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 Wood Workings.ca

Learn how the craft of woodworking. Learn how to build simple units.




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  Woodworkings (127)    Carpentry (313)    Wood Turning (64)    Handwork (48)    Furniture Making (112)  


Wood Workings.ca

Learn how the craft of woodworking. Learn how to build simple units.


Woodworkings

The Glued Joint
The glued joint in its various forms is in use in every country in the world, and is frequently met with in mummy cases and other ex...

Glueing
The better the glue penetrates into the pores of the wood, the stronger the joint will be; for this reason timber of the loose-fibred v...

Supporting The Joint
The jointed boards should not be reared up against a "bench leg" or wall without having any support in the centre, as dotted ...

The Halved Joint
T he halved joint is frequently known as half-lapping, and sometimes as checking and half-checking. In the majority of cases it is m...

Setting Out The Halved Joint
Although at first sight the halved joint may appear to be a very easy item of construction, it requires much care and attention in mar...

Sawing
Lay the work on the cutting board as at ; or, if you prefer, put the work in the vice. Carefully saw down the work until you just to...

Joints Other Than A Right Angle
If the halving joint is at an angle similar to the sketch shown at , great care will have to be exercised in the use of the chisel, owi...

The Bridle Joint
A bridle joint is often defined as the reverse of a mortise and tenon, and is chiefly used in the carpentry and joinery trades. The...

Setting Out And Marking
It is a safe rule, when setting out a bridle joint, to divide the thickness of the timber into three equal parts. This will leave the ...

Gauging
After squaring all the shoulder lines round the timber with the knife and try square, the mortise gauge should be set so as to strike t...

Boring Away Waste
Examine ; the shaded portion in the centre has to be cut away, and it will greatly facilitate the removal of this waste piece by borin...

Sawing
The wood should be put in the vice as . Taking up a saw, with the index finger on the side of the handle, commence sawing, and proceed u...

Cutting The Shoulders
With regard to working the piece B, , place the wood against the bench stop or in the vice, and taking up a 3⁄4-in. chisel carefu...

Chiselling Away Waste
Fix your wood firmly in any suitable manner, vice or otherwise, and, holding your chisel tilted as at , pare away the blacked portion 1...

Joints Other Than At 90°
The two pieces forming a bridle joint are not always at right angles, as at ; in many instances it is necessary that the joint be at ot...

The Tongued And Grooved Joint
T he tongued and grooved joint is used in one form or another throughout the whole of the woodworking trades, covering, as it does, ...

Cabinet-work Joints
With regard to tongued and grooved joints which apply more particularly to the jointing of cabinet work, is produced by planes which ...

Loose Tongues
There are two methods of jointing with loose tongues, viz., the use of the cross tongue, , and the use of the feather tongue, . Cross to...

Applications Of The Joint
is a sketch of a portion of a sideboard top, showing the plough groove ready worked out to receive the tongue; the other half of the ...

Corner Joints
shows both a single loose tongue and a double solid tongue. Both are methods used to connect circular cornered work, such as a counte...

Ploughing
When grooves have to be worked in the edge or face of a board to receive tongues, the process is generally called ploughing, and it is ...

Tongueing
The grooves having been completed, the tongues have to be made. shows a sketch of a board and the method of marking out cross tongues...

Tongueing Planes
shows the end view of a tongueing plane for working matched joints out of the solid. The method of holding and using the plane is simi...

The Mortise And Tenon Joint
A mortise and tenon joint is the method of joining timber by working a solid rectangular projection in the one piece and cutting a ...

Barefaced Tenons
illustrates the joint in its simplest form and shows a tenon having only one shoulder. This is called a barefaced tenon, and it will b...

Wedges
shows the method of cutting wedges which are to be used to wedge the tenons; this avoids waste of material. Some workers cut the wedge...

Sprocket Wheel
At are shown the guide bar and chain of a chain-mortising machine, two enlarged links of the chain being indicated at A. The chain is...

Long And Short Shouldered Joint
shows a haunched mortise and tenon joint having a long and short shoulder. This is a fairly common joint in framed partitions for off...

Mitred And Moulded Joint
shows a type of joint largely used in light cabinet work. The method of mitreing the moulding and tenoning the stile to rail is indic...

Twin Tenons
The method of tenoning the bearers which carry the drawers, or the midfeather between two drawers, in a dressing table or similar carca...

Pinning
shows the tenoning of the inside end of a wardrobe to the top of the carcase. This is also called pinning. The tenons should be wedged...

Top Rails
At is shown the method of joining the top rails to the post of a tool shed or similar outhouse. The two rails, which are at right angl...

Dovetailed And Wedged Tenon
When two pieces such as the cross rail and leg of a carpenter's bench are required to be held together by a mortise and tenon, and to b...

Fox Wedged Tenon
This is the method of securing a stub tenon by small wedges. The mortise is slightly dovetailed and two saw cuts are made in the tenon...

Mortise And Tenon With Mitred Face
This is a useful method of jointing framing which has square edges as shown; and it is equally useful even if the face edges have moul...

Roof Joints
shows the method of tenoning the principal rafter to the king post, whilst illustrates the tenoning of the struts to the king post, a...

Drawbore Pinning
At is seen the method of securing a tenon by drawbore pinning, employed when it is not convenient to obtain the necessary pressure by...

Sash Bars
shows how to tenon a moulded sash bar to the rebated cross rail. In this illustration both shoulders of the moulded bar are shown squa...

Tenon With Tongued And Grooved Shoulders
The object of the tongues and grooves here is to prevent the face of the work casting, or becoming warped, and thus spoiling the appea...

Table Framing
indicates the framing of a rail to a dining-table leg. In cases similar to this the tenons run into the leg and almost touch each othe...

Hammer Head Tenons
At is shown the method of jointing framing having semicircular or segmental heads. The left-hand diagram indicates the method of wedg...

Clamping
shows the method of tenoning drawing boards, desk tops and secretaire falls. This is commonly called clamping. The method is used to ...

Inserted Tenons
Where two pieces of timber run together at an acute angle it becomes necessary to use inserted tenons. Both pieces of the timber are m...

Dreadnought File
At is a sketch of a portion of a dreadnought file. This has superseded the old-fashioned home-made float used to clean out the sides ...

General Rule
In practically all cases where a single tenon is used the thickness of the tenon should be one-third the thickness of the timber. This ...

Setting Out The Joint
The principal use of the mortise and tenon joint is in the construction of various types of framing, such as door and window frames. In ...

Removing Haunching
After removing the mortise hole, the small portion which is called the haunching will require to be removed with a chisel. This calls f...

Interlocking Chair Joint
A joint designed with a view to strengthening the construction of chairs at the point where they are weakest is shown in . The joint i...

The Dowelling Joint
Dowelling is the term generally given to the method of jointing timber and other materials by wooden or metal pegs, which are called...

Making Dowels
Many, however, prefer to make what they require for the work in hand, and the following is the method that is generally employed. Piece...

Frame Dowelling
shows one corner of a frame with long and short shoulders, such as occurs when the upright is rebated through its entire length. The ...

The Scarf Joint
The method known as "scarfing" is used for the joining of timber in the direction of its length, enabling the workman to p...

The Hinged Joint
One of the most common forms of hinged joint in use to-day is that formed by using the "butt" hinge, and many troubles exp...

Alignment
Another fault that is fairly common is having the axes of the hinges out of alignment. Especially is this the case when three hinges ar...

Gauging
is a sketch of a brass butt hinge, open. illustrates a similar hinge closed, and shows the gauge set so that the point of the marker ...

Position Of Hinges
Another difficulty to the beginner is the position for his hinges, and it may here be stated that the general rule is to carry a line a...

Sawing For The Recess
After marking out for the hinge, as shown at , take a fine-toothed saw (a dovetail saw is considered the best) and saw down as shown a...

Stopped Hinged Joints For Box Work
is a section through a small box similar to a lady's work-box (the back of the box in the illustration is enlarged in thickness to cl...

Types Of Hinges
is an elongated variety of the butt hinge, known in the trade as "strap hinge," "desk hinge," or "bagatelle h...

Centre Or Pivot Hinges
is a centre or pivot hinge, used on the top and bottom of wardrobe doors, more particularly the interior door of a three-winged wardr...

Rising Butt Hinges
is the rising butt hinge, used on dining and drawing-room doors, so that when the door is opened the door rises sufficiently to clear ...

Acute Angle Hingeing
is a sectional plan of a corner cupboard showing a good method of hingeing the door. The inset a shows an enlarged view of th...

Inside Hingeing
When a door is being hung inside the carcase (that is, not hinged over the ends) it is permissible, in the case of lig...

Outside Hingeing
illustrates the portion of a door frame and carcase end when the door is hung on the face of the carcase. The correct method of letti...

Fall Fronts
is a sectional view of a fall front writing bureau fitted with centre or pivot hinges and arranged so that the edges form a stop when ...

Fly Rail
is a sketch of a small table with the top removed. A revolving fly rail is shown pivoted upon a piece of 1⁄4-in. wire. The objec...

Draught Screens
illustrates the end elevation and plan of a draught screen which is constructed of a light framework and covered with baize or America...

Finger Joint Hinge
is a finger joint—a movable interlocking joint used to support the leaf of a Pembroke table. The small portion is screwed to the...

Knuckle Joint Hinge
is a similar type of joint to the above, and is called the knuckle joint. This arrangement of hingeing allows the table leg to swing ...

Open Joint Hingeing
The next three illustrations apply more particularly to the hanging of the ordinary household door. is termed "open joint...

Close Joint Hanging
The method known as "close joint hanging" ensures the joint at the hanging stile being in close proximity to the hanging rail...

Shutting Joints
This chapter deals with the joint made by the upright rail of a door frame which carries the lock, or handle, generally called the &...

The Dovetail Joint
Nothing definite is known as to the origin of dovetailing, but a quaint and pleasing little story which is well worth repeating runs...

Through Dovetailing
One of the simplest forms of the dovetail joint is shown in , where two pieces of timber are joined by the method known as "through" do...

Lap-dovetailing
is an example of lap-dovetailing, such as is used where a drawer side joins with the drawer front. It is not permissible to allow the...

Angles
A most important point in the construction of a dovetail is to avoid having the angles of the pins and tails too acute. An inclination ...

Squaring
Another important point to remember is that the drawer sides must be true and squared to an exact length and planed up to thickness; ot...

Gauging
After squaring up the timber accurate gauging of the ends is another important point. The gauge used should be a cutting gauge, so that...

Sawing The Dovetails
After marking out the pins on the drawer sides, we proceed with the next operation, that is, sawing the dovetails ready for chopping ou...

Frame Dovetails
is a sketch of a constructional frame such as is used for building up a cornice or plinth. At the joint marked A an edge barefaced do...

Blind Lap-dovetailing
At is shown a type of blind lap-dovetailing. This makes a good, sound joint, but it has the disadvantage of showing a small portion o...

Housed And Mitred Dovetail
is another form of dovetail—commonly called a housed and mitred or rebated and mitred dovetail. In this instance we see that a ...

Dovetail Keying
is a method used to prevent wide boards such as signboards, wide and shaped pediments, etc., from casting or warping. It is called dov...

Other Varieties
At we have an everyday method of jointing circular-fronted cabinet door frames. Great care must be taken in setting out and making, o...

Setting Out The Joint
For constructing a dovetail joint at the corner of a frame, as , it is necessary at the outset to trim up the ends of the timber square...

Dovetailing Template
Many workers who are constantly engaged upon dovetail joints make a small wooden template, as shown at . This template is generally of...

Chisel Work
After marking out, as shown at , place the wood on the bench and proceed to chop away the centre portion in the following manner. Hold ...

Saw Work
Take a marking awl, or a knitting needle which has had its end sharpened, and mark the lines of the dovetail in a similar manner to tha...

Drawers
When dovetailing drawers or boxes it is necessary to square up the ends of all the stock and gauge them, as shown at . This illustratio...

Machine-made Dovetails
As a general rule machine-made drawer and box dovetails show both the pins and the tails of exactly the same size. The reason is obvio...

Dovetail Grooving
The dovetail housing joint should first be carefully marked out with a marking knife, so as to cut across the fibres of the wood. For...

The Mitred Joint
Although mitreing is used in everyday woodwork, it comes last in our list of regular joints simply because it has been partly dealt ...

Mitreing
The term mitreing is generally used to denote the type of joint used at the corner of a picture frame; or where two pieces of wood are ...

Finding The Angle
For straight mitres, the mitre joint line is found by bisecting the angle, as shown in the various examples, and the following instruct...

Sawing Block
For sawing mouldings, etc., to their approximate shape, a home-made sawing block is generally used, as shown at . Two pieces of wood a...

Planing
After sawing the piece to approximately the correct angle, it is necessary on high-class work to plane the cut end so as to give a perf...

Curved Mitres
We now come to what are probably the most difficult of all mitres, viz., curved mitres, and the writer well remembers in his apprentice...

To Set Out A Curved Mitre
Draw a section of the moulding full size, A, as shown at the left hand of the illustration, and project lines round the framing, as sh...

Mitreing A Moulded Door Frame
illustrates the method of mitreing the moulded portion of a door frame where the joint is dowelled, not tenoned. A small wooden templ...

Joints For Curved Work
shows a circular frame made up in two thicknesses, the segments being screwed to each other and the joints crossed in two layers. T...

Lamination
If we apply to the dictionary for the word "lamination," we find that lamellar structure is the arrangements in thin plates or layers o...

Miscellaneous Joints
Weather boards.—For outdoor buildings, such as garages, garden sheds, toolhouses, etc., "weatherboarding" is often preferred t...

Ladders
illustrates the method of fastening the rung (or stave) of a ladder to the side. At A the common method is shown, the stave being simp...

Hinged Cornice Poles
shows a hinged joint for cornice poles and should be of interest to those who are frequently removing from house to house. The joint ...

Veneer Keying
illustrates the method of strengthening the corners of boxes which are made of 1⁄4-in. or 3⁄8-in. timber, by securing the ...

Muntin And Skirting Joint
In the case of panelled rooms it is usually necessary to scribe the muntins (or uprights) to the skirting. The method is shown in . The...

Cot Joint
At is shown an interesting joint used largely in the making of Indian cots. The illustrations indicate how the cross bar and end bar a...

Sideboard Pillars Etc
For economy, sideboard pillars are sometimes built up as indicated, the "shaft," the "base," and the "swell" being made up of three di...

Notched Joints
is a "notched joint," where two joists, or scantlings, cross each other, the object of the joint being to prevent the joists moving f...

Birdsmouth Joints
is a "birdsmouth joint," a simple joint which can be readily made by the handsaw, used when a spar fits on the wall plate. A nail is ...

Rafter Joint
shows an everyday joint, as used at the juncture of the principal rafter and the tie-beam in roof truss work. A sketch of piece A is s...

Pelleting
indicates the method of pelleting and screwing the corner of a picture frame. The mitre joint is first screwed and a pellet of the same...

Patera Covers
In cases where the style of ornament permits of it, patera covers are used instead of pelleting. shows the jointing of shaped spandrai...

Buttoning
The tops of tables, sideboards, etc., should not be fixed with screws in the ordinary way. At the front, screws can be driven upwards t...

Frames For Oil Paintings
The method of making joints for frames on which the canvas is stretched for oil paintings is shown at . They are generally mitred at t...

Corrugated Steel Fasteners
It is now many years ago since the steel saw-edge fastener first appeared on the market, but probably 80 per cent. of amateur woodwork...

Wall Plugs
At four types of wall plugs are shown: a, the ordinary rectangular tapered wall plug to drive between the joints of the brick...

Puzzle Joints
Puzzle Joints are not only interesting in themselves, but are often excellent studies in craftsmanship. The majority of them, if to b...

Chinese Puzzle
The ingenious puzzle of the Chinese type shown in is probably older than many of us could guess, but as it is one that can be made by ...

Fitting The Puzzle
The three central bars must first be joined, as those form the skeleton framework of the structure. shows them in position, but as it...

First Stage
First take the bars X and Y and arrange them as shown in . It is most important that the projections a of X face upwards, and...

Second Stage
In the remaining part of the work the chief difficulty is to keep the puzzle from falling to pieces before the key finally locks it. Ta...

The Key Piece
When the writer fits up the puzzle he finds that three of the arms may straight away be fitted complete with their three cross parts. T...

Undoing The Puzzle
To take the puzzle to pieces all that is required is to turn the "key" half round and push the other two cross bars on that arm towards...

Cross Puzzle
illustrates a six-piece puzzle joint, similar in some respects to , but very much simpler. Both a back and front view of the piece D ...

Mortising Puzzle
The ordinary mortising exercise is, after the first two or three attempts, generally voted as uninteresting, but, although the simple p...

Chinese Cross
shows a variation of the Chinese cross, which is perhaps the most fascinating of all woodwork puzzles. Take six pieces of hardwood an...


Carpentry

Knowledge Of Tools
A knowledge of tools and their uses is the first and most important requirement. The saw, the plane, the hatchet and the hammer are we...

A Full Kit Of Tools
A kit of tools necessary for doing any plain work should embrace the following: 1. A Hatchet. 2. A Claw Hammer...

The Hatchet
The hatchet should be ground with a bevel on each side, and not on one side only, as is customary with a plasterer's lathing hatchet, ...

The Claw Hammer
This is the proper tool for driving nails and for drawing them out. Habits should be formed with the beginner, which will be of great ...

About Saws
There are four well-defined kinds. First, a long, flat saw, for cross-cutting. Second, a slightly larger saw for ripping purposes. Thi...

Cross-cuts
The difference between a cross-cut and a rip saw is, that in the latter the teeth have less pitch and are usually larger than in the c...

Planes
The plane may be called the æsthetic tool in the carpenter's kit. It is the most difficult tool to handle and the most satisfacto...

The Jack Plane
This plane has the cutting edge of its blade ground so it is slightly curved (Fig. 6), because, as the bit must be driven out so it wi...

Gages
One of the most valuable tools in the whole set is the gage, but it is, in fact, the least known. This is simply a straight bar, with a...

Chisels
Two kinds are found in every kit—one called the firmer (Fig. 7) and the mortising chisel. The firmer has a flat body or blade, ...

The Mortising Chisel
The mortising chisel (Fig. 7a), on the other hand, is very narrow and thick, with a long taper down to the cutting edge. They...

Trusses
There should be at least two, each three feet in length and twenty inches in height. ...

Saw Clamps
These are necessary adjuncts, and should be made of hard wood, perfectly straight and just wide enough to take in the narrow back sa...

The Grindstones
It is better to get a first-class stone, which may be small and rigged up with a foot treadle. A soft, fine-grained stone is most serv...

The Miter Box
This should be 14 inches long and 3" by 3" inside, made of hard wood ¾" thick. The sides should be nailed to the bottom, as show...

The Work Bench
In its proper place we show in detail the most approved form of work bench, fitted with a tool rack to hold all the tools, conveniently...

Care Of Tools
Dull tools indicate the character of the workman. In an experience of over forty years, I have never known a good workman to keep poor...

First Requisite
A beginner should never attempt a piece of work until he learns how the different tools should be sharpened, or at least learn the pri...

Saws
As the saw is such an important part of the kit, I shall devote some space to the subject. First, as to setting the saw. The ob...

How To Set
To set a saw accurately, that is, to drive out each tooth the same distance, is the first requirement, and the second is to bend out t...

Simple Saw Setter
Take a block of wood, a 4 by 4 inch studding, four inches long. Get a piece of metal one-half inch thick and two inches square. Have...

Filing Angles
In its proper place will be shown how you may easily calculate and measure degrees in work of this kind. Fig. 12 shows an approximatio...

Filing
The next step is the filing. Two things must be observed: the pitch and the angle. By pitch is meant the inclination of the teeth. Not...

The Angle Of Filing
By angle is meant the cutting position of the file. In Fig. 12, the lines B represent the file disposed at an angle of 12 degrees, n...

Saw Clamps
You may easily make a pair of saw clamps as follows: Take two pieces of hard wood, each three inches wide, seven-eighths of an inch th...

The File
In order to experiment with the filing motion, take two blocks of wood, and try surfacing them off with a file. When you place the two...

The Grindstone
As most of the tools require a grindstone for sharpening purposes, an illustration is given as a guide, with a diagram to show the pro...

In The Use Of Grindstones
There are certain things to avoid and to observe in the use of stones. Never use one spot on the stone, however narrow the tool may be...

Correct Way To Hold Tool For Grinding
There is a correct way to hold each tool; see illustration (Fig. 17). The left hand should grasp the tool firmly, near the sharp edge,...

Incorrect Way To Hold Tool For Grinding
The incorrect way of holding a tool is shown in Fig. 18. This, I presume, is the universal way in which the novice takes the tool. It ...

The Plane
Indiscriminate use of planes should be avoided. Never use the fore or smoothing planes on rough surfaces. The jack plane is the proper...

The Gage
The illustration (Fig. 19) shows one of the most useful tools in the kit. It is used to scribe the thickness of the material which is ...

Chisels
I have already pointed out, in general, how to hold tools for grinding purposes, this description applying particularly to chisels, but...

General Observations
If the workman will carefully observe the foregoing requirements he will have taken the most important steps in the knowledge of the a...

How To Hold And Handle Tools
Observation may form part of each boy's lesson, but when it comes to the handling of tools, practice becomes the only available means o...

The Saw
With such a commonplace article as the saw, it might be assumed that the ordinary apprentice would look upon instruction with a smile ...

How To Start A Saw
If the untried apprentice has such an opinion set him to work at the task of cutting off a board accurately on a line. He will general...

How To Start On A Line
The first mistake he makes is to saw on the line. This should never be done. The work should be so laid out that the saw kerf...

The First Stroke
Now, to hold the saw in starting is the difficult task to the beginner. Once mastered it is simple and easy. The only time in which ...

The Starting Cut
In order to make our understanding of the starting cut more explicit, we refer to Fig. 20, in which the thumb of the left hand is show...

For Cross-cutting
For ordinary cross-cutting the angle of the saw should be at 45 degrees. For ripping, the best results are found at less than 45 degre...

Forcing A Saw
Forcing a saw through the wood means a crooked kerf. The more nearly the saw is held at right angles to a board, the greater is the ...

The Stroke
Make a long stroke, using the full blade of the saw. Don't acquire the "jerky" style of sawing. If the handle is held loosely, and the...

The Chinese Saw
This saw is designed to saw with an upward cut, and the illustration (Fig. 24) shows the handle jutting out below the tooth line, in o...

Things To Avoid
Do not oscillate the saw as you draw it back and forth. This is unnecessary work, and shows impatience in the use of the tool. There i...

The Plane
The jack plane and the fore plane are handled with both hands, and the smoothing plane with one hand, but only when used for dressing ...

Angles For Holding Planes
Before commencing to plane a board, always observe the direction in which the grain of the wood runs. This precaution will save many a...

Errors To Be Avoided
Never draw back the plane with the bit resting on the board. This simply wears out the tool, and if there should be any grit on the ...

The Gage
A man, who professed to be a carpenter, once told me that he never used a gage because he could not make it run straight. A few moment...

Holding The Gage
The hand serves to keep the cheekpiece against the board, while the thumb pushes the gage forward. The hand must not, under any circum...

The Draw-knife
It is difficult for the apprentice to become accustomed to handle this useful tool. It is much more serviceable than a hatchet for tri...

Fundamentals Of Designing
A great deal of the pleasure in making articles consists in creative work. This means, not that you shall design some entirely new art...

The Commercial Instinct
It is not enough that the boy should learn to make things correctly, and as a matter of pastime and pleasure. The commercial instinct ...

First Requirements For Designing
First, then, let us see what is necessary to do when you intend to set about making an article. Suppose we fix our minds upon a table ...

Conventional Styles
Now, if you wish to depart from the conventional style of making a table you may make variations in the design. For instance, the Chip...

Mission Style
The Mission style of architecture also lends itself to the making of chairs and other articles of furniture. A chair is, probably, the...

Cabinets
In the making of cabinets, sideboards, dressers and like articles, the ingenious boy will find a wonderful field for designing ability,...

Harmony Of Parts
But one thing should be observed in the making of furniture, namely, harmony between the parts. For instance, a table with thin legs...

Harmonizing Wood
Imagine a chiffonier with the base of dark wood, like walnut, and the top of pine or maple, or a like light-colored wood. On the other...

Concrete Examples Of Work
A concrete example of doing any work is more valuable than an abstract statement. For this purpose I shall direct the building of a co...

Framework
As we now know the sizes, the first thing is to build the framework. The legs should be dressed square and smoothed down with the fore...

Laying Out The Legs
Fig. 27 shows a leg with square cross marks (A) at each end. These marks indicate the finished length of the leg. You will also see cr...

The Length Of The Mortises
Then take a small try square (Fig. 28) and add two cross lines (B, C) on each of the inner surfaces, the second line (B) one-half inch...

The Mortises
When the mortises have been made they will appear as shown in the enlarged cross section of the leg (Fig. 30), the total depth of each...

The Facing Boards
These boards are each 1 inch thick and 7 inches wide. As the top of the table is 42 inches long, and we must provide an overhang, say ...

The Tenons
Do not neglect first to select the work side and the working edge of the board. The outer surface and the upper edges are the sides to...

Tools Used
The back saw is used for cutting the tenon, and the end of the board appears as shown in the enlarged Fig. 34. Two things are now ne...

Chamfered Tenons
The object of these chamfered or beveled tenons is to permit the ends to approach each other closely within the mortise, as shown in t...

The Frame Assembled
The frame is now ready to assemble, but before doing so a drawer opening and supports should be made. The ends of the supports may b...

The Drawer Supports
Take one of the side-facing boards (Fig. 37) and cut a rectangular opening in it. This opening should be 4 inches wide and 18 inches l...

The Table Frame
When the entire table frame is assembled it will have the appearance shown in Fig. 39, and it is now ready for the top. ...

The Top
The top should be made of three boards, either tongued and grooved, or doweled and glued together. In order to give a massive appearan...

The Drawer
The drawer (Fig. 41) shown in cross section, has its front (A) provided with an overlapping flange (B). It is not our object in this...

How Any Structure Is Built Up
It should be observed that each structure, however small, is usually built from the base up. Just the same as the more pretentious bui...

Observations About A Box
As simple a little article as a box frequently becomes a burden to a beginner. Try it. Simply keep in mind one thing; each box has six...

Joints
For joining together boards at right angles to each other, such as box corners, drawers and like articles, tenons and mortises should n...

Beveling And Mitering
There is a difference in the terms "beveling" and "mitering," as used in the art. In Fig. 42 the joint A is beveled, and in F...

Proper Terms
It is the application of the correct terms to things that lays the foundation for accurate thinking and proper expressions in describin...

Picture Frames
In picture frames the mitered corners may have a saw kerf (C) cut across the corners, as shown in Fig. 44, and a thin blade of hard ...

Dovetail Joints
It is in the laying out of the more complicated dovetail joints that the highest skill is required, because exactness is of more impor...

Preparing A Box Joint
In order to match a box joint for the inner end of a table drawer, the first step is to select two work sides. One work side will be t...

First Steps
Now lap together the inner surfaces of these boards (Y, Z), so the ends are toward you, as shown in Fig. 45. Then, after measuring t...

Cutting Out The Spaces
In cutting out the intervening spaces, which should be done with a sharp chisel, care should be observed not to cut over the shoulder ...

Tools Used In Laying Out Tenons And Mortises
A sharp-pointed knife must always be used for making all marks. Never employ an awl for this work, as the fiber of the wood will be to...

The Square
The square is, probably, the oldest of all tools, and that, together with the compass, or dividers, with which the square is always as...

The Try Square
In the use of the ordinary large metal square it is necessary to lay the short limb of the square on the face of the work, and the lon...

The Compass
The compass is one of the original carpenter's tools. The difference between compass and dividers is that compasses ha...

Proportional Dividers
A useful tool is called the proportional dividers, the legs of which are hinged together intermediate the ends, so that the pivotal jo...

Determining Angles
Now, in order to lay out work the boy should know quickly and accurately how to determine various angles used or required in his work....

Definition Of Degree
A degree is not a measure, as we would designate a foot or a pound to determine distance or quantity. It is used to denote a division,...

The Most Important Angle
Most important for one to know at a glance is that of 45 degrees, because the one can the more readily calculate the other degrees, ap...

Degrees Without A Compass
But in the absence of a compass and when you do not wish to step off a circle, you will in such case lay down the square, and mark off...

What Degrees Are Calculated From
The question that now arises is what line one may use from which to calculate degrees, or at what point in the circle zero is placed. ...

The Dividers
The dividers are used not only for scribing circles, but also for stepping and dividing spaces equally. There is a knack in the use of...

The Right Name For Everything
Always make it a point to apply the right term to each article or portion of a structure. Your explanation, to those who do know the p...

Proper Designations
Every part in mechanism, every point, curve and angle has its peculiar designation. A knowledge of terms is an indication of thoroughn...

Learning Mechanical Forms
Suppose, for example, we take the words segment and sector. Without a thorough understanding in your own mind you ...

66 Dormer
A window pierced in a roof and so set as to be vertical, while the roof slopes away from it. Also called a Gablet. ...

67 Dowel
A pin or stud in one block, or body, designed to engage with holes in another body to hold them together in alignment. ...

68 Drip
That part of a cornice or sill course A, or other horizontal member which projects beyond the rest, so as to divert water. ...

69 Detents
Recesses to lock or to serve as a stop or holding place. ...

70 Extrados
The exterior curve of an arch, especially the upper curved face A. B is the Intrados or Soffit. ...

71 Engrailed
Indented with small concave curves, as the edge of a bordure, bend, or the like. ...

72 Facet
The narrow plain surface, as A, between the fluting of a column. ...

73 Fret Fretwork
Ornamental work consisting of small fillets, or slats, intersecting each other or bent at right angles. Openwork in relief, when elabo...

74 Frontal Also Called Pediment
The triangular space, A, above a door or window. ...

75 Frustums
That part of a solid next the base, formed by cutting off the top; or the part of any solid, as of a cone, pyramid, etc., between two ...

76 Fylfat
A rebated cross used as a secret emblem and worn as an ornament. It is also called Gammadium, and more commonly known as Swastika. ...

77 Gambrel Roof
A curb roof having the same section in all its parts, with a lower, steeper and longer part. See Curb Roof and distinguish difference....

78 Gargoyle
A spout projecting from the roof gutter of a building, often carved grotesquely. ...

79 Gudgeon
A wooden shaft, A, with a socket, B, into which is fitted a casting, C. The casting has a gudgeon, D. ...

80 Guilloche
An ornament in the form of two or more bands or strings twisted together or over or through each other. ...

81 Half Timbered
Constructed of a timber frame, having the spaces filled in with masonry. ...

82 Hammer Beam
A member of one description of roof truss, called hammer-beam truss, which is so framed as not to have a tie beam at the top of the ...

83 Haunches
The parts A, A, on each side of the crown of an arch. Each haunch is from one-half to two-thirds of the half arch. ...

84 Header
A piece of timber, A, fitted between two trimmers, B, B, to hold the ends of the tail beams, C, C. ...

85 Hip Roof
The external angle formed by the meeting of two sloping sides or skirts of a roof which have their wall plates running in different di...

86 Hood Molding
A projecting molding over the head of an arch, as at A, forming the outer-most member of the archivolt. ...

87 Inclave
The border, or borders, having a series of dovetails. One variation of molding or ornamentation. ...

88 Interlacing Arch
Arches, usually circular, so constructed that their archivolts, A, intersect and seem to be interlaced. ...

89 Invected
Having a border or outline composed of semicircles or arches, with the convexity outward. The opposite of engrailed. ...

90 Inverted Arch
An arch placed with the crown downward; used in foundation work. ...

91 Keystone
The central or topmost stone, A, of an arch, sometimes decorated with a carving. ...

92 King Post
A member, A, of a common form of truss for roofs. It is strictly a tie intended to prevent the sagging of the tie beam, B, in the midd...

93 Label
The name given to the projecting molding, A, around the top of the door opening. A form of mediæval architecture. ...

94 Louver
The sloping boards, A, set to shed rain water outward in an opening of a frame, as in belfry windows. ...

95 Lintel
A horizontal member. A spanning or opening of a frame, and designed to carry the wall above it. ...

96 Lug
A. projecting piece, as A, to which anything is attached, or against which another part, like B, is held. ...

97 M-roof
A kind of roof formed by the junction of two common roofs with a valley between them, so the section resembles the letter M. ...

98 Mansard Roof
A hipped curb roof, that is, a roof having on all sides two slopes, the lower one, A, being steeper than the upper portion or deck. ...

99 Newel Post
The upright post at the foot of a stairway, to which the railing is attached. ...

100 Parquetry
A species of joinery or cabinet work, consisting of an inlay of geometric or other patterns, generally of different colored woods, use...

101 Peen Also Pein
The round, round-edged or hemispherical end, as at A, of a hammer. ...

102 Pendant
A hanging ornament on roofs, ceilings, etc., and much used in the later styles of Gothic architecture where it is of stone. Imitated l...

103 Pentastyle
A pillar. A portico having five pillars, A, is called the Pentastyle in temples of classical construction. ...

104 Pedestal
An upright architectural member, A, right-angled in plan, constructionally a pier, but resembling a column, having a capital, shaft an...

105 Pintle
An upright pivot pin, or the pin of a hinge; A represents the pintle of a rudder. ...

106 Portico
A colonnade or covered structure, especially in classical style, of architecture, and usually at the entrance of a building. ...

107 Plate
A horizontal timber, A, used as a top or header for supporting timbers, roofs and the like. ...

108 Queen Post
One of two suspending posts in a roof truss, or other framed truss of simple form. Compare with King Post. A, B, tie beam; C, C, queen...

109 Quirk Molding
A small channel, deeply recessed, in proportion to its width, used to insulate and give relief to a convex rounded molding. An excelle...

110 Re-entering
The figure shows an irregular polygon (that is, many-sided figure) and is a re-entering polygon. The recess A is a re-entering angle. ...

111 Rafter
Originally any rough and heavy piece of timber, but in modern carpentry used to designate the main roof support, as at A. See Queen Po...

112 Scarfing
Cutting timber at an angle along its length, as the line A. Scarfing joints are variously made. The overlapping joints may be straight...

113 Scotia Molding
A sunken molding in the base of a pillar, so called from the dark shadow which it casts. ...

114 Sill
In carpentry the base piece, or pieces, A, on which the posts of a structure are set. ...

115 Skew-back
The course of masonry, such as a stone, A, with an inclined face, which forms the abutment for the voussoirs, B, or wedge-shaped stone...

116 Spandrel
The irregular, triangular space, A, between the curve of an arch and the enclosing right angle. ...

117 Strut
In general, any piece of a frame, such as a timber A, or a brace B, which resists pressure or thrust in the direction of its length. ...

118 Stud Studding
The vertical timber or scantling, A, which is one of the small uprights of a building to which the boarding or plastering lath are nai...

119 Stile
The main uprights of a door, as A, A; B, B, B, rails; C, C, mullions; D, D, panels. ...

Tie Beam
See Queen Post. ...

120 Trammel
A very useful tool for drawing ellipses. It comprises a cross, A, with grooves and a bar, B, with pins, C, attached to sliding blocks ...

121 Turret
A little tower, frequently only an ornamental structure at one of the angles of a larger structure. ...

122 Transom
A horizontal cross-bar, A, above a door or window or between a door and a window above it. Transom is the horizontal member, and if th...

123 Valley Roof
A place of meeting of two slopes of a roof which have their sides running in different directions and formed on the plan of a re-entra...

Drawing And Its Utility
A knowledge of drawing, at least so far as the fundamentals are concerned, is of great service to the beginner. All work, after being c...

Representing Objects
But let him try to represent some object, and the pens become useless. There is a vast difference in the use of drawing tools and free...

Forming Lines And Shadows
It is not my intention to furnish a complete treatise on this subject, but to do two things, one of which will be to show, among oth...

Analysis Of Line Shading
In the demonstration of this work I shall give an analysis of the simple lines formed, showing the terms used to designate the lines, ...

How To Characterize Surface
Suppose we commence simply with straight lines. How shall we determine the character of the surface of the material between the two ...

Concave Surfaces
In Fig. 126 the shading lines commence at the upper margin, and are heaviest there, the lines gradually growing thinner and farther ap...

Convex Surfaces
In Fig. 127 the shading is very light along the upper margin, and heavy at the lower margin. The first shaded figure, therefore, repre...

Shadows From A Solid Body
We can understand this better by examining Fig. 129, which shows a vertical board, and a beam of light (A) passing downwardly beyond t...

Flat Effects
If the board is flat it may be shaded, as shown in Fig. 131, in which the lines are all of the same thickness, and are spaced farther ...

The Direction Of Light
Now, in drawing, we must observe another thing. Not only does the light always come from above, but it comes also from the left side. ...

Raised Surfaces
Fig. 133 shows it in the form of a block, simply by thickening the lower and the right-hand lines. ...

Depressed Surfaces
If, by chance, you should make the upper and the left-hand lines heavy, as in Fig. 134, it would, undoubtedly, appear depressed, and w...

Illustrating Cube Shading
In Fig. 137 I show merely nine lines joined together, all lines being of equal thickness. As thus drawn it may represent, for instance...

Shading Effects
Now, to examine it properly so as to observe what the draughtsman wishes to express, look at Fig. 138, in which the three diverging li...

Heavy Lines
But there is an exception to this rule. See two examples (Fig. 140). Here two parallel lines appear close together to form the edge ...

Perspective
A perspective is a most deceptive figure, and a cube, for instance, may be drawn so that the various lines will differ in length, and ...

A True Perspective Of A Cube
Fig. 142 shows a true perspective—that is, it is true from the measurement standpoint. It is what is called an isometrical...

Isometric Cube
I enclose this cube within a circle, as in Fig. 143. To form this cube the circle (A) is drawn and bisected with a vertical line (B). ...

Flattened Perspective
Fig. 144 shows the new perspective, in which the three vertical lines (A, A, A) are of equal length, and the six angularly disposed li...

Technical Designations
As all geometrical lines have designations, I have incorporated such figures as will be most serviceable to the boy, each figure being...

Sector And Segment
Now examine the shape of the body formed by two of the radial lines (E, E) and that part of the circle which extends from one radial l...

Terms Of Angles
The relation of the lines to each other, the manner in which they are joined together, and their comparative angles, all have special ...

Circles And Curves
Circles, and, in fact, all forms of curved work, are the most difficult for beginners. The simplest figure is the circle, which, if it...

Irregular Curves
But the irregular curves require the most care to form properly. Let us try first the elliptical curve (Fig. 148). The proper thing ...

Ellipses And Ovals
It is not necessary to measure the centering points (F) at certain specified distances from the intersection of the horizontal and ver...

Focal Points
The focal point of a circle is its center, and is called the focus. But an ellipse has two focal points, called foci,...

Spirals
There is no more difficult figure to make with a bow or a circle pen than a spiral. In Fig. 150 a horizontal and a vertical line (A, B)...

Perpendicular And Vertical
A few words now as to terms. The boy is often confused in determining the difference between perpendicular and vertical...

Signs To Indicate Measurements
The small circle (°) is always used to designate degree. Thus 10° means ten degrees. Feet are indicated by the single...

Definitions
The following figures show the various geometrical forms and their definitions: ...

154 apsides Or apsis
One of two points, A, A, of an orbit, oval or ellipse farthest from the axis, or the two small dots. 155. Chord.—A rig...

156 convolute (see Also involute)
Usually employed to designate a wave or folds in opposite directions. A double involute. 157. Conic Section.—Having th...

Moldings
The use of moldings was early resorted to by the nations of antiquity, and we marvel to-day at many of the beautiful designs which the...

The Basis Of Moldings
Suppose we take the base type of moldings, and see how simple they are and then, by using these forms, try to build up or ornament som...

The Simplest Molding
In Fig. 185 we show a molding of the most elementary character known, being simply in the form of a band (A) placed below the cap. Suc...

The Astragal
Fig. 186 shows the ankle-bone molding, technically called the Astragal. This form is round, and properly placed produces a go...

The Cavetto
Fig. 187 is the cavetto, or round type. Its proper use gives a delicate outline, but it is principally applied with some other form of...

The Ovolo
Fig. 188, called the ovolo, is a quarter round molding with the lobe (A) projecting downwardly. It is distinguished from the astraga...

The Torus
Fig. 189, known as the torus, is a modified form of the ovolo, but the lobe (A) projects out horizontally instead of downwardly. ...

The Apophyges (pronounced Apof-i-ges)
Fig. 190 is also called the scape, and is a concaved type of molding, being a hollowed curvature used on columns where its fo...

The Cymatium
Fig. 191 is the cymatium (derived from the word cyme), meaning wave-like. This form must be in two curves, one inwardly and one outwar...

The Ogee
Fig. 192, called the ogee, is the most useful of all moldings, for two reasons: First, it may have the concaved surface uppermost, in ...

The Reedy
Fig. 194 represents the reedy, or the bead—that is, it is made up of reeds. It is a type of molding which should not be used with...

The Casement (fig 195)
In this we have a form of molding used almost exclusively at the base of structures, such as columns, porticoes and like work. ...

The Roman-doric Column
In Fig. 196 is shown a Roman-Doric column, in which the cymatium, the ovolo, cavetto, astragal and the ogee are used, together with th...

Lessons From The Doric Column
As an example, suppose we take a plain cabinet, and endeavor to embellish it with the types of molding described, and you will see to ...

Applying Molding
Let Fig. 197 represent the front, top and bottom of our cabinet; and the first thing we shall do is to add a base (A) and a cap (B). N...

Base Embellishments
In like manner (Fig. 204) the base may have the casement type first attached in the corner, and then the ovolo, or the astragal added,...

Straight-faced Moldings
Now let us carry the principle still further, and, instead of using various type of moldings, we will employ nothing but straight stri...

Plain Molded Base
The base may be treated in the same manner. The main strip (4) has its upper corner chamfered off, as at I, and on this is nailed a th...

Diversified Uses
For a great overhang you may use the cavetto, or the apophyges, and below that the astragal or the torus; and for the base the casemen...

Shadows Cast By Moldings
Always bear in mind that a curved surface makes a blended shadow. A straight, flat or plain surface does not, and it is for that reaso...

Tenoning Mortising Rabeeting And Beading
In the chapter on How Work is Laid Out, an example was given of the particular manner pursued in laying out mortises and tenons, and al...

Where Mortises Should Be Used
Most important of all is a general idea of places and conditions under which mortises should be resorted to. There are four ways in wh...

Depth Of Mortises
When a certain article is to be made, the first consideration is, how the joint or joints shall be made. The general rule for using th...

Rule For Mortises
Fig. 206 shows such an example. You will notice this in doors particularly, as an example of work. ...

True Mortise Work
The essense of good joining work is the ability to sink the chisel true with the side of the member. More uneven work is produced by h...

Steps In Cutting Mortises
Examine Fig. 208, which, for convenience, gives six successive steps in making the mortise. The marks a, b designate ...

Things To Avoid In Mortising
You must be careful to refrain from undercutting as your chisel goes down at the lines a, b, because if you commit t...

Lap-and-butt Joint
The lap-and-butt is the form of uniting members which is most generally used to splice together timbers, where they join each other en...

Scarfing
This method of securing members together is the most rigid, and when properly performed makes the joint the strongest part of the timb...

The Tongue And Groove
This form of uniting members has only a limited application. It is serviceable for floors, table tops, paneling, etc. In Fig. 213, a...

Beading
This part of the work pertains to surface finishings, and may or may not be used in connection with rabbeting. Figs. 214 and 215 show ...

Ornamental Bead Finish
These figures show how the bead may be used for finishing corners, edges and projections. Fig. 216 has a bead at each corner of a stil...

The Bead And Rabbet
A more amplified form of work is available where the rabbet plane is used with the beader. These two planes together will, if proper...

Shading With Beads And Rabbets
You will see from the foregoing, that these embellishments are serviceable because they provide the article with a large number of ang...

House Building
House building is the carpenter's craft; cabinet-making the joiner's trade, yet both are so intimately associated, that it is difficult...

The House And Embellishments
The refined arts, such as sculpture and painting, merely embellish the home or the castle, so that when we build the structure it shou...

Beauty Not Ornamentation
The boy, in his early training, should learn this fundamental truth, that beauty, architecturally, does not depend upon ornamentation....

Plain Structures
A house with a plain façade, having a roof properly pitched and with a simple cornice, if joined to a wing which is not ungainl...

Colonial Type
For real beauty, on a larger scale, there is nothing to-day which equals the old Colonial type with the Corinthian columns and entabla...

The Roof The Keynote
Now, there is one thing which should, and does, distinguish the residence from other types of buildings, excepting churches. It is the...

Bungalow Types
If you will take up any book on bungalow work and note the outlines of the views you will see that the roof forms the main element or ...

General House Building
We are to treat, generally, on the subject of house building, how the work is laid out, and how built, and in doing so I shall take a ...

Building Plans
We must first have a plan; and the real carpenter must have the ability to plan as well as to do the work. We want a five-room house, ...

The Rectangular Plan
In the rectangular floor plan (Fig. 222) a portion of the floor space is cut out for a porch (A), so that we may use the end or the si...

Room Measurements
We must now determine the dimensions of each room, and then how we shall build the roof. In Figs. 223 and 224, we have now drawn out ...

Front And Side Lines
From the floor diagram, and the door and window spaces, as marked out, we may now proceed to lay out rough front and side outlines of ...

The Roof
The pitch of the roof (Fig. 225) is what is called "third pitch," and the roof (Fig. 226) has a half pitch. A "third&quo...

Roof Pitch
In Fig. 227 draw a vertical line (A) and join it by a horizontal line (B). Then strike a circle (C) and step it off into three parts. ...

The Foundation
This may be of brick, stone or concrete, and its dimensions should be at least 1½ inches further out than the sill. ...

The Sills
We are going to build what is called a "balloon frame"; and, first, we put down the sills, which will be a course of 2" ...

The Flooring Joist
The flooring joists (A) are then put down (Fig. 230). These should extend clear across the house from side to side, if possible, or,...

The Studding
The next step is to put the studding into position. 4" × 4" must be used for corners and at the sides of door and windo...

Setting Up
First set up the corner posts, plumbing and bracing them. Cut a top plate for each side you are working on. ...

The Plate
As it will be necessary in our job to use two or more lengths of 2" × 4" scantling for the plate, it will be necessary ...

Intermediate Studding
It will then be an easy matter to put in the intermediate 2" × 4" studding, placing them as nearly as possible 16 in...

Wall Headers
When all the studding are in you will need headers above and rails below the windows and headers above all the doors, so that you will...

Ceiling Joists
We are now ready for the ceiling joists, which are, usually, 2" × 6", unless there is an upper floor. These are laid 16...

Braces
It would also be well, in putting up the studding, to use plenty of braces, although for a one-story building this is not so essential ...

The Rafters
These may be made to provide for the gutter or not, as may be desired. They should be of 2" × 4" scantling. ...

The Gutter
In Fig. 233 I show a most serviceable way to provide for the gutter. A V-shaped notch is cut out of the upper side of the rafter, in w...

Setting Door And Window Frames
The next step in order is to set the door and window frames preparatory to applying the weather boarding. It is then ready for the roo...

Plastering And Inside Finish
Next in order is the plastering, then the base-boards and the casing; and, finally, the door and windows should be fitted into posit...

Bridges
Bridge building is not, strictly, a part of the carpenter's education at the present day, because most structures of this kind are now ...

Self-supporting Roofs
In putting up, for instance, self-supporting roofs, or ceilings with wide spans, and steeples or towers, the bridge principle of truss...

Common Trusses
One form is shown in Fig. 235, with a vertical king post. In Fig. 236 there are two vertical supporting members, called queen posts, u...

The Vertical Upright Truss
This form of truss naturally develops into a type of wooden bridge known all over the country, as its framing is simple, and calculati...

The Warren Girder
Out of this simple truss grew the Warren girder, a type of bridge particularly adapted for iron and steel construction. This is the si...

The Bowstring Girder
Only one other form of bridge truss need be mentioned here, and that is the bowstring shown in Fig. 240. In this type the b...

Fundamental Truss Form
In every form of truss, whether for building or for bridge work, the principles of the famous A-truss must be employed in some form or...

Beginner Wood
In this place consideration will be given to some of the features relating to the materials to be employed, particularly with reference...

The Best Woods
The prime wood, and the one with which most boys are familiar, is white pine. It has an even texture throughout, is generally straight...

Soft Woods
It is also well for the novice to do his initial work with a soft wood, because in joining the parts together inaccuracies may be easil...

Hard Woods
Of the hard woods, cherry is the most desirable for the carpenter's tool. For working purposes it has all the advantages of a soft woo...

The Most Difficult Woods
Ash is by far the most difficult wood to work. While not as hard as oak, it has the disadvantage that the entire board is seamed with ...

The Hard-ribbed Grain In Wood
This peculiarity of the grain in ash makes it a beautiful wood when finished. Of the light-colored woods, oak only excels it, because ...

The Easiest Working Woods
The same thing may be said, relatively, concerning cherry and walnut. While cherry has a beautiful finishing surface, the blending con...

Differences In The Working Of Woods
Different woods are not worked with equal facility by all the tools. Oak is an easy wood to handle with a saw, but is, probably, asi...

Forcing Saws In Wood
One of the reasons why the forcing of saws is such a bad practice will be observed in cutting white or yellow pine. For cross-cutting,...

Advantages Of Wood Turning
This is not, strictly, in the carpenter's domain; but a knowledge of its use will be of great service in the trade, and particularly i...

Simple Turning Lathe
A very simple turning lathe may be made by following these instructions: ...

The Rails
Procure two straight 2" × 4" scantling (A), four feet long, and planed on all sides. Bore four ⅜-inch holes at ea...

The Legs
Now prepare two legs (D) for the tail end of the frame, each 32 inches long, with a chamfer (5) at one end, and provided with four bol...

Centering Blocks
Next provide a 4" × 4" piece (G), 40 inches long, through which bore a ¾-inch hole (8), 2 inches from the upper ...

The Tail Stock
This part of the structure is made of the following described material: Procure a scantling (J), planed, 4" × 4", 24 ...

The Tool Rest
This is the most difficult part of the whole lathe, as it must be rigid, and so constructed that it has a revolvable motion as well as ...

The Tool Rest
This is the most difficult part of the whole lathe, as it must be rigid, and so constructed that it has a revolvable motion as well as ...

Materials
Then procure the following bolts: ...

The Mandrel
A piece of steel tubing (S), No. 10 gage, ¾ inch in diameter, 11½ inches long, will be required for the mandrel. Get a bl...

Fly-wheel
It now remains only to provide a fly-wheel and treadle with the communicating belt. The fly-wheel may be of any convenient size, or it ...

The Tools Required
A few simple tools will complete an outfit capable of doing a great variety of work. The illustration (Fig. 246) shows five chisels, o...

The Use Of Stains
As this subject properly belongs to the painter and decorator, it is not necessary to go into details concerning the methods used to fi...

Soft Wood
As, presumably, most of your first work will be done with pine, poplar, or other light-colored material, and, as many people prefer the...

Use Of Stains
Our subject has nothing to do with the technique of staining, but has reference, solely, to the use of stains. I recommend, therefore, ...

Stains As Imitations
It will be well to remember one thing as to stains. Never attempt to stain anything unless that stain is intended to produce an imit...

Good Taste In Staining
Oak, mahogany, cherry, black walnut, and like imitations are always good in an artistic sense, but imitations of unfamiliar woods mean...

Great Contrasts Bad
Violent contrasts in furniture staining have the effect of cheapness, unless the contrasting outlines are artistically distributed t...

Staining Contrasting Woods
Then, again, do not stain a piece of furniture so that one part represents a cheap, soft wood, and the other part a dark or costly woo...

Hard Wood Imitations
It would be better to use, for instance, ash or oak for one portion of the work, and a dark wood, like cherry or walnut, for the other...

Natural Effects
If effects are wanted, the skilled workman will properly rely upon the natural grain of the wood; hence, in staining, you should try...

Natural Wood Stains
It should be said, in general, however, that a stain is, at best, a poor makeshift. There is nothing so pleasing as the natural wood. ...

Polishing Stained Surfaces
If, on the other hand, you wish to go to the labor of polishing the furniture to a high degree, staining becomes an art, and will add ...

The Carpenter And Architech
A carpenter has a trade; the architect a profession. It is not to be assumed that one vocation is more honorable than the other. A ...

Things To Make
As stated in the Introductory, the purpose of this book is to show how to do the things, and not to draw a picture in order to...

Tools And Their Uses
In the foregoing chapters we have referred the reader to the simple tools, but it is thought desirable to add to the information thus g...

Bit And Level Adjuster
It is frequently necessary to bore holes at certain angles. This can be done by using a bevel square, and holding it so one limb will ...

Miter Boxes
The advantages of metal miter boxes is apparent, when accurate work is required. The illustration, Fig. 267, shows a metal tool of thi...

Angle Dividers
This is another tool, which does not cost much and is of great service to the carpenter in fitting moldings where they are applied a...

The "odd Job" Tool
A most useful special tool, which combines in its make-up a level, plumb try-square, miter-square, bevel, scratch awl, depth gage, mar...

Bit Braces
These tools are now made with so many improved features that there is really no excuse for getting poor tools. The illustrations sho...

Router Planes
This is a type of plane used for surfacing the bottom of grooves or other depressions parallel with the general surface of the work. ...

Door Trim Plane
This is a tool for making mortises for butts, face plates, strike plates, escutcheons, and the like, up to a depth of 5/16, and a widt...

Roofing Trusses
The chapter on Bridge Building gives some suggestions as to form of trusses, the particular types there shown being principally for w...

Braced Collar Beam
This is a modification of the last type, but is adapted for thick walls only. The tie rod braces (A, A) have to be brought down low to...

Construction Of Joints
In uniting two or more elements, some particular type of joint is necessary. In framing timbers, in making braces, in roof constructi...

Bridle Joints
This is a form of joint where permanency is not desired, and where it is necessary to readily seat or unseat the vertical timber. It i...

Spur Tenon
This tenon can be used in many places where the regular one is not available. This, like the preceding, is used where the parts are ...

Saddle Joint
This is still another manner in which a quickly detachable joint can be constructed. The saddle may be mounted on the main base, or cu...

Joggle Joint
This joint is used almost exclusively for brace work where great weight must be supported. The brace has a tenon, and the end must a...

Framing Joints
These are the simplest form in which two members are secured together. They are used almost wholly in rafter work, and have very few m...

Heel Joints
This is by far the most secure of the framing type of joints. This, if properly made, is much better than the construction shown in th...

Stub Tenon
This is another form of tenon which is made and designed to be used where it is in close proximity to another tenon, or where the mort...

Tusk Tenon
Two forms of tusk construction are given. Any number of forms have been devised, all for special purposes, and designed for different ...

Double Tusk Tenons
The distinguishing difference between this and the preceding is in the tusk, which in this form of construction goes through the uprig...

Cogged Joints
This differs from the regular tenoning and mortising methods, principally because the groove or recess is in the form of an open gain....

Anchor Joint
This form of connection is designed for very large timbers, and where great care must be taken in making the parts fit together nicely...


Wood Turning

Introductory
Wood turning has had a definite place in the commercial world for a great many years. It is used in various forms in making furniture...

The Lathe
The sizes of turning lathes are given as 10", 12", etc. These figures denote the diameter, or size, of the largest piece of...

Care Of The Lathe
The lathe should be oiled every day before starting. At the end of the period the lathe should be brushed clean of all chips and shav...

Speed Of The Lathe
The speed of the lathe should range from 2400 to 3000 revolutions per minute when the belt is on the smallest step of the cone pulley....

To Figure The Diameter Of Pulleys
Suppose a motor runs 1500 R.P.M. and is fitted with a 4" pulley. Suppose also, a main shaft should run 300 R.P.M. T...

Rules For Finding The Speeds And Sizes Of Pulleys
1. To find the diameter of the driving pulley: Multiply the diameter of the driven by the number of revolutions it should...

Points On Setting Up Lathe And Shafting
The counter shaft should be about 7' above the lathe. A distance of 6' from the center of the shaft to the center of the spindle is s...

Wood Turning Tools
A wood turning kit should consist of one each of the following tools. Fig. 2 shows the general shape of these tools. 1&f...

Grinding And Whetting Turning Tools
Skew Chisel The skew chisel is sharpened equally on both sides On this tool the cutting edge should form an angle of abo...

Spindle Turning
Spindle turning is the term applied to all work done on a lathe in which the stock to be worked upon is held firmly between the live ...

To Center Stock
If the wood to be turned is square or rectangular in shape the best way to locate the center is to draw diagonals across the end of th...

Adjusting The Tool Rest
Horizontally the tool rest should be set about ⅛" from the farthest projecting corner of the wood and should be readjusted...

Position Of The Operator
The operator stands firmly on the floor back far enough from the lathe to allow him to pass the tools from right to left in front of ...

Holding The Tools
All tools should be held firmly but not rigidly. The right hand should grasp the handle at the extreme end for two reasons: first, to...

Use Of The Tools In Spindle Turning
The correct use of the various tools used in spindle turning will be explained in detail as the steps are worked out in the sequence ...

Tool Processes In Spindle Turning
Exercise A-I--1-a. Straight Cuts 1. THE ROUGHING CUT (LARGE GOUGE). ...

Oval Turning
Oval work as a problem in turning will be found to be a very good one as well as interesting to the pupil. It brings in the principle ...

Duplicate Turning
Under the head of duplicate turning have been classified only such models as clearly indicate the necessity of making two or more art...

Finishing And Polishing
To get a high and lasting polish on wood, the work must be first sanded so as to be perfectly smooth. In addition to this, open grain...

Face-plate And Chuck Turning
Face-plate and chuck turning open an entirely new field of work from that taken up in previous chapters of this book. If handled corr...

Methods Of Fastening Stock
All the work thus far has been on models where the stock worked upon is held between the live and dead centers. In face-plate and chu...

Tool Processes In Face-plate And Chuck Turning
B-I--1-a. Straight Cuts 1. ROUGHING OFF CORNERS. (¾" GOUGE.) FIG. ...

Laying Off Measurements
In laying off measurements on the face of the stock a pencil compass or dividers should be used. Set the compass or dividers to one-ha...

Use Of Scraping Tools
When scraping is to be employed, it should be done with only those tools that are made for that purpose, i.e., Square Nose, Round Nos...

Internal Boring
In roughing out the center for Napkin Rings, Jewel Boxes, etc., the quickest method is to work it out with a small gouge. ...

Spiral Turning
Spiral turning is a subject that has received very little attention by most schools in which wood turning is taught. Spiral work is se...

Logging
The rough and ready methods common in American logging operations are the result partly of a tradition of inexhaustible supply, part...

Mechanical Methods In Lumbering
The operations described above are those common in the lumber regions of the northeast and the Lake States. But special conditions p...

Sawmilling
The principal saws in a mill are of three kinds, the circular, Fig. 32, the gang, Fig. 33, and the band, Fig. 34. The circular-saw, t...

Seasoning
The seasoning of wood is important for several reasons. It reduces weight, it increases strength, it prevents changes in volume afte...

Practical Suggestions For Storing Lumber
Under the hasty methods prevalent in the mill, very little wood comes to the shop well seasoned, and it should therefore be carefully...

Wood Measurements
Lumber is a general term for all kinds of sawn wood. Logs may be sawn into timber, that is, beams and joists, into planks, which are...

Wood Hand Tools
The hand tools in common use in woodworking shops may, for convenience, be divided into the following classes: 1, Cutting; 2, Boring...

Saws
Fig. 86. Hand Saw....

Planes
The plane is a modified chisel. The chief difference in action between a chisel and a plane in paring is this: the back of t...

Boring Tools
Some boring tools, like awls, force the material apart, and some, like augers, remove material. The brad-awl, Fig. 1...

Chopping Tools
The primitive celt, which was hardly more than a wedge, has been differentiated into three modern hand tools, the chisel, th...

Scraping Tools
Scraping tools are of such nature that they can only abrade or smooth surfaces. ...

Pounding Tools
The hammer consists of two distinct parts, the head and the handle. The head is made of steel, so hard that it will not be i...

Holding Tools
A. Tools for Holding Work. The advance in ease of handworking may largely be measured by the facilities for holdin...

Measuring And Marking Tools
It is a long step from the time when one inch meant the width of the thumb, and one foot meant the length of the foot, to the measuri...

Sharpening Tools
The grindstone for woodworking tools is best when rather fine and soft. The grinding surface should be straight and never co...

Cleaning Tools
The bench duster. One may be noted hanging on the bench shown in Fig. 166. Bristle brushes for cleaning the benches are ess...

Wood Fastenings
The following are the chief means by which pieces of wood are fastened together: nails, screws, bolts, plates, dowels, glue, hinges, ...

Screws
(a) Wood-screws, Fig. 229, may be classified by the material of which they are made; as, steel or brass. Steel screws may be...

Bolts
Bolts with nuts are useful where great strength is desired. There are three chief varieties, Fig. 230. ...

Glue
Glue is an inferior kind of gelatin, and is of two kinds,—animal glue and fish glue. Animal glue is made of bones and trimmings...

Hinges
Hinges, Fig. 233, are made in several forms. The most common are the butt-hinge or butt, the two leaves of which are rectangular, as ...

Hinging
In setting the hinges of a box cover, first see that the cover fits the box exactly all the way around. In the case of a doo...

Locks
The chief parts of a lock are: the bolt, its essential feature, the selvage, the plate which appears at the edge ...

Inserting Locks
To insert a rim-lock, measure the distance from the selvage to the key-pin, locate this as the center of the keyhole, and bo...

Equipment And Care Of The Shop
Tool equipment. The choice of tools in any particular shop best comes out of long experience. Some teachers prefer to emphas...

The Care Of The Woodworking Shop
The general arrangement of the room. The important factors are the source or sources of light, and the lines of travel. The ...

The Common Joints
Wherever two or more pieces of wood are fastened together we have what is properly called joinery. In common usage the term indicates...

Heading Joints
No. 1. A lapped and strapped joint is made by laying the end of one timber over another and fastening them both together ...

Butt Joints
No. 8. A doweled butt-joint is made by inserting, with glue, dowel-pins into holes bored into the two members. The end of ...

Halving-joints
A halved joint is one in which half the thickness of each member is notched out and the remaining portion of one just fits into the ...

Modified Halving Joints
No. 20. A notched joint is made by cutting out a portion of one timber. It is used where it is desired to reduce the heig...

Mortise-and-tenon Joints
The tenon in its simplest form is made by dividing the end of a piece of wood into three parts and cutting out rectangular pieces on ...

Dovetail Joints
"Dovetail" refers to the shape of the projections of one member, when looked at broadside. These projections are called dovetails, or...

The Common Joints
Transcriber's Note: The following six pages o...

Types Of Wooden Structures
The articles suitable to be made in wood with hand tools may for convenience be divided into four general classes: (1) Unjoined piec...

Principles Of Joinery11
Footnote 11: Professor Rankine's Five Principles: 1. To cut the joints and arrange the fastenings so as to weaken the pieces ...

Wood Finishing
STAINS. The function of stains is to change the color, and to enchance the grain and texture of the wood. Stains may be div...


Handwork

Logging
The rough and ready methods common in American logging operations are the result partly of a tradition of inexhaustible supply, part...

Mechanical Methods In Lumbering
The operations described above are those common in the lumber regions of the northeast and the Lake States. But special conditions p...

Sawmilling
The principal saws in a mill are of three kinds, the circular, Fig. 32, the gang, Fig. 33, and the band, Fig. 34. The circular-saw, t...

Seasoning
The seasoning of wood is important for several reasons. It reduces weight, it increases strength, it prevents changes in volume afte...

Practical Suggestions For Storing Lumber
Under the hasty methods prevalent in the mill, very little wood comes to the shop well seasoned, and it should therefore be carefully...

Wood Measurements
Lumber is a general term for all kinds of sawn wood. Logs may be sawn into timber, that is, beams and joists, into planks, which are...

Wood Hand Tools
The hand tools in common use in woodworking shops may, for convenience, be divided into the following classes: 1, Cutting; 2, Boring...

Cutting Tools
The most primitive as well as the simplest of all tools for the dividing of wood into parts, is the wedge. The wedge does not even c...

Saws
Fig. 86. Hand Saw....

Planes
The plane is a modified chisel. The chief difference in action between a chisel and a plane in paring is this: the back of t...

Boring Tools
Some boring tools, like awls, force the material apart, and some, like augers, remove material. The brad-awl, Fig. 1...

Chopping Tools
The primitive celt, which was hardly more than a wedge, has been differentiated into three modern hand tools, the chisel, th...

Scraping Tools
Scraping tools are of such nature that they can only abrade or smooth surfaces. ...

Pounding Tools
The hammer consists of two distinct parts, the head and the handle. The head is made of steel, so hard that it will not be i...

Holding Tools
A. Tools for Holding Work. The advance in ease of handworking may largely be measured by the facilities for holdin...

Measuring And Marking Tools
It is a long step from the time when one inch meant the width of the thumb, and one foot meant the length of the foot, to the measuri...

Sharpening Tools
The grindstone for woodworking tools is best when rather fine and soft. The grinding surface should be straight and never co...

Cleaning Tools
The bench duster. One may be noted hanging on the bench shown in Fig. 166. Bristle brushes for cleaning the benches are ess...

Wood Fastenings
The following are the chief means by which pieces of wood are fastened together: nails, screws, bolts, plates, dowels, glue, hinges, ...

Nails
Nails, Fig. 226, may be classified according to the material of which they are made; as, steel, iron, copper, and brass. Iro...

Screws
(a) Wood-screws, Fig. 229, may be classified by the material of which they are made; as, steel or brass. Steel screws may be...

Bolts
Bolts with nuts are useful where great strength is desired. There are three chief varieties, Fig. 230. ...

Glue
Glue is an inferior kind of gelatin, and is of two kinds,—animal glue and fish glue. Animal glue is made of bones and trimmings...

Hinges
Hinges, Fig. 233, are made in several forms. The most common are the butt-hinge or butt, the two leaves of which are rectangular, as ...

Hinging
In setting the hinges of a box cover, first see that the cover fits the box exactly all the way around. In the case of a doo...

Locks
The chief parts of a lock are: the bolt, its essential feature, the selvage, the plate which appears at the edge ...

Inserting Locks
To insert a rim-lock, measure the distance from the selvage to the key-pin, locate this as the center of the keyhole, and bo...

Equipment And Care Of The Shop
Tool equipment. The choice of tools in any particular shop best comes out of long experience. Some teachers prefer to emphas...

$400 Tool Equipment
INDIVIDUAL TOOLS. 24 Manual ...

The Care Of The Woodworking Shop
The general arrangement of the room. The important factors are the source or sources of light, and the lines of travel. The ...

The Common Joints
Wherever two or more pieces of wood are fastened together we have what is properly called joinery. In common usage the term indicates...

Heading Joints
No. 1. A lapped and strapped joint is made by laying the end of one timber over another and fastening them both together ...

Butt Joints
No. 8. A doweled butt-joint is made by inserting, with glue, dowel-pins into holes bored into the two members. The end of ...

Halving-joints
A halved joint is one in which half the thickness of each member is notched out and the remaining portion of one just fits into the ...

Modified Halving Joints
No. 20. A notched joint is made by cutting out a portion of one timber. It is used where it is desired to reduce the heig...

Mortise-and-tenon Joints
The tenon in its simplest form is made by dividing the end of a piece of wood into three parts and cutting out rectangular pieces on ...

Dovetail Joints
"Dovetail" refers to the shape of the projections of one member, when looked at broadside. These projections are called dovetails, or...

Beveled Joints
A beveled joint is made by beveling the members so that the plane of the joint bisects the angle at which the members meet. This is ...

Types Of Wooden Structures
The articles suitable to be made in wood with hand tools may for convenience be divided into four general classes: (1) Unjoined piec...

Simple Or Unjoined Pieces
Of these there are a number that are advantageous for the learning of tool processes; at the same time they give opportunity for exp...

Board Structures
These include such pieces as wall brackets, sets of shelves, book-racks, plate-racks, drawing-boards, foot-stools, taborets, and box...

Panel Structures
These include doors and cabinets of all sorts. The principle of panel or cabinet construction is that there shall be a frame composed...

Framed Structures
The principle of the framed structure is similar to that of the panel construction in that the object is to allow for shrinkage witho...

Principles Of Joinery
Footnote 11: Professor Rankine's Five Principles: 1. To cut the joints and arrange the fastenings so as to weaken the pieces ...

Stains
The function of stains is to change the color, and to enchance the grain and texture of the wood. Stains may be divided into four ge...

Filling
The object of filling is to give a perfectly level and non-absorbent basis for varnish covering or other finish. This can be done wit...

Polishes
There are three principal forms of wood polishes, each of which has its virtues and defects. They are: (a) oil, (b) wax, (c) the var...

Painting
Paints are used for the same purpose as other finishes, with the additional one of giving an opaque colored covering. The materials ...


Furniture Making

Home-made Mission Chair
Suitable for Dining Room Use ...

How To Make A Lamp Stand And Shade
A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall ha...

How To Make A Porch Chair
The illustration shows a very comfortable and attractive porch chair that can be made with few tools and easily procured material. Mo...

How To Make A Tabouret
Secure from the planing mill the following pieces and have them planed and sandpapered on two surfaces: For the top, one piece 7/8 i...

How To Make A Morris Chair
The stock necessary to make a morris chair of craftsman design as shown in the engraving can be purchased mill-planed and sandpapere...

Home-made Mission Book Rack
Light but Strong When making the book rack as ...

How To Make A Mission Library Table
The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can...

Home-made Mission Candlestick
There are many kinds of mission candlesticks, but few of them carry out the mission design throughout. Herewith is illustrated a cand...

Another Style Of Mission Chair
The material necessary to make a mission chair as shown in the accompanying illustration may be secured from a planing mill with all ...

How To Make And Finish A Magazine Stand
For the magazine stand shown herewith there will be needed the following pieces: 1 top, 7/8 in. by 15-1/2 in. by 16-...

Home-made Lawn Swing
The Completed Swing The coming of spring and s...

How To Make A Portable Table
Table for Outdoor Use A table for outdoor use ...

How To Make A Combination Billiard Table And Davenport
A small size billiard table which can be converted quickly into a davenport is made as follows: Secure clear, selected plain sawed wh...

Easily Made Book Shelves
Very cheap but useful and attractive book shelves are shown in the accompanying drawing. The vertical strips, A, may be 3/4 in. by 2 ...

A Blacking Case Tabouret
A substantial piece of mission furnit...

How To Make A Roll Top Desk
The Desk Complete The materials for this roll ...

How To Make A Roman Chair
In making this roman chair, as well as other articles of mission furniture, the materials can be ordered from the mill with much of t...

How To Make A Settee
This handsome piece of mission furniture is designed to be made up in three different pieces as desired, the only changes necessary b...

How To Make A Pyrographer's Table
Convenient Pyrographer's Table Any pyrographer...

Mission Stains
What is mission oak stain? There are many on the market, with hardly two alike in tone. The true mission oak stain may be said to sho...

Filling Oak
A very good hardwood filler for oak, either for a natural or golden effect, may be made from two parts of turpentine and one part of ...

Wax Finishing
In wax-finishing hardwoods, use a paste filler and shellac varnish to get a good surface. Of course, the wax may also be rubbed into ...

The Fuming Of Oak
Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. This process is rather a difficult one, as it requires an airtig...

How To Make Black Wax
When putting a wax finish on oak or any open-grained wood, the wax will often show white streaks in the pores of the wood. These stre...

The 40 Styles Of Chairs
There are 40 distinct styles of chairs embracing the period from 3000 B.C. to 1900 A.D.—nearly 7,000 years. Of all the millions...

How To Make A Piano Bench
Piano Bench All the material used in the makin...

How To Make A Mission Shaving Stand
This attractive and useful piece of mission furniture will be appreciated by the person that does his own shaving. The shaving stand ...

A Mission Waste-paper Basket
Waste-Paper Basket to Match Library Table The...

A Cellarette Pedestal
Plain-Oak Cellarette Pedestal The ill...

A Dresser
The dresser shown in the illustration was made of quarter-sawed white oak and finished golden and waxed. The mirror is of beveled gl...

A Mission Sideboard
Oak is the most suitable material for making this sideboard and it should be first-class stock, planed and cut to the dimensions giv...

A Hall Or Window Seat
Seat Made of Quarter-Sawed Oak A simple design...

A Mission Plant Stand
For the mission plant stand shown in the illustration secure the following list of quarter-sawed white-oak stock, cut and finished t...

A Bedside Medicine Stand
The accompanying sketch and detail drawing show a design of a bedside stand. This is a very desirable piece of furniture and is simp...

A Mission Hall Chair
This hall chair is designed to take up as little room as possible. For its construction the following stock will be needed: ...

An Oak Buffet
Finished Buffet ...

Oak Stain
An easy and at the same time a good way to stain oak in imitation of the fumed effect, is to boil catechu in the proportion of 1/4 l...

A Plain Oak Hall Clock
The hall clock shown in the illustration should be made of plain oak. The following pieces will be needed to make it: ...

A Rocking Chair
In furniture construction such as this, nothing is gained by trying to plane up the stock out of the rough. This is mere drudgery an...

A Curved Back Arm Chair
The arm chair, the picture and drawing of which is given herewith is a companion piece to the rocker described on another page. ...

A Plate Rack
The plate rack shown in the accompanying illustration is designed for use in a room furnished in mission style. The dimensions may be...

Tool For Marking Dowel Holes
On some work it is quite difficult to locate the exact point for a dowel, but with the tool illustrated placed between the joint to ...

A Magazine Table
This little magazine table will be found a very useful piece of furniture for the den or library. Its small size permits it to be se...

A Waste Paper Basket
A waste paper basket of pleasing design, and very easy to construct, is shown in the accompanying sketch. Quarter-sawed oak is the ...

An Oak Writing Desk
For the writing desk shown in the accompanying picture the following stock will be needed. The thicknesses of all the pieces are spe...

An Oak Couch With Cushions
This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be made at a very moderate cost, if the material used for the cushions is of good imit...

Electric Shade For The Dining Room
The dining shade shown is constructed of wood and glass. There will be needed the following: 8 pieces, 3/4 by 3/4 by...

How To Bend Wood
The process for making bent wood for furniture parts is the same as for any other kind of bent-wood work. The pieces should be made ...

A Smoking Stand
When making the smoking stand shown in the accompanying photograph, use quarter-sawed oak, if possible, as this wood is the most sui...

A China Closet
This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be made by anyone who has a few good tools and knows how to use them. The cost is very...

A Leather-covered Footstool
The illustration shows a very handy footstool in mission style. The following list of materials will be needed: 4 o...

Arts-crafts Mantel Clock
The clock shown in the illustration was designed especially for rooms furnished in mission style. The clock, however, may be made of...

A Music Stand
The attractive and useful piece of mission furniture shown in the accompanying illustration is made of quarter-sawed oak. Considerab...

Making Screws Hold In The End Grain Of Wood
MAKING SCREWS HOLD IN END GRAIN It is ...

A Wall Case With A Mirror Door
The wall case shown in the accompanying picture will serve well as a medicine case. Having a paneled door in which is set a mirror, ...

A Side Chair
A side chair of simple design and construction is here given. The great difficulty with most chair designs is that the back is gener...

An Arm Chair
The arm chair here described and illustrated is intended to be one of the set of diners made after the design of the side chair desc...

A Bookcase
This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be made at a very moderate cost by anyone who has a slight knowledge of tools. Consider...

A Lamp Stand
A mission table lamp stand for those who use electric lights is shown in the accompanying illustration. It is suitable for either th...

An Extension Dining Table
The accompanying sketch and photograph show a simple design of an extension dining table of the mission style. It is very easy to co...

An Oak-bound Cedar Chest
This cedar chest for storing unused bedding or furs is not a difficult thing to make and when made, the hard oak binding takes the w...

A Tool For Making Mortises
In the construction of mission furniture where mortise joints are mostly used, those who cannot have access to a mortising machine w...

A Dresser For Child's Playroom
This dresser can be made of two kinds of wood as marked on the drawing or it can be made all of one kind. The original dresser was ma...

Cutting Tenons With A Hand-saw
This home-made tool will be a great help in the construction of mission furniture. With its use, tenons may be entirely cut with a s...

Arts And Crafts Oil Lamp
Electricity and gas are not always accessible in suburban or country homes and the regular type of a mission lamp would be of little...

Another China Closet
The china closet shown in the accompanying illustration is well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any one o...

An Oak Bedstead
The accompanying sketches show an artistic design for a mission bed, so simple in construction and design that most any one that has...

An Oak Footstool
The footstool shown in the illustration can be made from any kind of wood, but when it is intended to be finished in mission style, ...

A Library Set In Pyro-carving
The multitude of indifferently executed small articles which followed the introduction of pyrography is beginning to disappear, peop...

A Grille With Pedestals To Match
The accompanying sketch shows something unique in a grille that adds to the appearance of a home furnished in mission style. When it...

A Lady's Writing Desk
This desk of mission style is a little more complicated than some of the other pieces of mission furniture that have been described,...

A Telephone Stand And Stool
The stand shown in the accompanying illustration is for use with a desk telephone. The stool when not in use, slides on two runners ...

How To Make A Dowel-cutting Tool
Secure a piece of steel about 1/4 in. thick, 1-3/4 in. wide and 8 in. long. Drill various sized holes through the steel as shown in ...

A Medicine Cabinet
This cabinet is best made of quarter-sawed oak, as this wood is the most easily procured and looks well when finished. Order the sto...

A Piano Bench
Piano Bench in Black Walnut The piano bench sho...

A Library Table
A library table of neat appearance and correct proportions is shown in the accompanying sketch and detail drawing. This table looks ...

A Princess Dresser
[11] Dresser Made of Quarter-Sawed Oak ...

A Sewing Box
A rather unique sewing box, and one that is quite as convenient as unique, is shown in the illustration. The material is walnut and ...

A Fern Stand
When making the fern stand shown in the accompanying sketch use quarter-sawed oak if possible, as this wood is the most suitable for...

A Wardrobe
The wardrobe or clothes closet shown in the accompanying sketch and detail drawing will be found a great convenience in a bedroom wh...

A Finish
An appropriate finish is obtained as follows: First thoroughly scrape and sandpaper the various parts, then apply a coat of brown Fl...

An Oak Table
The accompanying illustration shows another style of a mission table. The stock for this table if ordered as follows and sanded will...

Book Trough
Detail of Book Trough ...

An Oak Serving Table
The serving table is another useful piece of furniture that can be made in mission style. This table should be made in quarter-sawed...

An Umbrella Stand
Umbrella Stand ...

A Chafing-dish Buffet
The chafing-dish buffet is something very convenient and attractive for the dining room. For the best effect it should be made of qu...

A Writing Desk
The desk shown in the illustration was made of plain-sawed white oak. The copper lighting fixtures were made by the amateur as were ...

Music Rack And Bookstand
The illustration shows a very handy music and bookstand, which also can be used at the bedside as a reading stand. The following lis...

A Dictionary And Magazine Stand
The accompanying picture shows a stand that is intended primarily for holding a large-size dictionary. The shelves may be utilized f...

A Leather Back Arm Chair
Arm Chair Complete ...

A Wall Shelf
Coarse-grained woods make up into furniture and take a more satisfactory finish than close-grained woods. For this reason chestnut o...

A Pedestal
The pedestal shown in the accompanying illustration is another piece of furniture that can be made in the mission style. It is very s...

Magazine Rack
The accompanying cut shows a magazine rack that will find favor with many amateur wood-workers on account of its simplicity in desig...

A Hall Tree
When making the hall tree as shown in the accompanying illustration use quarter-sawed oak if possible, as this wood is the most suit...

A Table For The Den
The table shown in the accompanying sketch is especially appropriate for the den; it might be used in any other part of the house as...

A Burlap-covered Window Seat
A portable window seat of neat appearance, which is designed to take the place of a cedar chest, is shown in the accompanying sketch...

Quarter-sawed Oak Settee
The mission settee shown in the accompanying picture should be made of quarter-sawed white oak. The material needed will be as follo...

A Screen
In selecting or making up mission furniture for the home, a screen is necessary sometimes to add to the appearance of a room. The sc...

A Mission Bookrack
The accompanying sketch shows a bookrack designed strictly along mission lines. Enough stock may be found among the scrap, as no pie...

A Round Extension Dining Table
[76] Detail of the Ta...

An Arm Dining Chair
Armchair of the D...

A Hall Bench
All the stock for this bench should be of 7/8-in. oak, excepting the slats, which may be of a cheaper wood. The following list of lu...

A Sewing Table
This convenient and useful table will be much appreciated by any woman. It has two drawers for sewing material, and two drop leaves ...

A Side Chair
Side Chair of Dinin...

Another Piano Bench
The piano bench shown is best made of black walnut or oak and should be finished in the natural color for walnut, but stained some r...

Another Screen
The screen shown in the accompanying illustration is made of burlap and plain-sawed oak. The stock list follows: 2 ...

A Folding Card Table
The accompanying sketch shows the details of a card table that can be folded up and carried about or stored away when not in use. We...

Magazine Stand
Stand Complete If you d...

A Tabouret
The stock necessary to make a tabouret of craftsman design as shown in the accompanying illustration can be purchased from the mill ...

A Porch Swing
Complete Porch Swing ...

A Foot Warmer
This foot warmer is so constructed that two bricks may be heated and placed inside of the stool. Oak is the most suitable woo...

A Plate Rack For The Dining Room
This plate rack can be made of any kind of wood and finished to match other pieces of furniture in the room, but as it is of mission...

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