Design Ii
This is the plan of a house and out-buildings based chiefly on one which we built of wood some years since on a farm of our own, and wh...

Farm House 2 Interior Arrangement
The front door of this house opens into a small entry or hall, 9×6 feet, which is lighted by a low sash of glass over the front door. A...

Farm House 2 Miscellaneous Details
At this point of our remarks a word or two may be offered on the general subject of inside finish to farm houses, which may be applicab...

Farm House Design Iii
We here present the reader with a substantial, plain, yet highly-respectable stone or brick farm house, of the second class, suitable f...

Farm House 3 Interior Arrangement
As has been remarked, the main entrance front to this house is from the wing veranda, from which a well finished and sizeable door lead...

Farm House 3 Miscellaneous
It may be an objection in the minds of some persons to the various plans here submitted, that we have connected the out-buildings immed...

Farm House Design Iv
This is perhaps a more ambitious house than either of the preceding, although it may be adapted to a domain of the same extent and valu...

Farm House 4 Interior Arrangement
The front door from the veranda of the house opens into a hall, 18×8 feet, and 11 feet high, amply lighted by sash windows on the s...

Farm House 4 Chamber Plan
Opening into the wing from the kitchen, first, is a large closet and pantry, supplied with a table, drawers, and shelves, in which are ...

Farm House 4 Surrounding Plantations Shrubbery Walks Etc
After the general remarks made in the preceding pages, no particular instructions can be given for the manner in which this residence s...

Farm House 4 Tree-planting In The Highway
This is frequently recommended by writers on country embellishment, as indispensable to a finished decoration of the farm. Such may, or...

Farm House Design V
We here present a dwelling of a more ambitious and pretending character than any one which we have, as yet, described, and calculated f...

Farm House 5 Ground Plan
Plans in original orientation INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. The front of this house is accommodated by a porch, or veranda, 40 feet long, a...

Farm House 5 Chamber Plan
It is also lighted by a window over the lean-to, on the side. Back of this, at the end of the passage, is the sleeping-room, 16 feet sq...

Farm House 5 Construction
A house of this kind must, according to its locality, and the material of which it is built, be liable to wide differences of estimate ...

Farm House 5 Grounds Plantations And Surroundings
A house of this kind should never stand in vulgar and familiar contact with the highway, but at a distance from it of one hundred to a ...

Farm House Design Vi
A Southern or Plantation House.—The proprietor of a plantation in the South, or South-west, requires altogether a different kind of res...

Farm House 6 Ground Plan
INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. This house stands 50×40 feet on the ground. The front door opens from the veranda into a hall, 24×14 feet, in ...

Farm House 6 Chamber Plan
The main flight of stairs in the entrance hall leads on to a broad landing in the spacious upper hall, from which doors pass into the s...

Farm House Design Vii
A Plantation House.—Another southern house is here presented, quite different in architectural design from the last, plain, unpretendin...

Farm House 7 Ground Plan Interior Arrangement
The front door opens into a hall 34 feet long and 10 feet wide, with a flight of stairs. On the left of this opens a parlor or dining-r...

Farm House 7 Chamber Plan
The chamber plan is simple, and will be readily comprehended. If more rooms are desirable, they can be cut off from the larger ones. A ...

Farm House 7 Miscellaneous
We have given less veranda to this house than to the last, because its style does not require it, and it is a cheaper and less pains-ta...

Farm House 7 Lawns Grounds Parks And Woods
Having essayed to instruct our agricultural friends in the proper modes of erecting their houses, and providing for their convenient ac...

Farm House 7 Fruit Garden—orchards
As the fruit garden and orchards are usually near appendages to the dwelling and out-buildings, a few remarks as to their locality and ...

Farm House 7 How To Lay Out A Kitchen Garden
The kitchen garden yields more necessaries and comforts to the family, than any other piece of ground on the premises. It is, of conseq...

Farm House 7 Flowers
Start not, gentle reader! We are not about to inflict upon you a dissertation on Pelargoniums, Calla-Ethiopias, Japonicas, and such lik...

Farm House 7 Farm Cottages
Altogether too little attention has been paid in our country to these most useful appendages to the farm, both in their construction an...

Elevation Cottage Design I
This cottage is 10 feet high, from the sill to the plates, and may be built of wood, with a slight frame composed of sills and plates o...

Cottage 1 Interior Arrangement
The main body of this cottage is 18×12 feet, with a lean-to, 8 feet wide, running its whole length in rear. This lean-to may be 8 o...

Cottage Design Ii
This cottage is a grade beyond the one just described, both in appearance and accommodation. It is 20×16 feet on the ground, with a rea...

Cottage 2 Interior Arrangement
PLAN The front door opens into a common living room, 16×12 feet, with two windows, in which is a stove-chimney running up from the m...

Cottage Design Iii
This cottage is still in advance of No. II, in style and arrangement, and may accommodate not only the farm laborer or gardener, but wi...

Cottage 3 Interior Arrangement
PLAN The front door opens, in the center of the front wall, into a hall, 12×8 feet, with a flight of stairs on one side, leading to ...

Cottage Design Iv
This cottage is still in advance of the last, in its accommodation, and is suitable for the small farmer, or the more liberal cottager,...

Cottage 4 Interior Arrangement
PLAN From the veranda in the center of the front, a door opens into a hall, 17×7 feet, with a flight of stairs leading, in three dif...

Cottage 3 Cottage Outside Decoration
Nothing so perfectly sets off a cottage, in external appearance, as the presence of plants and shrubbery around it. A large tree or two...

Cottage 3 House And Cottage Furniture
This is a subject so thoroughly discussed in the books, of late, that anything which may here be said, would avail but little, inasmuch...

An Apiary Or Bee-house
Every farmer should keep bees—provided he have pasturage for them, on his own land, or if a proper range for their food and stores lie ...

Ice-house
Among the useful and convenient appendages to the farm and country family establishment, is the ice-house. Different from the gener...

Ash House And Smoke House
These two objects may, both for convenience and economy, be well combined under one roof; and we have thus placed them in connection....

Poultry Lawn
As poultry is an indispensable appendage to the farm, in all cases, the poultry-house is equally indispensable, for their accommodati...

The Dovecote
This is a department, in itself, not common among the farm buildings, in the United States; and for the reason, probably, that the dome...

Piggery
The hog is an animal for which we have no especial liking, be he either a tender suckling, nosing and tugging at the well-filled udder ...

Farm Barns
The farm barn, next to the farm house, is the most important structure of the farm itself, in the Northern and Middle States; and even ...

Farm Barn Design I
This is a design of barn partially on the Pennsylvania plan, with under-ground stables, and a stone-walled basement on three sides, wit...

Farm Barn Interior Arrangement
A main floor, A, 12 feet wide, runs the whole length through the center of the barn. S, S, are the large doors. H, H, are trap doors, t...

Farm Barn Main Floor Plan
Underneath the body of the barn are the stables, root cellar, calf houses, or any other accommodation which the farm stock may require;...

Farm Barn Under-ground Plan And Yard
The most economical plan, for room in tying cattle in their stalls, is to fasten the rope, or chain, whichever is used, (the wooden sta...

Farm Barn Design Ii
Here is presented the design of a barn built by ourself, about sixteen years since, and standing on the farm we own and occupy; and whi...

Farm Barn 2 Floor Plan
INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. Entering the large door, (a,) at the front end, 14 feet wide, and 14 feet high, the main floor (g,) passes thr...

Farm Barn 2 Barn Attachments
It may be expected, perhaps, that in treating so fully as we have of the several kinds of farm building, a full cluster of out-building...

Farm Barn 2 Rabbits
It may appear that we are extending our Rural Architecture to an undue length, in noticing a subject so little attended to in this coun...

Rabbitry
A, the doe's hutches, with nest boxes attached. B, hutches three feet long, with movable partitions for the young rabbits; the two lo...

Rabbitry Loft
A, place for storing hay. B, stairs leading from below. C, room for young rabbits. D, trapdoor into trunk leading to manure cellar. E...

Cheese Dairy House
This building is one and a half stories high, with a broad, spreading roof of 45° pitch; the ground plan is 10 feet between joists, and...

Cheese Dairy House Ground Plan
The Ground Plan was printed upside-down. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. The front door is protected by a light porch, (a,) entering by a doo...

The Butter Dairy
This, if pursued on the same farm with the cheese dairy, and at different seasons of the year, may be carried on in the lower parts of ...

Granary
The illustration above needs but little description. The posts should be stone, if procurable, one foot square, and four feet long, set...

Improved Domestic Animals
Having completed the series of subjects which we had designed for this work, we are hardly content to send it out to the public, withou...

Shorthorn Bull
In cattle, if your grounds be rich, and your grass abundant, the short-horns are the stock for them. They are the head and front, in ap...

Devon Bull
On lighter soils, with shorter pastures; or on hilly and stony grounds, another race of cattle may be kept, better adapted to such loca...

Southdown Ewe
The Southdown, a cut of which we present, is a fine, compact, and solid sheep, with dark face and legs; quiet in its habits, mild in di...

Long-wooled Ewe
The Cotswold, New Oxford, and Leicester sheep, of the long-wooled variety, are also highly esteemed, in the same capacity as the Southd...

A Common Sheep
That the keeping of choice breeds of animals, and the cultivation of a high taste for them, is no vulgar 365 matter, with even the most...

Water-fowls
If a stream flow through the grounds, in the vicinity of the house; or a pond, or a small lake be near, a few varieties of choice water...

China Goose
The small brown China goose is another variety which may be introduced. She is nearly the color of the African, but darker; has the sam...

A Word About Dogs
We always loved a dog; and it almost broke our little heart, when but a trudging schoolboy, in our first jacket-and-trowsers, our kind ...

The Smooth Terrier
Sir Walter Scott, who was a great friend to dogs, as well as a nice and critical judge of their qualities, used to tell this story:—Whe...

The Shepherd Dog
The shepherd dog is another useful—almost indispensable—creature, on the sheep, or dairy farm. This cut is an accurate representation o...


Electricity Farm

A Working Plant
The "agriculturist"—An old chair factory—A neighbor's home-coming—The idle wheel in commission a...

A Little Prospecting
Small amount of water required for an electric plant—Exploring, on a dull day—A rough and ready weir—What ...

How To Measure Water-power
What is a horsepower?—How the Carthaginians manufactured horsepower—All that goes up must come down—How th...

The Water Wheel And How To Install It
Different types of water wheels—The impulse and reaction wheels—The impulse wheel adapted to high heads and smal...

The Dynamo What It Does And How
Electricity compared to the heat and light of the Sun—The simple dynamo—The amount of electric energy a dynamo w...

What Size Plant To Install
The farmer's wife his partner—Little and big plants—Limiting factors—Fluctuations in water supply—Th...

Transmission Lines
Copper wire—Setting of poles—Loss of power in transmission—Ohm's Law and examples of how it is used in fig...

Wiring The House
The insurance code—Different kinds of wiring described—Wooden moulding cheap and effective—The distributin...

The Electric Plant At Work
Direct-connected generating sets—Belt drive—The switchboard—Governors and voltage regulators—Methods...

Gasoline Engine Plants
The standard voltage set—Two-cycle and four-cycle gasoline engines—Horsepower, and fuel consumption—Effici...

The Storage Battery
What a storage battery does—The lead battery and the Edison battery—Economy of tungsten lamps for storage batter...


Climatic Changes

The Uniformity Of Climate
The role of climate in the life of today suggests its importance in the past and in the future. No human being can escape from the f...

The Variability Of Climate
The variability of the earth's climate is almost as extraordinary as its uniformity. This variability is made up partly of a long, s...

Hypotheses Of Climatic Change
The next step in our study of climate is to review the main hypotheses as to the causes of glaciation. These hypotheses apply also t...

The Solar Cyclonic Hypothesis
The progress of science is made up of a vast succession of hypotheses. The majority die in early infancy. A few live and are for a t...

The Climate Of History
We are now prepared to consider the climate of the past. The first period to claim attention is the few thousand years covered by writ...

The Climatic Stress Of The Fourteenth Century
In order to give concreteness to our picture of the climatic pulsations of historic times let us take a specific period and see how ...

Glaciation According To The Solar-cyclonic Hypothesis[38]
The remarkable phenomena of glacial periods afford perhaps the best available test to which any climatic hypothesis can be subjected...

Some Problems Of Glacial Periods
Having outlined in general terms the coming of the ice sheets and their disappearance, we are now ready to discuss certain problems ...

The Origin Of Loess
One of the most remarkable formations associated with glacial deposits consists of vast sheets of the fine-grained, yellowish, wind-...

Causes Of Mild Geological Climates
In discussions of climate, as of most subjects, a peculiar psychological phenomenon is observable. Everyone sees the necessity of ex...

Terrestrial Causes Of Climatic Changes
The major portion of this book has been concerned with the explanation of the more abrupt and extreme changes of climate. This chapt...

Post-glacial Crustal Movements And Climatic Changes
An interesting practical application of some of the preceding generalizations is found in an attempt by C. E. P. Brooks[95] to inte...

The Changing Composition Of Oceans And Atmosphere
Having discussed the climatic effect of movements of the earth's crust during the course of geological time, we are now ready to con...

The Effect Of Other Bodies On The Sun
If solar activity is really an important factor in causing climatic changes, it behooves us to subject the sun to the same kind of i...

The Sun's Journey Through Space
Having gained some idea of the nature of the electrical hypothesis of solar disturbances and of the possible effect of other bodies ...

The Earth's Crust And The Sun
Although the problems of this book may lead far afield, they ultimately bring us back to the earth and to the present. Several times...

Conclusion
Here we must bring this study of the earth's evolution to a close. Its fundamental principle has been that the present, if rightly u...

Categories

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Topics

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  Rural Architecture  
  Electricity Farm  
  Climatic Changes  


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