| Dying (109)
Learn how to dye different types of fabrics
| The Wool Fibre
Wool is one of the most important textile fibres used in the
manufacture of woven fabrics of all kinds. It belongs to the group of
| Processes Preparatory To Dyeing Scouring And Bleaching Of Wool
Wool scouring takes place at two stages in the process of manufacture
into cloth. First, in the raw state, to free the wool from the...
| The Chlorination Of Wool
The employment of chlorine in wool dyeing and wool printing has of
late years received an impetus in directions previously little thou...
| Dyeing Machinery And Dyeing Manipulations
Wool is dyed in a variety of forms, raw, loose wool; partly
manufactured fibre in the form of slubbing or sliver; spun fibres or
| Dyeing Machines
Dye-tubs and vats, such as those described above, have been largely
superseded by machines in which the handling or working of the
| The Principles And Practice Of Wool Dyeing
The various methods which are used in dyeing wool have, of course,
underlying them certain principles on which they are based, and o...
| Red Shades On Wool
The number of red shades that may be dyed (p. 100)
on wool is infinite. They range over every variety of tint of red, from
| Orange Shades On Wool
#With Direct Dyes.# Make a dye-bath with 2 lb. Titan Orange, 20 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 1/2 lb. acetic acid. Work at the boil for one ...
| Yellow Shades On Wool
The number of yellow dye-stuffs is very great, and the variety of
tints infinite. Yellow may be dyed with both natural and artificial
| Green Shades On Wool
Of green shades there is an infinite variety, and these can be dyed in
several ways. Either a simple green dye-stuff may be used or mi...
| Blue Shades On Wool
There are a very large number of blue artificial dyes of every class,
but only a few natural ones, indigo and logwood, and with these ...
| Violet Shades On Wool
Violet shades can only be obtained from the coal-tar colours, and of
these there are not many. The recipes which are given below will ...
| Brown Shades On Wool
Brown is a very important colour, of which there is an infinite
variety of shades and it can be dyed in a great variety of ways and
| Mode Colours On Wool
Under the general designation of mode colours are included a great
variety of tints or shades unusually described more specifically ...
| Dyeing Union (mixed Cotton And Wool) Fabrics
There is now produced a great variety of textile fabrics of every
conceivable texture by combining the two fibres, cotton and wool, ...
| Dyeing Of Gloria
Gloria is a material which during the last few years has become of
considerable importance as furnishing a fine lustrous fabric at a...
| Operations Following Dyeing Washing Soaping Drying
After loose wool, or woollen yarns or piece goods of every description
have been dyed, before they can be sent out for sale they hav...
One of the most important operations following that of dyeing is the
washing with water to free the goods, whether cotton or woollen, ...
Sometimes yarns or cloths have to be passed through a soap-bath after
being dyed in order to brighten up the colours or develop them i...
Following on the washing comes the final operation of the dyeing
process, that of drying the dyed and washed goods. Now textile fabric...
| Experimental Dyeing And Comparative Dye Testing
Every dyer ought to be able to make experiments in the mordanting and
dyeing of textile fibres for the purpose of ascertaining the b...
| Testing Of The Colour Of Dyed Fabrics
It is frequently desirable that dyers should be able to ascertain with
some degree of accuracy what dyes have been used to dye any p...
| Wool Silk Cotton And Linen
WOOLS are of various kinds:--
Highland, Welsh and Irish wools are from small sheep, not far
removed from the wild state, with irr...
A constant supply of clean soft water is an absolute necessity for the
dyer. Rain water should be collected as much as possible, as th...
| To Wash Wool
In a bath containing 10 gallons of warm water add 4 fluid ounces of
ammonia fort, .880, 1 lb. soda, and 2 oz. soft soap, (potash soap)...
There are two kinds of silk (1) raw silk (reeled silk, thrown silk,
drawn silk), and (2) waste silk or spun silk.
Raw silk is that ...
Cotton is the down surrounding the seeds in pods of certain shrubs and
trees growing in tropical and semi-tropical countries. First
Linen is flax, derived from the decomposed stalks of a plant of the
It grows chiefly in Russia, Belgium, France, Holla...
Any dye belongs to one of two classes. Substantive, giving colouring
directly to the material: and adjective, which includes the gre...
This is the most generally used of all the mordants, and has been
known as such from early times in many parts of the world. For most
(Ferrous Sulphate, copperas, green vitriol.)
Iron is one of the oldest mordants known and is largely used in wool
and cotton dyeing...
(Stannous chloride, tin crystals, tin salts, muriate of tin.)
Tin is not so useful as a mordant in itself, but as a modifying agent
(Potassium dichromate. Bichromate of Potash.)
Chrome is a modern mordant, unknown to the dyer of fifty years ago. It
is excellent f...
(Copper Sulphate, Verdigris, Blue Vitriol, Blue Copperas,
Copper is rarely used as a mordant. It is usually applied as ...
| British Dye Plants
On the introduction of foreign dye woods and other dyes during the
17th and 18th centuries, the native dye plants were rapidly displ...
| Plants Which Dye Red
Birch. Betula alba. Fresh inner bark.
Bed-straw. Gallium boreale. Roots.
Common Sorrel. Rumex acetosa. Roots.
| Plants Which Dye Blue
Devil's Bit. Scabiosa succisa. Leaves prepared like woad.
Dog's Mercury. Mercurialis perennis.
Elder. Sambucus nig...
| Plants Which Dye Yellow
Agrimony. Agrimonia Eupatoria.
Ash. Fraxinus excelsior. Fresh inner bark.
Barberry. Berberis vulgaris. Stem and ro...
| Plants Which Dye Green
Elder. Sambucus nigra. Leaves with alum.
Flowering reed. Phragmites communis. Flowering tops, with
| Plants Which Dye Purple
Byrony. Byronia dioica. Berries.
Damson. Fruit, with alum.
Dandelion. Taraxacum Dens-leonis. Roots.
| Plants Which Dye Black
Alder. Alnus glutinosa. Bark, with copperas.
Blackberry. Rubus fruticosus. Young shoots, with salts of
| The Lichen Dyes
Some of the most useful dyes and the least known are to be found among
the Lichens. They seem to have been used among peasant dyers ...
| Recipes For Dyeing With Lichens
To dye Brown with Crotal. For 6-1/4 lbs. (100 ozs.) of wool. Dye
baths may be used of varying strengths of from 10 to 50 ozs. of
| List Of Lichens Used By The Peasantry Of Different Countries For Wool Dyeing
SHADES OF RED, PURPLE AND ORANGE
Borrera ashney. Chutcheleera. India.
Conicularia aculeata. var. spadicea. Brown prickl...
Indigo is the blue matter extracted from a plant Indigofera
tinctoria and other species, growing in Asia, South America and
| To Make Extract Of Indigo
1 lb. oil of vitriol (pure, not commercial).
2 oz. finely ground Indigo.
1/2 oz. precipitated chalk.
Mix a little of the indigo wi...
| Indigo Extract 4 To 6 Lbs Wool
Mordant[E] 25% Alum. Stir 2 to 3 ozs. Indigo extract into the water of
dye bath. The amount is determined by the depth of shade requir...
| Indigo Vat Tin For Wool
To 2 quarts of water add 1/4 lb. lime, and make hot. Then add 1 oz.
indigo pounded up with a little of the lime water; let it stand an...
| Hydrosulphite-soda Vat For Wool
2 ozs. powdered indigo.
7 fluid ozs. Caustic Soda solution (SG 1.2).
4 pints Sodium Hydrosulphite (SG 1.1).
The Stock Solution.--T...
Woad is derived from a plant, Isatis tinctoria, growing in the North
of France and in England. It was the only blue dye in the West be...
(Bois de Campeche, Campeachy Wood)
Logwood is a dye wood from Central America, used for producing blues
and purples on wool, black ...
| Recipes For Dyeing With Logwood
Mordant the wool for 1 to 1-1/2 hours with 3 per cent Chrome and 1 per
cent Sulphuric Acid. Wash and dye in separate bat...
Kermes, or Kerms, from which is got the "Scarlet of Grain" of the old
dyers, is one of the old insect dyes. It is considered by most d...
The dried red bodies of an insect (Coccus Cacti) found in Mexico are
(1). PURPLE, CRIMSON AND SCARLET
(For 1 lb...
Madder consists of the ground-up dried roots of a plant Rubia
tinctorum, cultivated in France, Holland and other parts of Europe,
| Brazil Woods
Various leguminous trees, including lima, sapan and peach wood, dye
red with alum and tartar, and a purplish slate colour with bichrom...
| Weld Old Fustic Turmeric Quercitron Dyer's Broom Heather And Other Yellow Dyes
Weld, Reseda luteola, is an annual plant growing in waste places.
The whole plant is used for dyeing except the root. It is the best...
| Old Fustic
Fustic is the wood of Morus tinctoria, a tree of Central America. It
is used principally for wool. With Bichromate of Potash as mordan...
| Recipes For Dyeing With Old Fustic
(1) OLD GOLD
Boil the wool with 3 to 4 per cent chrome for 1 to 1-1/2 hours. Wash,
and dye in a separate bath for 1 to 1-1/2 hours ...
Turmeric is a powder obtained from the ground-up tubers of Curcuma
tinctoria, a plant found in India and other Eastern countries. It
Quercitron is the inner bark of the Quercus Nigra or Q. tinctoria, a
species of oak growing in the United States and Central America. ...
| Orange With Flavin Or Quercitron 1 Lb
Put into bath first 1/2 oz. Cream of Tartar. Then 3/4 oz. tin mixed
with water (important to enter the Tartar first). Enter yarn and b...
The roots and bark of Berberis Vulgaris is used principally for silk
dyeing, without a mordant. The silk is worked at 50 deg. to 60 de...
| Dyer's Broom
Genista Tinctoria. The plant grows on waste ground. It should be
picked in June or July and dried. It can be used with an alum and
Ligustrum Vulgare. The leaves dye a good fast yellow with alum and
Most of the heathers make a yellow dye, but the one chiefly used is
the Ling, Calluna vulgaris. The tips are gathered just before
| Onion Skins
Prepare by mordanting with alum. Take a sufficient quantity of onion
skins and boil for 30 minutes. This gives a good yellow. The addi...
Catechu (Cutch) is an old Indian dye for cotton. It can also be used
for wool and silk, and gives a fine rich brown. It is obtained fr...
| Light Grey
(For 6 lbs.) 1 oz. cutch, 1 oz. iron. Boil for 1/2 an hour in the
cutch, then put into boiling iron, being very careful to stir well.
| Catechu Brown
The wool is boiled for 1 to 1-1/2 hours, with 10 to 20 per cent
catechu, then sadden with 2 to 4 per cent of copper sulphate, ferrous
| Alder Bark
The bark and twigs of alder are used for dyeing brown and black. For 1
lb. wool use 1 lb. alder bark. Boil the wool with it for 2 hour...
Sumach is the ground up leaves and twigs of the Rhus coraria growing
in Southern Europe. It dyes wool a yellow and a yellow brown, but...
The green shell of the walnut fruit and the root are used for dyeing
brown. The husks to be used for dyeing must be collected green an...
| Various Recipes
MADDER for BROWN. (1 lb. wool.) Mordant with 1 oz. copperas and 1 oz.
cream of tartar. Dye with 6 ozs. madder.
MADDER, etc., for FR...
Green results from the mixing of blue and yellow in varying
proportions according to the shade of colour required.
Every dyer has...
| Recipes For Dyeing Green
(1) GREEN WITH QUERCITRON FOR WOOL
Dye the wool blue in the indigo vat, wash well. For 100 parts of wool
put 3 of chalk and 10 or 1...
| The Dyeing Of Cotton
The dyeing of cotton is difficult with the natural dye stuffs, there
are only a few colours which can be said to be satisfactory. Th...
| Boiling Out
Before dyeing cotton in the raw state, or in yarn spun direct from the
raw state, it must be boiled for several hours to extract its n...
Alum. Alum (1/4 weight of cotton) is dissolved in hot water with
carbonate of soda crystals, or other alkali (1/4 weight of alum); wor...
| Recipes For Dyeing
(1) INDIGO VAT
Take 3 oz. well ground indigo, mix into a paste with hot water. Slake
3 oz. Quicklime and boil with 6 oz. Potash or ...
| The Zinc-lime Indigo Vat
The Zinc-lime Indigo Vat. It will be necessary to explain these
words--Indigo blue is insoluble and cannot be used for dyeing. If
| The Dyeing Of Silk
Silk is covered with a natural gum which has to be removed before the
dyeing process can begin. This is done by boiling for one hour...
| Recipes For Dyeing Silk
(1) INDIGO VAT FOR BLUE
Silk is dyed in a similar manner as described for wool, but requires
stronger vats and longer dips to obtai...
All the materials used in the manufacture of clothing are called
textiles and are made of either long or short fibers. These fibers
| Wool Sorting
Fleece wool as it comes to the mill is rolled up in bundles and must
be sorted. This process consists in sorting and classifying the...
| Wool Substitutes And Waste Products
=Remanufactured= wool substitutes are extensively used in the
manufacture of woolen and worsted goods. There is no need for the
| Worsted Yarns
=Carding.= After the wool is washed it undergoes a number of
operations before it is finished into worsted or woolen yarn. The
| Woolen Yarn
In manufacturing worsted yarn every necessary operation is performed
to arrange the wool fibers so that they will lie smoothly and p...
=Preparatory to Weaving.= Yarn is wound on bobbins on the ring or mule
spinning frame. These bobbins are transferred to a machine ca...
| Dyeing And Finishing
=Dyeing.= When a fabric or fiber is impregnated with a uniform color
over its whole surface, it is said to be "simply dyed." On the ...
| Woolen And Worsted Fabrics
=Albatross.= A dress fabric of worsted warp and worsted filling; of
open texture and fancy weaves.
=Alpaca.= A thin fabric of clo...
=Cotton.= Cotton is the most important vegetable fiber used in
spinning. The cotton fiber is a soft, downy substance which grows
| Manufacture Of Cotton Yarn
=Picker Room.= The first step in the conversion of the bale of cotton
into yarn consists in giving the cotton fibers a thorough cl...
| Thread And Cotton Finishing
=Thread.= In general a twisted strand of cotton, flax, wool, silk,
etc., spun out to considerable length, is called thread. In a spe...
The art and process of forming fabrics by looping a single thread,
either by hand with slender wires or by means of a machine provid...
=Lace.= Lace is the name applied to an ornamental open work of threads
of flax, cotton, silk, gold, or silver, and occasionally of m...
| Lace Terms Defined
Alencon (Point d').--Fine needlepoint lace with the
ground of double-twist thread in a semi-net effect. Is
| Cotton Fabrics
=Albatross.= Cotton albatross cloth is a fabric made in imitation of a
worsted fabric of the same name. It has a fleecy surface. The...
=Flax.= Flax or linen occupies the first position in the group of stem
fibers, being not only the oldest, but next to cotton the...
=Hemp= is a fiber that is obtained from the hemp plant. It grows
principally in Russia, Poland, France, Italy, Asia, India, the
=Silk.= The silk of commerce is obtained from the cocoons of several
species of insects. These insects resemble strongly the ordinar...
| Principal Silk Fabrics
=Alma.= Cloth, double twilled from left to right diagonally, first
made in black only as a mourning fabric. The name is from the
| Artificial Silk
=Silk Cotton.= On account of the high price of silk various attempts
have been made to find satisfactory substitutes for it. There a...
| Substitutes For Cotton
On account of the high price of cotton various experiments have been
made in an effort to replace it with fiber from wood pulp, gras...
=Testing Textile Fabrics.= This is an age of adulteration, and next to
food there is probably no commodity that is adulterated as mu...
| History Of Textiles
The three fundamental industries that have developed from necessity
are the feeding, sheltering, and clothing of the human race. These...
| History Of The Organization Of Textile Industries
The development of the textile industry may be divided into four
stages or periods: first, the family system; second, the guild system...
| History Of Manufacturing
=Spinning.= Spinning and weaving are two of the earliest arts
practised by man. Yarn for the making of cloth was spun in the
| History Of Lace
Lace, like porcelain, stained glass, and other artistic things, has
always been an object of interest to all classes. Special patterns...