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 Wine Cultivation.com

Discover how to cultivate grapes and find tips on growing under different soil / weather conditions




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  Whiskey Making (106)    Wine Making (105)    Grape Growing (239)    Beer Making (12)  


Wine Cultivation.com

Discover how to cultivate grapes and find tips on growing under different soil / weather conditions


Whiskey Making

Observations On Yeast
That yeast is the main spring in distilling, is acknowledged by all distillers, tho' but few if them understand it, either in its na...

Receipt For Stock Yeast
For a stock yeast vessel of two gallons, the size best adapted for that purpose. Take one gallon good barley malt, (be sure it be o...

To Know When Yeast Is Good Or Bad
When you perceive your yeast working, observe if it works quick, sharp and strong, and increasing in bulk nearly double what it was be...

How To Renew Yeast When Sour
About two hours before you begin to make your beer, take one pint of the sour yeast, put it into a clean dish or vessel, and pour clea...

Stock Yeast Good For Years
When the weather is moderately warm in autumn or the spring, take of your best stock yeast that has fermented about twenty four hours,...

To Make The Best Yeast For Daily Use
For three hogsheads take two handfuls of hops, put them into an iron pot, and pour thereon three gallons boiling water out of your boi...

Observations On Wood For Hogsheads
The cheapest and easiest wrought wood is generally most used for making mashing tubs, or hogsheads, and very often for dispatch or fro...

White Oak
Disapproving of black, tho' next in order to white oak staves for all the vessels about the distillery ... as being the most durable o...

To Sweeten Hogsheads By Scalding
When you turn your vessels out of doors (for it is esteemed slothful and a lazy mode to scald them in the still house,) you must wash ...

Hogsheads Perfectly Sweet
Scald them twice, as above directed, then light a brimstone match, flick it on the ground, turn your hogshead down over it, let it sta...

To Sweeten Hogsheads By Burning
When you have scalded your hogsheads well, put into each, a large handful of oat or rye straw, set it on fire, and stir it till it is ...

To Mash Rye In The Common Mode
Take four gallons cold water to each hogshead, add one gallon malt, stir it well with your mashing stick, until the malt is thoroughly...

The Best Method Of Distilling Rye
Take four gallons boiling, and two gallons cold water--put it into a hogshead, then stir in one and a half bushels chopped rye, let it...

To Mash Two Thirds Rye And One Third Corn In Summer
This I have found to be the nicest process belonging to distilling--the small proportion of corn, and the large quantity of scalding w...

To Distill One Half Rye And One Half Corn
This method of distilling equal quantities of rye and corn, is more in practice, and is much better than to distill unequal proportion...

To Mash One Third Rye And Two Thirds Corn
This I deem the most profitable mashing that a distiller can work, and if he can get completely in the way of working corn and rye in ...

Mash As Follows
Have sweet hogsheads, good yeast and clean water in your boiler; when the water is sharp, warm, or half boiling, put into every hogshe...

To Mash Corn
This is an unprofitable and unproductive mode of mashing, but there may be some times when the distiller is out of rye, on account of ...

To Make Four Gallons From The Bushel
This is a method of mashing that I much approve of, and recommend to all whiskey distillers to try it--it is easy in process, and is v...

To Know When Grain Is Scalded Enough
Put your mashing stick into your hogshead and stir it round two or three times gently, then lift it out and give it a gentle stroke on...

Directions For Cooling Off
Much observation is necessary to enable the distiller to cool off with judgment--which necessity is increased by the versatility of ou...

To Ascertain When Rye Works Well In The Hogshead
When mashed rye begins to work or ferment in the hogsheads, either in a heavy, thick, or light bubbly top, both of which are unfavorab...

To Prevent Hogsheads From Working Over
If the stuff is cooled off too warm, or too much yeast is put in the hogsheads, they will work over, and of course lose a great deal o...

Observations On The Quality Of Rye For Distilling
The best rye for distilling is that which is thoroughly ripe, before it is cut, and kept dry till threshed; if it has grown on high or...

Mode Of Chopping Rye And The Proper Size
The mill stones ought to be burrs, and kept very sharp for chopping rye for distillation; and the miller ought to be careful not to dr...

Malt
Cannot be ground too coarse, provided it is done even--there ought to be no fine nor coarse grains in malt, but ground perfectly alike...

How To Choose Malt
Malt is chosen by its sweet smell, mellow taste, full flower, round body and thin skin. There are two kinds used, the pale and the bro...

How To Build A Malt Kiln In Every Distillery
When setting up your stills, leave a space of about nine inches for a small furnace between the large ones, extend it to your chimney ...

Hops
Give a preference to hops of a bright green colour, sweet smell, and have a gummy or clammy effect when rubbed between the hands or fi...

How To Order And Fill The Singling Still When Distilling Rye
Scrape, clean, and grease the singling still, fill her up with beer, and keep a good fire under her, till she be warm enough to head, ...

Mode Of Managing The Doubling Still When Making Whiskey
Let the doubling still be carefully cleaned and washed out, then be filled with singlings and low wines left from the run preceding, a...

Observations On The Advantages Of Making Strong And Good Whiskey With Stalement &c
The distiller who makes whiskey for a market under the government of inspection laws, too weak, sustains a loss of a cent for each deg...

Distilling Of Buckwheat
Buckwheat is an unprofitable grain for the distillers when distilled by itself, but when mixed with rye, it will yield nearly as much ...

Distilling Of Potatoes
This is a branch of distilling that I cannot too highly recommend to the attention of every American--nor can the cultivation of this ...

Receipt To Prepare Potatoes For Distilling
Wash them clean, and grind them in an apple mill, and if there be no apple mill convenient, they may be scalded and then pounded--then...

How To Distil Apples
Apples ought to be perfectly ripe for distillation, as it has been ascertained from repeated trials, that they produce more and better...

How To Order Apples In The Hogsheads
When the apples are ground put them into open hogsheads to ferment, taking care not to fill them too full, or they will work over; set...

How To Work Apples Slow Or Fast
If the hogsheads ripens too fast for your stills, add every day to each hogshead four gallons cold spring water, putting it into a hol...

How To Judge When Apples Are Ready For Distilling
Put your hand down into the hogsheads amongst the apples as far as you can, and bring out a handful of pugs--squeeze them in your hand...

How To Fill And Order The Singling Still When Running Apple Singlings
When you perceive your apples ready for distilling, fill the singling still with apples and water; using about half a hogshead apples ...

How To Double Apple Brandy
Fill the doubling still with singlings, and add a quart of lime, (which will clear it) put fire under her and bring her to a run brisk...

How To Prepare Peaches
Peaches like apples ought to be equally ripe, in order to insure an equal and regular fermentation--for where ripe and unripe fruit ar...

How To Double And Single Peach Brandy
The same process must be observed in running off peaches as in apples, except that the singling still ought not to be run so fast, nor...

The Best Method Of Setting Stills
If stills are not set right, great injury may accrue to them, in burning and damaging the sides, singeing the whiskey, and wasting of ...

How To Prevent The Plastering Round Stills From Cracking
This method of making water proof plastering on stills, is done entirely in making the mortar, and putting it on, in making which, goo...

To Set A Doubling Still
As spirits can hardly be burned or singed in a doubling still, if not before done in singling, all the precaution necessary is to set ...

How To Clarify Whiskey &c
Take any vessel of convenient size, take one end out and make it clean, by scalding or otherwise; bore the bottom full of holes, a qua...

How To Make A Brandy Resembling French Brandy From Rye Whiskey Or Apple Brandy
Clarify the whiskey as the above receipt directs, after thus purifying, add one third or one fourth of French brandy, and it will be t...

How To Make A Spirit Resemble Jamaica Spirit Out Of Rye Whiskey
This is done precisely in the manner laid down in the receipt for French brandy. ...

How To Make A Resemblance Of Holland Gin Out Of Rye Whiskey
Put clarified whiskey, with an equal quantity of water, into your doubling still, together with a sufficient quantity of juniper berri...

The Best Method Of Making Common Country Gin
Take of singlings a sufficient quantity to fill the doubling still, put therein ten or twelve pounds of juniper berries, with one shov...

On Fining Liquors
Isinglass is almost universally used in fining liquors. Take about half an ounce to the barrel--beat it fine with a hammer, lay it in ...

On Colouring Liquors
One pound of brown sugar burnt in a skillet almost to a cinder, add a quart of water, which when stirred, will dissolve the sugar--whe...

To Correct The Taste Of Singed Whiskey
Altho' this cannot be done effectually without clarifying, as prescribed, but Bohea tea will in a great measure correct a slight sing...

To Give An Aged Flavor To Whiskey
This process ought to be attended to by every distiller, and with all whiskey, and if carefully done, would raise the character, and a...

Observations On Weather
Some seasons are better for fermentation than others. Should a hail storm occur in the summer, the distiller should guard against cool...

Observations On Water
Distillers cannot be too particular in selecting good water for distilling, when about to erect distilleries. Any water will do for...

Precautions Against Fire
Cannot be too closely attended to. The store house, or cellar for keeping whiskey in, ought to be some distance from the distillery, a...

The Duty Of The Owner Of A Distillery
The main and first object of the proprietor of a distillery, is gain or profit--and the second, it is natural, should be the acquiring...

The Duty Of An Hired Distiller
Is to rise at four o'clock every morning. Wash and clean out the boiler, fill her up with clean water, put fire under her, and to clea...

Profits Of A Common Distillery
Profits arising from a distillery with two common stills, one containing 110 gallons, and one containing 65 gallons that is well condu...

Of Hogs
Raising, feeding and fattening hogs on potale, a business pursued and highly spoken of, but from my experience I have discovered that ...

Of The Diseases Of Hogs
The only disease that I know of which seems to be peculiar to hogs, is a kind of leprosy, commonly called measles, when it seizes them...

On Feeding Cattle And Milch Cows
Potale is a great creator of milk, and will increase the quantity greatly in cows yielding milk, but no so good. Young cattle thrive v...

Observations On Erecting Distilleries
Those who are about to erect distilleries, have a handsome subject for consideration; the advantages, and the probable disadvantages t...

On Wines
Presuming this work may be rendered more desirable to farmers, from the introduction of some receipts for making domestic wine from th...

Directions For Making Cider British Mode
The apples after being thrown into a heap should always be covered from the weather. The later the cider is made the better, as the ju...

The Following Is A Very Highly Approved American Mode Of Making Cider
Take care to have every necessary utensil to be made use of in the whole process, perfectly clean and free from every foreign smell. F...

The Following Receipt To Make An Excellent American Wine
Was communicated to the Burlington Society for promoting domestic manufactures, by Joseph Cooper, Esq. of Gloucester county, state of ...

Receipt For Making Honey Wine
I put a quantity of the comb from which the honey had been drained, into a tub, to which I add a barrel of cider, immediately from the...

To Make Elderberry Wine
The editor is happy in introducing the following receipts which he is confident is hardly known in America. The great quantities of th...

To Make Elderberry Wine To Drink Made Warm As A Cordial
Equal quantities of berries and water boiled together, till the berries break, then strain off the liquor, and to every gallon thereof...

To Make Rye Malt For Stilling
Steep it twenty four hours in warm weather, in cold, forty eight, so in proportion as the weather is hot or cold; drain off the water,...

Of Brewing Beer
As the following is intended principally for the use of private families, it will be necessary to begin with directions how to choose ...

Of Mashing Or Raking Your Liquors
Suppose you take six bushels of malt, and two pounds of hops, and would make of it one barrel of strong, and two barrels of small beer...

Of Working The Liquor
In this, regard must be had to the water: liquor naturally grows warm in working; therefore, in mild weather, it should be cold before...

Of The Fining Of Malt Liquors
It is most desirable to have beer fine of itself, which it seldom fails to do in due time, if rightly brewed and worked; but as disapp...

Of The Season For Brewing
The season for brewing keeping-beer is certainly best before Christmas, for then your malt is in perfection, not having time to contra...

To Make Elderberry-beer Or Ebulum
Take a hogshead of the first and strong wort, and boil in the same one bushel of picked Elderberries, full ripe; strain off, and when ...

To Make Improved And Excellent Wholesome Purl
Take Roman wormwood two dozen, gentian-root six pounds; calamus aromatics (or the sweet flag root) two pounds; a pound or two of the ...

To Brew Strong Beer
To a barrel of beer take two bushels of wheat just cracked in the mill, and some of the flour sifted out of it; when your water is sca...

To Make China Ale
To six gallons of ale, take a quarter of a pound or more of China root, thin sliced, and a quarter of a pound of coriander seeds, brui...

To Make Ale Or Any Other Liquor That Is Too New Or Sweet Drink Stale
To do this to the advantage of health, put to every quart of ale, or other liquor, 10 or 12 drops of the true spirit of salt, and let ...

To Recover Sour Ale
Scrape fine chalk a pound, or as the quantity of liquor requires, more; put it into a thin bag into the ale. ...

To Recover Liquor That Is Turned Bad
If any liquor be pricked or fading, put to it a little syrup of clay, and let it ferment with a little barm, which will recover it; an...

Directions For Bottling
You must have firm corks, boiled in wort, or grounds of beer; fill within an inch of the cork's reach, and beat it in with a mallet; t...

To Make A Quarter Of A Hogshead Of Ale And A Hogshead Of Beer Of
cooked Malt. Take five strike of malt not ground too small; put in some boiling water, to cover the bottom of your mashing-vat before...

Of Spirituous Liquors Or Spirits
Spirituous liquors are the produce of vinous ones, obtained by the distillation of these last. The art of making wine is of the remo...

Of The Formation Of Vinous Liquors With Grains In Order To Make Spirits
The art of extracting wine from the juice of the grape, not being the object of this book, I shall confine myself to what is necessa...

Of The Art Of Brewing
The art of brewing consists: 1st. In the sprouting of a proportion of grain, chiefly barley. This operation converts into a sacchar...

Of The Distiller Of Whiskey
Whiskey is made either with rye, barley, or Indian corn. One, or all those kinds of grains is used, as they are more or less abundant ...

Of Fermentation
"Fermentation is a spontaneous and intestine motion, which takes place amongst the principles of organic substance deprived ...

Of The Proportions Of The Elements Necessary To Form A Good Vinous Liquor
What are the proportions of the elements necessary to form a good vinous liquor? We owe the important knowledge of those proporti...

A Comparison Of The Processes Of The Brewer With Those Of The Whiskey Distiller
From the experiments of one of the most learned chymists of Europe, it has been demonstrated, that the proportions the most advantag...

Defects In The Usual Method Of Making Whiskey
1st. The most hurtful of all for the interests of the distillers, is undoubtedly the weakness of the vinous liquor. We have seen tha...

Description Of The Process The Most Advantageous To Make Whiskey
[TR: The next two paragraphs were cut short, however attempted re-constructed for clarity] As it is demonstrated that the spirit ...

The Room Of Infusion
It is here that the liquor destined to make whiskey, should be prepared, and made rich enough to procure a good fermentation. To thi...

Use Of The Kettle
The kettle is destined to make the infusion of the grain, and boil it so as to convert it into wort. By that operation I make the li...

The Room For Fermentation
The room destined to the fermentation must be close, lighted by two or three windows, and large enough to contain a number of hogshe...

Of The Room For Distillation
We have hitherto considered the liquor as containing only principles upon which the air has no action, and from which it can only ex...

Of The Urns
These are copper vessels, thus called from their resembling those funeral vases of the ancients. Mine have a bottom of about 18 inches...

Effects Of This Apparatus
Although the still might contain 400 gallons, there must be only 200 gallons put into it: the rest remaining empty, the vapors devel...

Of Ferments
They are of two kinds; the very putrescent bodies, and those supplied by the oxigen. Animal substances are of the first kind: acids,...

Of The Areometer Or Proof Bottle
This instrument is indispensable to the distiller: it ascertains the value of his spirits, since it shows the result of their differ...

Advantages Of My Method
The first of all, is derived from the composition of a vinous liquor, richer, and more proper to raise a vigorous fermentation, than...

The Art Of Making Gin After The Process Of The Holland Distillers
Having indicated the most proper means of obtaining spirits, I will now offer to the public the manner of making Gin, according to t...


Wine Making

Remarks On Its History In America Especially At The West--its Progress And Its Future
In an old chronicle, entitled, "The Discovery of America in the Tenth Century," by CHARLES C. PRASTA, published at Stralsund, we fin...

Propagation Of The Vine
I.--FROM SEED. This would seem to be the most natural mode, were not the grape even more liable to sport than almost any other fr...

The Propagating House
I will only give a description of a lean-to of the cheapest kind, for which any common hot-bed sash, six feet long, can be used. Ch...

Mode Of Operating
The wood should be cut from the vines in the fall, as soon as the leaves have dropped. For propagating, use only firm, well-ripened wo...

By Cuttings In Open Air
This is certainly the easiest and most simple method for the vineyardist; can be followed successfully with the majority of varieties...

Mode Of Operating
There are several methods, which are followed with more or less success. I will first describe that which I have found most successful...

By Layering
This is a very convenient method of increasing such varieties as will not grow readily from cuttings; and vines thus propagated will, ...

By Grafting
The principal advantages to be gained by this method are: 1st. The facility by which new and rare kinds may be increased, by grafting ...

Location And Soil
As the selection of a proper location is of vast importance, and one of the main conditions of success, great care and judgment should...

Preparing The Soil
In this, the foundation of all grape-growing, the vineyardist must also look to the condition in which he finds the soil. Should it be...

Choice Of Varieties
It is a very difficult matter, in a vast country like ours, where the soil and climate differ so much, to recommend any thing; and I t...

The Concord
This grape seems to have given the most general satisfaction all over the country, and seems to be _the_ "grape for the million." Wher...

Norton's Virginia
This, so far, is the leading grape for red wine, and its reputation here and in the entire West is now so fully established, that it w...

Herbemont
This is a truly delicious grape, but somewhat tender, and wants a long season to fully ripen its fruit and bring out all its good qual...

Delaware
Is much recommended by Eastern authorities, and where it succeeds, is certainly a fine grape and makes a delicious wine. Here at the W...

Hartford Prolific
This is immensely productive; of very fair quality here; hardy and healthy; and if planted for early marketing, will give general sat...

Clinton
Hardy, healthy and productive; will make a fair wine, but is here not equal even to the Concord, and far behind the Norton's Virginia ...

Planting
The distance at which the vines may be planted will of course vary somewhat with the growth of the different varieties. The rows may...

Treatment Of The Vine The First Summer
The first summer after planting nothing is necessary but to keep the ground free from weeds, and mellow, stirring freely with hoe, rak...

Treatment Of The Vine The Second Summer
We find the young vine at the commencement of this season pruned to three buds of the last season's growth. From these we may expect f...

Treatment Of The Vine The Third Season
At the commencement of the third season, we find our vine pruned to two spurs of two eyes each, and four lateral canes, of from four t...

Treatment Of The Vine The Fourth Summer
We may now consider the vine as established, able to bear a full crop, and when tied to the trellis in spring, to present the appearan...

Training The Vines On Arbors And Walls
This is altogether different from the treatment in vineyards; the first has for its object to grow the most perfect fruit, and to brin...

Other Methods Of Training The Vine
There are many other systems in vogue among vine-dressers in Germany and France, but as our native grapes are so much stronger in grow...

Diseases Of The Vine
I cannot agree with Mr. FULLER that the diseases of the vine are not formidable in this country. They are so formidable that they thre...

Insects Injurious To The Grape
The grape has many enemies of this kind, but if they are closely watched from the beginning their ravages are easily kept within prope...

Birds
These are sometimes very troublesome at the time of ripening, and especially the oriole is a "hard customer," as he will generally dip...

Frosts
Although our winters are seldom severe enough to destroy the hardy varieties, yet they will often fatally injure such half hardy varie...

Girdling The Vine To Hasten Maturity
The practice of girdling to induce early ripening is supposed to have been invented by Col. BUCHATT, of Metz, in 1745. He claimed for ...

Manuring The Vine
As remarked before, this will seldom be necessary, if the vintner is careful enough to guard against washing of the top-soil, and to t...

Thinning Of The Fruit
This will sometimes be necessary, to more fully develop the bunches. The best thinning is the reduction of the number of bunches at th...

Renewing Old Vines
Should a vine become old and feeble, it can be renewed by layering. The vine is prepared in the following manner: Prune all the old wo...

A Few Necessary Improvements
_Pruning Shears._ These are very handy, and with them the work can be done quicker, and with less labor, as but a slight pressure of t...

Gathering The Fruit For Market
In this, the vineyardist, of course, only aims at profit, and for that purpose the grapes are often gathered when they are hardly col...

Preserving The Fruit
For this purpose, the fruit must be thoroughly ripe. When fully ripe, the stem will turn brown, and shrivel somewhat. The fruit is the...

Gathering The Fruit To Make Wine
For this purpose, the grapes should hang as long as it is safe to allow them; for it will make a very material difference in the quali...

Varieties Of Grapes
I would here, again remark, that I consider the question of "what to plant" as chiefly a local one, for which I do not presume to la...

Concord
Originated with Mr. E. BULL, of Concord, Mass. This variety seems to be the choice of the majority throughout the country, and however...

Norton's Virginia (norton's Seedling Virginia Seedling)
Originated by DR. N. NORTON, of Richmond, Virginia. This grape has opened a new era in American grape culture, and every successive ye...

Herbemont (herbemont Madeira Warren)
Origin uncertain. Wherever this noble grape will succeed and fully ripen, it is hard to find a better, for table, as well as for wine....

Hartford Prolific
Raised by Mr. STEEL, of Hartford, Conn.: hardy, vigorous and productive; bunch large, shouldered, rather compact; berry full medium, ...

Clinton
Origin uncertain; from Western New York; vigorous, hardy and productive; free from disease; bunch medium, long and narrow, generally ...

Delaware Vineyard
First disseminated and made known to the public by Mr. A. THOMPSON, of Delaware, Ohio. This is claimed by many to be the best Ameri...

Cynthiana (red River)
Origin unknown--said to come from Arkansas. This grape promises fair to become a dangerous rival to Norton's Virginia, which variety i...

Arkansas
Closely resembles the foregoing, and will also make an excellent wine of a similar character. I consider both of these varieties as gr...

Taylor (bullitt)
This grape, under proper treatment, has proved very productive with me, and will make a wine of very high quality. The bunches and ber...

Martha
This new grape, grown from the seed of the Concord, by that enthusiastic and warm-hearted horticulturist, SAMUEL MILLER, of Lebanon, ...

Maxatawney
Another very promising white grape--a strong grower, and healthy; may be somewhat too late in the east, but will, I think, be valuable...

Rogers' Hybrid No 1
This variety, which is also too late in ripening for the East, to be much esteemed there, fruited with me last season, and more than ...

Creveling (catawissa) (bloom)
This grape, although not quite perhaps so early as has been claimed for it--ripening about five days after Hartford Prolific--is yet o...

North Carolina Seedling
Bunch large, shouldered, compact; berry large, oblong, black, with blue bloom; pulpy, but sweet and good; ripens only a few days after...

Cunningham
For the West, and very likely further South, this is a very desirable grape for wine, of the Herbemont class. Bunch compact and heavy,...

Rulander
Mr. FULLER evidently does not know this grape, as he says it is the same as Logan. The Rulander we have here, is claimed to be a true ...

Louisiana (burgunder)
Introduced here by Mr. F. MUENCH, who received it from Mr. THEARD, of Louisiana, where it has been cultivated for some time. Some clai...

Alvey (hagar)
This nice little grape will certainly make one of the most delicious red wines we have, if it can only be raised in sufficient quantit...

Cassady
Bunch medium, very compact, shouldered; berry medium, round, greenish-white, covered with white bloom; thick skin, pulpy, but very sw...

Blood's Black
Has often been confounded with Mary Ann, as both varieties were disseminated here, by different persons, under the same name. The true...

Union Village
Perhaps the largest native grape, of fair quality; bunch large, heavy and compact, shouldered; berry very large, oval, black, with blu...

Perkins
For those who do not object to a good deal of foxy flavor, this will be a valuable market grape, on account of its earliness, beautifu...

Clara
For family use, there is at present no grape here at the West, which is superior to this in quality; and although it will not pay to p...

Ives' Seedling (ives' Madeira)
This variety is recommended so much lately, as a superior grape for red wine, that I will mention it here, although I have not yet fru...

Minor Seedling (venango)
This grape has attracted some attention lately--some persons claiming for it superior qualities as a _wine_ grape, even classing it wi...

Mary Ann
The earliest grape we have--healthy, hardy and productive--but in point of quality, a rather poor Isabella, which it much resembles. ...

Northern Muscadine
Very productive and healthy, but too foxy, and liable to drop from the bunch when ripe. Bunch medium, compact, sometimes shouldered...

Logan
Ripens about same time with Hartford Prolific--but rather inferior in quality. Bunch long, loose, shouldered; berry medium, oval; rese...

Brown
Resembling Isabella, but more free from disease; good grower and productive; will suit those who like the Isabella. ...

Hyde's Eliza (canby's August)
Bunch medium, compact; berry medium, round, black, juicy; rather pleasant, but unproductive, and of little value, where better varieti...

Marion Port
Resembles the foregoing; may, perhaps, make a better wine, but cannot be recommended. ...

Poeschel's Mammoth
Grown here, from seed of the Mammoth Catawba, by Mr. MICHAEL POESCHEL. Bunch medium, compact, sometimes shouldered; berry very large...

Cape (alexander Schuylkill Muscadell)
Bunch rather small, compact; berry medium, black, round, pulpy, rather sweet, dark juice. Said to make a good red wine, but my experie...

Dracut Amber
A Fox Grape, pale red, pulpy, inferior in quality and color to Perkins, which it closely resembles; ripens about same time. ...

Elsinburgh (missouri Bird's Eye)
This old variety was largely disseminated under the latter name, by NICHOLAS LONGWORTH, of Cincinnati. It is a nice little grape; but ...

Garber's Albino
A grape of very fair quality, and rather early, but a shy bearer. Bunch small, rather loose; berry medium, pale yellow, sweet and good...

Franklin
A strong grower; said to be very productive; resembling Clinton in foliage and general habit. Bunch small, compact; berry below medium...

Lenoir
Of the Herbemont class, but about a week earlier; of good quality, but too unproductive to be recommended. Bunch medium, compact, shou...

North America
Early and hardy, but too unproductive, and bunch too small. Bunch small, shouldered; berry round; of very good quality for its season;...

Catawba
This well known grape was brought into notice by Major ADLUM, of Georgetown, D.C., who thought he had, by its introduction, conferred ...

Diana
A seedling of the foregoing, raised by Mrs. DIANA CREHORE. Perhaps one of the most variable of all the grapes, being very fine one sea...

Isabella
Unworthy of cultivation here, but said to be better at the North. Bunch long, loose, shouldered; berry medium, oval, black; tough pulp...

Garrigues
Closely resembling the Isabella, but ripens more evenly, and is of somewhat better quality. ...

Tokalon
Bunch large, loose, shouldered; berry black, large, sweet and buttery; of very good quality, but very much subject to disease. Ripens ...

Anna
Bunch large and loose; berry pale amber, covered with white bloom; sweet, tolerable flavor, but poor bearer, and subject to mildew. Ri...

Allen's Hybrid (allen's White Hybrid)
Bunch large and loose, shouldered; berry medium, nearly round; white, without pulp, juicy and delicious; quality very good, but variab...

Cuyahoga (coleman's White)
Much recommended in Ohio, where it originated, but unworthy of culture here, being a poor grower, a shy bearer and very much subject t...

Devereaux
This is, in dry seasons, a really fine grape, but subject to leaf-blight and mildew in hot seasons. Bunch often a foot long, loose, s...

Kingsessing
Bunch long and loose, large, shouldered; berry medium, round, pale red, with fine lilac bloom; pulpy; of fair quality, but subject to ...

Rogers' Hybrid No 15
Bunch large, loose, shouldered; berry above medium, red with blue bloom, roundish-oblong, pulpy, with peculiar flavor, sweet and juicy...

Oporto
Of all the humbugs ever perpetrated upon the grape-growing public, this is one of the most glaring. The vine, although a rank and heal...

Massachusetts White
This was sent me some eight years ago, by B. M. WATSON, as "the best and hardiest white grape in cultivation," and he charged me the ...

Gathering The Grapes
Although I have described the process already, I will here again reiterate that the grapes should be thoroughly _ripe_. This does not ...

The Wine-cellar
As the wine-cellar and press-house are generally built together, I will also describe them together. A good cellar should keep about a...

Apparatus For Wine-making--the Grape Mill And Press
This mill can be made very simple, of two wooden rollers, fastened in a square frame, running against each other, and turned with a cr...

Fermenting Vats
These should correspond somewhat with the size of the casks we intend to fill; but they are somewhat unhandy if they hold more than, s...

The Wine Casks
These should be made of well-seasoned white oak staves, and can, of course, be of various sizes to meet the wants of the vintner. The ...

Making The Wine
As we have our apparatus all prepared now, we can commence the operation itself. This can be done in different ways, according to the ...

After Treatment Of The Wine
Even if the wine was perfectly fine and clear, when drawn off, it will go through a second fermentation as soon as warm weather sets i...

Treatment Of Flat And Turbid Wine
The cause of this is generally a want of Tannin. If the wine has a peculiar, flat, soft taste, and looks cloudy, this is generally the...

Use Of The Husks And Lees
These should be distilled, and will make a very strong, fine flavored brandy. The husks are put into empty barrels or vats--stamped do...

Dr Gall's And Petiol's Method Of Wine Making
The process of wine making before described, however, can only be applied in such seasons, and with such varieties of grapes, that co...

The Must Scale Or Saccharometer
The most suitable one now in use is the _Oechsle's_ must scale, constructed on the principle that the instrument sinks the deeper into...

The Acidimeter And Its Use
"The first instrument of this kind which came into general use, was one invented by DR. OTTO, and consists of a glass tube, from ten t...

The Change Of The Must By Fermentation Into Wine
Let us glance for a few moments at this wonderful, simple, and yet so complicated process, to give a clearer insight into the function...

Normal Must
"Experiments continued for a number of years have proved that, in favorable seasons, grape juice contains, on the average, in 1,000 lb...

The Must Of American Grapes
If we examine the must of most of our American wine grapes closely, we find that they not only contain an excess of acids in inferior ...

Wine Making Made Easy
Some of my readers may think I did not look much to this, which I told them was one of the objects of this little work. To vindicate i...


Grape Growing

The Domestication Of The Grape
The domestication of an animal or a plant is a milestone in the advance of agriculture and so becomes of interest to every human be...

The European Grape
The European grape, Vitis vinifera (Fig. 1), is the grape of ancient and modern agriculture. It is the vine which Noah planted after t...

American Grapes
Few other plants in the New World grow wild under such varied conditions and over such extended areas as the grape. Wild grapes are f...

Grape Regions And Their Determinants
Happily, the grape in its great diversity of forms accommodates itself to many conditions, so that some variety of the several culti...

The Grape Regions Of America
There are four chief grape-growing regions in North America, with possibly twice as many more subsidiary ones. These several regions, ...

The Determinants Of Grape Regions
Climate, soil, site, the surface features of the land, insects, fungi and commercial geography are the chief factors that determine re...

Propagation
The grape commends itself to commercial and amateur growers alike by its ease of propagation. The vines of all species may be propag...

Seedlings
Growing seedling grapes is the simplest of operations. The seeds are taken from the grapes at harvest time, after which they must pass...

Dormant Cuttings
Vines for vineyards, with the exception of varieties of Rotundifolia, are propagated from cuttings of hard wood taken from the season'...

Herbaceous Cuttings
Grapes are easily propagated from herbaceous cuttings, although since the vines are weak and the method expensive, they are seldom use...

Layering
The grape is readily propagated from layers of either green or mature wood, the method being certain, convenient and producing extra ...

Grafting
Since grafting grapes is intimately connected with stocks, the growing of which is a modern practice, grafting is thought of as a new ...

Pedigreed Grape Vines
Many viticulturists, in common with orchardists, believe that their plants should be propagated only from parents which have good cha...

Adaptations Of Resistant Stocks To Soils And Climates
Resistance, of course, counts for naught in a stock which comes from a species unsuited to the soil and climate or other circumstances...

Proper Planting Of Grafted Vines
Europeans and Californians long ago learned that failures with grafted vines often came from setting the vines too deep in the soil, t...

Influence Of The Stocks On The Cion
Up to the present, the growing of grafted grapes has been carried on with little thought of the mutual influence of stock and cion; gr...

Direct Producers
Attempts innumerable have been and are still being made to secure, by hybridizing V. vinifera and American species of grapes, varietie...

The Vineyard And Its Management
A vineyard is more artificial than other plantations of fruits, since the vine requires greater discipline under cultivation than tr...

Laying Out The Vineyard
Vineyards are laid out for the most part after accepted patterns for each of the great grape regions of America. The vines are always ...

Preparation For Planting
It is impossible to put too much emphasis on the necessity of thorough preparation of the land before planting the grape. Extra expend...

Selecting And Preparing The Vines
Young grape vines covet life, for they are usually vigorous and not easily injured. Hence, the plants may be brought from a distance ...

Planting
The dangers and difficulties of planting hardwooded plants are greatly exaggerated. The tyro, in particular, is impressed with his re...

Care Of Young Vines
Virgil calls the period in the life of the vine between the setting and the first vintage, the "tender nonage," and tells us that at t...

Catch-crops And Cover-crops
A catch-crop is one grown between the rows of another crop for profit from the produce. A cover-crop is a temporary crop grown, as the...

Tillage
Grape-growers are not in the fog that befuddles growers of tree-fruits in regard to tillage. He is a sloven, indeed, who permits his v...

Irrigation
The grape, as a rule, withstands drought very well, several species growing wild on the desert's edge. Even in the semi-arid regions o...

Fertilizers For Grapes
As regards fertilizers, the grape-grower has much to learn and in learning he must approach the problem with humility of mind. For i...

An Experiment In Fertilizing Grapes
The New York Agricultural Experiment Station is experimenting with fertilizers for grapes at Fredonia, Chautauqua County, the chief gr...

Pruning The Grape In Eastern America
The inexperienced look on pruning as a difficult operation in grape-growing. But once a few fundamentals are grasped, grape-pruning ...

Pruning And Training Distinguished
The grape is pruned to increase in various ways the economic value of the plant by increasing the quantity and value of the crop. This...

Some Principles Of Pruning
Leaving the shaping of the plant out of consideration and having in mind pruning proper, all efforts in pruning are directed toward tw...

Renewing Fruiting Wood
There are two ways of renewing the fruiting wood on a grape-vine, by canes and from spurs. The manner of renewing refers to pruning an...

The Work Of Pruning
The pruner may take his choice between several styles of hand pruning-shears with which to do his work. The knife is seldom used exce...

The Trellis
The trellis is a considerable item in the grape-grower's budget, since it must be renewed every fifteen years or thereabouts. Wires ar...

Methods Of Training Grapes In Eastern America
The grape-grower takes great liberties with Nature in training his plants. No other fruit is so completely transformed by the grower...

Classification Of Methods Of Training The Grape In Eastern America
I. Shoots upright: 1. Chautauqua Arm. 2. Keuka High Renewal. 3. Fan. II. Shoots drooping: 1....

Training On Arbors Pergolas And As Ornamentals
The grape is much used to cover arbors, pergolas, lattices and to screen the sides of buildings, few climbing plants being more ornam...

Pruning And Training Muscadine Grapes
The Muscadine grapes of the South are so distinct in characters of growth and fruit-bearing that their requirements as to pruning and ...

Rejuvenating Old Vines
When pruning and training are neglected, a vineyard soon becomes a sorry company of halt and maimed vines. These neglected vines can ...

Grape-pruning On The Pacific Slope
The methods of pruning and training native grapes, discussed in the last two chapters, do not apply to the Vinifera grapes grown in ...

Vine Pruning In California
The systems of pruning in use in California may be divided into two classes according to the arrangement of the arms on the trunk of t...

European Grapes In Eastern America
As we have seen, there were many efforts to grow European grapes in America during the first two centuries in the settlement of the ...

European Grapes At The New York Experiment Station
In the spring of 1911, the Station obtained cuttings of 101 varieties of European grapes from the United States Department of Agricult...

Grapes Under Glass
Grape-growing under glass is on the decline in America. Forty or fifty years ago the industry was a considerable one, grapes being r...

The Grapery
Almost any of the various modifications of greenhouses can be adapted to growing grapes. Firms constructing greenhouses usually have h...

Varieties
Out of the 2000 or more Vinifera grapes, probably not more than a score are grown under glass, and of these but a half dozen are comm...

Planting And Training
Two-year-old vines are most commonly planted. The vines are set inside the house at least a foot from the walls and four feet apart. T...

Care Of The Vines
With the cultivation of all varieties indoors, more clusters set than the vines can carry. This means that a part of the clusters must...

Pests
Several pests vex the gardener in growing grapes indoors. Of these, mealy-bug, red-spider, thrips and mildew are most troublesome. In ...

Grape Pests And Their Control
In common with other cultivated fruits, grapes are at the mercy of numerous insect and fungous pests unless man intervenes with reme...

Insect Pests
Insects troubling the grapes are numerous, at least 200 having been described in America, most of which have their habitat on the wild...

Fungous Diseases Of The Grape
The grape is ravaged by four or five fungous diseases in America, unless the utmost vigilance is exercised to keep the parasites in c...

Control Of Insects And Diseases
From the number of insects and diseases found on the grape, it would seem that, literally, "pestilence walketh in darkness and destruc...

Marketing The Crops And Vineyard Returns
Viticulture, as all divisions of agriculture, is made up of two quite distinct phases of activity: growing the crop and marketing th...

Harvesting In The East And North
As the consummation of the care of the vine, the in-gathering of the crop is celebrated in all European countries with rejoicings in s...

Harvesting And Handling Muscadine Grapes
The Muscadine grapes of the South Atlantic and Gulf states are unique in vine and fruit, are used for different purposes and go to dif...

Handling The Grape In California
Grapes are grown in California for three purposes, wine, raisins and the table. The handling of the crop for raisins and wine is best ...

Marketing
Table-grapes from both eastern and western grape regions are now almost entirely shipped in carload lots. Since few grape-growers are ...

Vineyard Returns
Grape-growing as a business is a comparatively new industry in America. It is true that the first attempts at growing this fruit were ...

Grape Products
Over-production, with the attendant losses caused by glutted markets, is a factor which, like frosts and freezes, is ever in the min...

Wine
The manufacture and use of wine in America, as has been intimated, is likely to cease through prohibition. Therefore, whatever may be ...

Grape-juice
When properly made, grape-juice is the undiluted, unsweetened, unfermented juice of the grape and contains no preservatives, fermenta...

Raisins
The grape is best conserved as a raisin. Canning is seldom practiced with this fruit. A raisin is a dried grape. Tree-fruits are evapo...

Grape-vinegar
A very good vinegar can be made from grapes, although as yet this outlet for over-production is not largely utilized in America. Grape...

By-products Of Grape Industries
There are several valuable by-products in the wine-making and grape-juice industries, and even raisin-making yields a by-product in t...

Domestic Uses For Grapes
At present, when food conservation is being emphasized everywhere, mention of the domestic use for grapes is particularly appropriate....

Grape-breeding
Chance, pure and simple, has been the greatest factor in the production of varieties of American grapes. From the millions of wild ...

Grape Hybrids
As early as 1822, Nuttall, a noted botanist, then at Harvard, recommended "hybrids betwixt the European vine and those of the United ...

Hybridizing The Grape
Hybridization has been the chief means of improving the grape. At present, from what is being accomplished by many workers, it looks a...

Results Of Grape-breeding
There are now 2000 or more varieties of grapes of American origin, all produced within approximately a century. It is doubtful whether...

Miscellanies
There yet remain several phases of grape-culture essential to success, none of which quite deserves a chapter and none of which prop...

Cross-pollination
The blooming of the vine had little significance to the grape-grower, the blooming period being so late that grapes are seldom caught ...

Ringing Grape Vines
The ringing of woody plants is a well-known horticultural practice. Three objects may be attained by ringing: unproductive plants may ...

Bagging Grapes
In some localities bagging is considered an essential to profitable grape-growing. The bags serve to protect the grapes against birds....

Winter-protection Of Grapes
With a little care as to winter-protection, grapes may be grown profitably in northern regions where, without protection, the vines a...

Ripening Dates And Length Of Season For Grapes
Every grape-grower should know when his varieties may be expected to ripen and the length of season that they will keep. The commercia...

Grape Botany
The grape-grower must know the gross structure and the habits of growth of the plants properly to propagate, transplant, prune and ...

Plant Characters And Growth Habits Of The Grape
A grape plant is a complex organism with its many separate parts especially developed to do one or a few kinds of work. The part of a ...

The Genus Vitis
The genus Vitis belongs to the vine family (Vitaceae) in which most botanists also put the wood-vines (Ampelopsis), of which Virginia ...

Species Of American Grapes
The number of species of grapes in the world depends on the arbitrary limits set for a species of this fruit, and knowledge of the gen...

Varieties Of Grapes
Nature has expended her bounties in fullest measure for the vineyard. More than 2000 varieties of grapes are described in American ...

Actoni
(Vinifera) Actoni is a table-grape of the Malaga type which ripens at Geneva, New York, late in October, too late for the average s...

Agawam
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Randall, Rogers No. 15 The qualities commending Agawam are large size and attractive appearance of bunch an...

Almeria
(Vinifera) This is one of the varieties commonly found in eastern markets from Almeria and Malaga, Spain, although occasionally it ...

America
(Lincecumii, Rupestris) The notable qualities of America are vigor of growth and health of foliage in vine, and persistence of berr...

Aminia
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Aminia is one of the best early grapes, its season being with or a little after Moore Early. The grapes are of...

August Giant
(Labrusca, Vinifera) August Giant is a hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera in which the fruit characters are those of the latter s...

Bacchus
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Bacchus is an offspring of Clinton which it resembles in vine and leaf characters, but surpasses in quality of ...

Bakator
(Vinifera) This is a Hungarian wine grape but its high quality and early season make it a desirable table-grape in the East. It see...

Barry
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Barry (Plate VII) is one of the best American black grapes, resembling in berry and in flavor and keeping qual...

Beacon
(Lincecumii, Labrusca) Another of T. V. Munson's hybrids is Beacon. It is not well adapted to northern regions but does very well i...

Berckmans
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Bourquiniana) In Berckmans we have the fruit of Delaware on the vine of Clinton. The berry and bunch resemble D...

Black Eagle
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The fruit of Black Eagle is of the best, but the vine lacks in vigor, hardiness and productiveness and is self...

Black Hamburg
(Vinifera) Black Hamburg (Plate VI) is an old European sort, long the mainstay in forcing-houses in Belgium, England and America an...

Black Malvoise
(Vinifera) This variety is rather widely grown in California as an early table-grape and might be worth trying in eastern grape reg...

Black Morocco
(Vinifera) Black Morocco very generally meets the approval of grape-growers on the Pacific slope without being a prime favorite for...

Brighton
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Brighton (Plate VIII) is one of the few Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids which have attained prominence in commercial...

Brilliant
(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana) Brilliant is a cross between Lindley and Delaware. In cluster and size of berry it resembles Lin...

Brown
(Labrusca) In spite of many encomiums in the past quarter century, Brown has not received favorable recognition from fruit-growers....

Campbell Early
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The meritorious qualities of Campbell Early (Plate IX) are: The grapes are high in quality when mature; free f...

Canada
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera) Canada is considered the most desirable hybrid between Vulpina and Vinifera. The variety shows Vinife...

Canandaigua
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Canandaigua is worth attention because of the exceptionally good keeping qualities of the grapes. The flavor i...

Carman
(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca) Carman is a grape having the characters of three species and hence is of interest to grape improve...

Catawba
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Arkansas, Catawba Tokay, Cherokee, Fancher, Keller's White, Lebanon, Lincoln, Mammoth Catawba, Mead's Seedling...

Champion
(Labrusca) Beaconsfield, Early Champion, Talman's Seedling Champion is a favorite early grape with some growers, although the po...

Chasselas Golden
(Vinifera) Chasselas Dore, Fontainebleau, Sweetwater Several qualities have made Chasselas Golden a favorite grape wherever it c...

Chasselas Rose
(Vinifera) Chasselas Rose is very similar to Chasselas Golden, differing chiefly in smaller bunch and berry and slightly different ...

Chautauqua
(Labrusca) In appearance of fruit, Chautauqua is very similar to Concord, its parent, but the grapes ripen a few days earlier and a...

Clevener
(Vulpina, Labrusca) This variety has long been grown in New Jersey and New York, and in both states is highly esteemed as a wine-gr...

Clinton
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Worthington Clinton (Plate X) came into prominence because of vigor, hardiness, fruitfulness and immunity to...

Colerain
(Labrusca) This is one of the numerous white seedlings of Concord and one of the few with sufficient merit to be kept in cultivatio...

Columbian Imperial
(Labrusca, Vulpina) Columbian, Jumbo Columbian Imperial is a Labrusca-Vulpina hybrid chiefly remarkable for the great size of it...

Concord
(Labrusca) Concord (Plate XI) is the most widely known of the grapes of this continent, and with its offspring, pure-bred and cross...

Cottage
(Labrusca) In vine and fruit, Cottage resembles its parent, Concord, having, however, remarkably large, thick, leathery leaves. It ...

Creveling
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Bloom, Bloomburg, Catawissa, Columbia Bloom Creveling was long a favorite black grape for the garden, where,...

Croton
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana) The fruit of Croton is a feast both to the eye and to the palate. Unfortunately the vine is diff...

Cunningham
(Bourquiniana) Long, Prince Edward Cunningham is cultivated very little in America, but in France, at one time, was one of the b...

Cynthiana
(AEstivalis, Labrusca) Arkansas, Red River There is controversy as to whether this variety differs from Norton. The two ripen at...

Delaware
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera) French Grape, Gray Delaware, Ladies' Choice, Powell, Ruff Delaware (Plate VII) is used whereve...

Diamond
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Few other grapes surpass Diamond in quality and beauty of fruit. When to its desirable fruit characters are ad...

Diana
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Diana (Plate XII) is a seedling of Catawba to which its fruit bears strong resemblance, differing chiefly in h...

Downing
(Vinifera, AEstivalis, Labrusca) Downing is well worthy a place in the garden because of the high quality, handsome appearance and ...

Dracut Amber
(Labrusca) Dracut Amber is representative of the red type of Labrusca. The fruit has no particular merit, its thick skin, coarse pu...

Dutchess
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana? AEstivalis?) Dutchess (Plate XIII) is not grown largely in commercial vineyards because of sever...

Early Daisy
(Labrusca) The qualities of Early Daisy render the variety more than commonplace. Its earliness commends it, the ripening period be...

Early Ohio
(Labrusca) Early Ohio is remarkable, chiefly, in being one of the earliest commercial grapes. The fruit resembles that of Concord, ...

Early Victor
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana?) Early Victor is highest in quality of early black grapes. It is especially pleasing to those who object t...

Eaton
(Labrusca) Eaton (Plate XIV) is a pure-bred seedling of Concord which it surpasses in appearance but does not equal in quality of f...

Eclipse
(Labrusca) Eclipse (Plate XV) is a seedling of Niagara and, therefore, a descendant of Concord which it resembles, differing chiefl...

Eden
(Rotundifolia, Munsoniana?) Eden is of value as a general-purpose grape for the South and is interesting as one of the few supposed...

Eldorado
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The fruit of Eldorado is delicately flavored, with a distinct aroma and taste and ripens about with that of ...

Elvira
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Although it has never attained popularity in the North, Elvira (Plate XVI), after its introduction into Missour...

Emperor
(Vinifera) Emperor is one of the standard shipping grapes of the Pacific slope, being one of the mainstays of the interior valleys....

Empire State
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera) Empire State (Plate XVII) competes with Niagara and Diamond for supremacy among green grapes. The var...

Etta
(Vulpina, Labrusca) In appearance, taste and texture of fruit, Etta is very similar to Elvira, of which it is a seedling. The small...

Eumelan
(Labrusca, Vinifera, AEstivalis) Washington The good qualities of Eumelan are: vines above the average in vigor, hardiness and p...

Faith
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Although spoken of as a desirable grape in some regions, Faith is of little value in most localities. The fruit...

Feher Szagos
(Vinifera) This variety succeeds rather well at Geneva, New York, bearing fruits of excellent quality. It has two defects, dull col...

Fern Munson
(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca) Admirable, Fern, Hilgarde, Munson's No. 76 Fern Munson is a southern grape not adapted to northe...

Flame Tokay
(Vinifera) This is the leading shipping grape of the Pacific slope where it is everywhere grown under the name "Tokay," with severa...

Flowers
(Rotundifolia) Flowers is a late, dark-colored Rotundifolia very popular in the Carolinas. The variety is noted for its vigorous an...

Gaertner
(Vinifera, Labrusca) The berries and clusters of Gaertner are large and handsomely colored, making a very showy grape. The plant is...

Geneva
(Vinifera, Labrusca) Geneva is surpassed by so many other grapes of its season in quality that it has never become popular, althoug...

Goethe
(Vinifera, Labrusca) Of all Rogers' hybrids, Goethe shows Vinifera characters most, resembling in appearance the White Malaga of Eu...

Gold Coin
(AEstivalis, Labrusca) In the South, where alone it thrives, Gold Coin is a handsome market variety of very good quality. The vines...

Green Early
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Green Early is a white grape coming in season with Winchell, which surpasses it in most characters, quality in...

Grein Golden
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Grein Golden is very similar to Riesling, but the vine is much stronger in growth. For a variety of the Taylor ...

Gros Colman
(Vinifera) Dodrelabi Gros Colman has the reputation of being the handsomest black table-grape grown. It is one of the favorite...

Hartford
(Labrusca) The vine of Hartford may be well characterized by its good qualities, but the fruit is best described by its faults, bec...

Hayes
(Labrusca, Vinifera) In 1880, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded a certificate of merit to Hayes for high quality in f...

Headlight
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana) Headlight is more desirable for southern than for northern vineyards, yet it is worthy of trial ...

Herbemont
(Bourquiniana) Bottsi, Brown French, Dunn, Herbemont's Madeira, Hunt, Kay's Seedling, McKee, Neal, Warren, Warrenton In the Sout...

Herbert
(Labrusca, Vinifera) In all that constitutes a fine table-grape, Herbert (Plate XVIII) is as near perfection as any American variet...

Hercules
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Hercules is characterized by very large berries, fruit handsomely colored and cluster large and well-formed. T...

Hicks
(Labrusca) Hicks is a remarkably good grape and were it not that the fruit is almost identical with that of Concord, ripening with ...

Hidalgo
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana) The grapes of Hidalgo are rich, sweet, delicately flavored, and with color, size and form of ber...

Highland
(Vinifera, Labrusca) Few varieties of black grapes equal Highland in appearance and quality of fruit. When given good care under fa...

Hopkins
(Rotundifolia) Hopkins is named by grape-growers in the South Atlantic states as the best early Rotundifolia grape. Its season in N...

Hosford
(Labrusca) Hosford is an offspring of Concord, differing from the parent chiefly in the greater size of bunch and berry and in bein...

Hybrid Franc
(Vinifera, Rupestris) Hybrid Franc is the best-known cross between Rupestris and Vinifera. It is one of the few varieties used in E...

Ideal
(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana) Ideal is a handsome seedling of Delaware, from which it differs chiefly in being larger in bunch...

Iona
(Labrusca, Vinifera) In flavor, the fruit of Iona (Plate XIX) has a rare combination of sweetness and acidity, pure, delicate and v...

Isabella
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Alexander, Black Cape, Christie's Improved Isabella, Conckling's Wilding, Constantia, Dorchester, Gibb's Grape...

Isabella Seedling
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Isabella Seedling is an early, vigorous, productive offspring of Isabella. In fruit characters it greatly rese...

Israella
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Israella came from C. W. Grant contemporaneously with Iona and was heralded as the earliest good grape in cult...

Ives
(Labrusca, AEstivalis) Ives' Madeira, Ives' Seedling, Kittredge Ives has a high reputation as a grape for making red wine, being ...

James
(Rotundifolia) James is one of the largest of the Rotundifolia grapes and probably the best general-purpose variety of this species...

Janesville
(Labrusca, Vulpina) Endowed with a constitution enabling it to withstand cold to which most other grapes succumb, Janesville has ma...

Jefferson
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Jefferson (Plate XXI) is an offspring of Concord crossed with Iona, and resembles Concord in vigor, productive...

Jessica
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Jessica is an early, hardy, green grape. The fruit is sweet, rich, sprightly and almost free from foxiness, bu...

Jewel
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera) The notable characters of Jewel are earliness and high quality in fruit; although, as compared w...

Kensington
(Vinifera, Vulpina) Kensington has several very meritorious fruit and vine characters. The vine resembles that of Clinton, its Vulp...

King
(Labrusca) King is similar to Concord, compared with which the vine is more vigorous and prolific, time of ripening and length of s...

Lady
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The vine of Lady is much like that of Concord, its parent, although not quite so vigorous nor productive, but ...

Lady Washington
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Lady Washington is in many respects a most excellent grape but falls short in quality and does not excel in vi...

Lenoir
(Bourquiniana) Alabama, Black El Paso, Black July, Black Spanish, Blue French, Burgundy, Cigar Box Grape, Devereaux, Jack, Jacques,...

Lignan Blanc
(Vinifera) White July, Luglienga, Joannenc At Geneva, New York, Lignan Blanc ripens first of all grapes, native or European. It ...

Lindley
(Labrusca, Vinifera) By common consent, Lindley (Plate XXII) is the best of the red grapes originated by Rogers in his crosses betw...

Lucile
(Labrusca) In vigor, health, hardiness and productiveness, Lucile (Plate XXII) is not surpassed by any native grape. Unfortunately,...

Lutie
(Labrusca) Lutie (Plate XXIII) is chiefly valuable for its vine characters. The vines are vigorous, hardy, healthy and fruitful, al...

Malaga
(Vinifera) Malaga is one of the favorite table-grapes in California and also a popular grape to ship to eastern markets. In some pa...

Mcpike
(Labrusca) McPike is noteworthy because of the large size of the berries and bunches. It is very similar to its parent, Worden, dif...

Marion
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Black German, Marion Port Marion so closely resembles Clinton in botanical and horticultural characters as t...

Martha
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Martha was at one time a popular green grape, but the introduction of superior varieties has reduced its popul...

Massasoit
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Massasoit is distinguished as the earliest of Rogers' hybrids, ripening with Delaware. The grapes have the pec...

Maxatawney
(Labrusca, Vinifera) While at one time very popular, grape-growers now seldom hear of Maxatawney. It is a southern grape, ripening ...

Memory
(Rotundifolia) Memory is one of the best of the Rotundifolia grapes for the garden and local markets, its fruits being especially g...

Merrimac
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Merrimac is often accredited as the best black grape among Rogers' hybrids, but an analysis of the characters ...

Mills
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The bunches and berries of Mills are large and well-formed; the berries are firm and solid, with the skin adhe...

Mish
(Rotundifolia) Mish is a favorite Rotundifolia in North Carolina, being planted extensively in some parts of that state. Its outsta...

Mission
(Vinifera) Of all grapes, Mission has probably played the most important part in the vineyards of California. Grown from the earlie...

Missouri Riesling
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Missouri Riesling attains perfection only in the South. The vines are hardy, vigorous, productive and healthy i...

Montefiore
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Montefiore is extensively grown in Missouri and the Southwest but is almost unknown in the North and East. It i...

Moore Early
(Labrusca) Moore Early (Plate XXIV) is the standard grape of its season. Its fruit cannot be described better than as an early Conc...

Moscatello
(Vinifera) Moscatello Nero. Black Muscat Beautiful in appearance and having a delicate Muscat taste and aroma, this variety is o...

Moyer
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana) Jordan, Moyer's Early Red Moyer is almost a counterpart of its parent, Delaware. Were it not that the v...

Muscatel
(Vinifera) White Frontignan This old and standard sort is rather commonly grown in some of the grape regions of California to fo...

Muscat Hamburg
(Vinifera) Muscat Hamburg (Plate XXV) is an old European grape well known in some parts of America in greenhouse graperies, since i...

Muscat Of Alexandria
This is possibly the leading table- and raisin-grape of the Pacific slope. From the literature or from a visit to vineyards, one canno...

Niagara
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Niagara (Plate XXVI) is the leading American green grape, holding the rank among grapes of this color that Con...

Noah
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Noah is little grown at present outside of Missouri, where it is still planted somewhat. Noah and Elvira are of...

Northern Muscadine
(Labrusca) That this variety, together with Lucile, Lutie and other grapes with the foxy taste strongly marked, has not become popu...

Norton
(AEstivalis, Labrusca) Norton is one of the leading wine-grapes in eastern America, the fruit having small value for any other purp...

Oporto
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Oporto was at one time in demand as a wine grape because its wine resembled in color and flavor that from Oport...

Othello
(Vinifera, Vulpina, Labrusca) Arnold's Hybrid, Canadian Hamburg, Canadian Hybrid In France, Othello does remarkably well as a dir...

Ozark
(AEstivalis, Labrusca) Ozark belongs to the South and to Missouri in particular. Its merits and demerits have been threshed out by ...

Palomino
(Vinifera) Golden Chasselas, Listan This variety seems to be grown in California under the three names given--while in France Pa...

Peabody
(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera) Peabody is as yet a comparatively unimportant offspring of Clinton. The grapes are of excellent quali...

Perfection
(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera) Perfection is a seedling of Delaware, which it greatly resembles but does not equal in fruit; it...

Perkins
(Labrusca, Vinifera) At one time Perkins was grown largely as an early grape but has been discarded very generally on account of th...

Pocklington
(Labrusca) Before the advent of Niagara, Pocklington (Plate XXII) was the leading green grape. The variety has the fatal fault, how...

Poughkeepsie
(Bourquiniana, Labrusca, Vinifera) Poughkeepsie has been known long on the Hudson River, yet it is now little grown there and has n...

Prentiss
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Prentiss is a green grape of high quality, once well known and generally recommended, but now going out of cul...

Purple Cornichon
(Vinifera) Black Cornichon By virtue of attractive appearance and excellent shipping qualities of the fruit, this variety takes ...

Rebecca
(Labrusca, Vinifera) In the middle of the last century, when grape-growing was in the hands of the connoisseurs, Rebecca was one of...

Red Eagle
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Red Eagle is a pure-bred seedling of Black Eagle which it resembles in all characters except color of fruit. V...

Regal
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Regal is an offspring of Lindley, which it greatly resembles. The fruit is attractive in appearance and high i...

Requa
(Labrusca, Vinifera) This is one of Rogers' hybrids which equals other grapes of its color and season. The grapes are attractive in...

Rochester
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The fruit of Rochester is a large-clustered red grape, handsome and very good in quality. The vine is a strong...

Rommel
(Labrusca, Vulpina, Vinifera) Rommel is rarely cultivated in the North, because the vines lack in robustness, hardiness and product...

Rosaki
(Vinifera) Rosaki is a table-and raisin-grape of southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. According to some of the California nursery co...

Rose Of Peru
(Vinifera) Rose of Peru is a favorite table-grape in California, confused with and possibly the same as Black Prince. Its chief com...

Salem
(Labrusca, Vinifera) Rogers' No. 22, Rogers' No. 53 Salem (Plate XXVII) is the one of Rogers' hybrids of which the originator is...

Scuppernong
(Rotundifolia) American Muscadine, Bull, Bullace, Bullet, Fox Grape, Green Scuppernong, Green Muscadine, Hickman, Muscadine, Roanok...

Secretary
(Vinifera, Vulpina, Labrusca) Injured by mildew and rot which attack leaves, fruit and young wood, the vines of Secretary are able ...

Senasqua
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The vine of Senasqua lacks in vigor, hardiness, productiveness and health. The grapes are of good quality, and...

Sultana
(Vinifera) This variety was formerly the standard seedless grape in California for home use and raisins, but it is now outstripped ...

Sultanina
(Vinifera) Thompson's Seedless Sultanina is one of the standard seedless grapes of the Pacific slope, grown both to eat out of h...

Taylor
(Vulpina, Labrusca) Bullitt While it is from the species to which Taylor belongs that we must look for our hardiest vines, never...

Triumph
(Labrusca, Vinifera) When quality, color, shape and size of bunch and berry are considered, Triumph (Plate XXVIII) is one of the fi...

Ulster
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The vines of Ulster set too much fruit in spite of efforts to control the crop by pruning; two undesirable res...

Verdal
(Vinifera) Aspiran Blanc Verdal is one of the standard late grapes of the Pacific slope, ripening among the last. The grapes are...

Vergennes
(Labrusca) The most valuable attribute of Vergennes (Plate XXIX) is certainty in bearing. The vine seldom fails to bear although it...

Walter
(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana) Were it not almost impossible to grow healthy vines of Walter, the variety would rank high among...

Wilder
(Labrusca, Vinifera) The fruit of Wilder is surpassed in quality and appearance by other of Rogers' hybrids, but the vine is the mo...

Winchell
(Labrusca, Vinifera, AEstivalis) Green Mountain The vines of Winchell (Plate XXX) are vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive, and ...

Woodruff
(Labrusca, Vinifera?) Woodruff is a handsome, showy, brick-red grape with large clusters and berries, but its taste belies its look...

Worden
(Labrusca) Of the many offspring of Concord, Worden (Plate XXXI) is best known and most meritorious. The grapes differ chiefly from...

Wyoming
(Labrusca) Hopkins Early Red, Wilmington Red, Wyoming Red Such value as Wyoming (Plate XXXII) possesses lies in the hardiness, p...


Beer Making

On Waters
Waters differ in their quality, that is to say, in extracting the goodness from the Malt; it is, therefore, very necessary for every o...

Some Observations On The Grinding Of Malt
Much depends on the grinding of Malt. Many people give directions to have their malt ground small, having an idea that the water will ...

Improvements In The Mash Tun
Mash Tuns should have false bottoms, to take up as occasion may require;--they should be about two inches clear of the fixed bottom, ...

Boiling Of The Worts
Many brewers boil their worts from one to two hours; this is very much practised in private families;--a great part of the time the wo...

Cooling Of The Worts
As soon as the wort is out of the copper the next thing is to get the heat out as soon as possible, and to get it in a state for ferm...

Attending The Working Tun
Attention should be paid to the beer when in the tun. It is a custom with many brewers to put their yeast for that brewing into the tu...

Cleansing
It is a practice with many people to keep their beer in the tun from four to six days; by that time the yeast will fall to the bottom ...

A Very Necessary Caution
It is a common practice, when casks are scalded or cleansed, to expose them to the sun and wind to dry, and there leave them till the ...

Small Beer
As I said before, small beer is too frequently neglected, because the master or mistress of a family drink but a small quantity of it....

Cleanliness In The Cellar
Care should be taken to keep the cellar clean, (especially those who are situated near the south aspect; or shallow, where the sun has...

On The Drying And Qualities Of Malt
I shall here give a few observations on malt, which was my principal reason for introducing this work to the public, well knowing that...

On Hops
Many professed brewers are particularly attached to the colour of the hops, that is, they are partial to those of a fine green colour;...

Categories

Misc
Recreational



Topics

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