| Speaking Writing (113) Punctuation (15) Fiction Writing (19) News Writing (35) Lecturing (22) |
Articles on Speaking and Writing, Quiz Questions
|Requirements Of Speech|
It is very easy to learn how to speak and write correctly, as for all
purposes of ordinary conversation and communication, only ...
|The English Language In A Nutshell|
All the words in the English language are divided into nine great
classes. These classes are called the Parts of Speech. They are Arti...
A Pronoun is a word used for or instead of a noun to keep us from
repeating the same noun too often. Pronouns, like nouns, have case,
The three essentials of the English language are: Purity, Perspicuity
By Purity is signified the use of good English...
|Essentials Of English Grammar|
In order to speak and write the English language correctly, it is
imperative that the fundamental principles of the Grammar be m...
|Divisions Of Grammar|
There are four great divisions of Grammar, viz.:
Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.
Orthography treats of letters and t...
A letter is a mark or character used to represent an articulate sound.
Letters are divided into vowels and consonants. A vowel is a le...
|Syllables And Words|
A syllable is a distinct sound produced by a single effort of
[Transcriber's note: 1-2 words illegible] shall, pig, dog. In every
|The Parts Of Speech|
An Article is a word placed before a noun to show whether the noun is
used in a particular or general sense.
There are two articles...
An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun, that is, shows or
points out some distinguishing mark or feature of the noun; as, A
A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun; as, "John gave his pen to
James and he lent it to Jane to write her copy with it." Withou...
N. He They
N. She They
A verb is a word which implies action or the doing of something, or it
may be defined as a word which affirms, commands or asks a ques...
| What Conversation Is And What It Is Not|
Good conversation is more easily defined by what it is not than by what
it is. To come to any conclusions on this subject, one shoul...
| Present Tense|
1st person If I love If we love
| Past Perfect Tense|
1st person If I had loved If we had loved
| Future Tense|
1st person I shall be loved We shall be loved
| Future Perfect Tense|
1st person I shall have been loved We shall have been loved
| (present Tense Only)|
2nd person Be (you) loved Be (you) loved
| Present Tense|
1st person If I be loved If we be loved
| Past Tense|
1st person If I were loved If they were loved
| Present Perfect Tense|
1st person If I have been loved If we have been loved
| Past Perfect Tense|
1st person If I had been loved If we had been loved
To be loved To have been loved
Present Past Perfect
Being loved Been loved Having been loved
An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective or another
adverb. Thus, in the example--"He writes well," the adverb shows th...
A preposition connects words, clauses, and sentences together and shows
the relation between them. "My hand is on the table" shows rel...
A conjunction joins words, clauses and sentences; as "John and
James." "My father and mother have come, but I have not seen them."
An interjection is a word used to express some sudden emotion of the
mind. Thus in the examples,--"Ah! there he comes; alas! what shal...
A sentence is an assemblage of words so arranged as to convey a determinate
sense or meaning, in other words, to express a compl...
|Arrangement Of Words In A Sentence|
Of course in simple sentences the natural order of arrangement is
subject--verb--object. In many cases no other form is possible. Thus...
There are two great classes of sentences according to the general
principles upon which they are founded. These are termed the loose a...
The paragraph may be defined as a group of sentences that are closely
related in thought and which serve one common purpose. Not only ...
In Figurative Language we employ words in such a way that they differ
somewhat from their ordinary signification in commonplace ...
Lindley Murray and Goold Brown laid down cast-iron rules for punctuation,
but most of them have been broken long since and throw...
Capital letters are used to give emphasis to or call attention to
certain words to distinguish them from the context. In manuscripts t...
|X L C D M1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000.|
(9) Proper names begin with a capital; as, "Jones, Johnson, Caesar, Mark
Antony, England, Pacific, Christmas."
Such words as river,...
Many people seem to regard letter-writing as a very simple and easily
acquired branch, but on the contrary it is one of the most...
The Heading has three parts, viz., the name of the place, the date of
writing and the designation of the person or persons addressed; ...
The Subscription or ending of a letter consists of the term of respect
or affection and the signature. The term depends upon the relat...
The address of a letter consists of the name, the title and the
Mr. Hugh Black,
112 Southgate Str...
| N. Y.|
In writing to the President the superscription on the envelope should be
To the President,
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Wagstaff request the
honor of Mr. McAdoo's presence on Friday
evening, June 15th, ...
|Notes Of Introduction|
Notes of introduction should be very circumspect as the writers are in
reality vouching for those whom they introduce. Here is a speci...
In the following examples the word or words in parentheses are uncalled
for and should be omitted:
1. Fill the glass (full).
|Grammatical Errors Of Standard Authors|
Even the best speakers and writers are sometimes caught napping. Many of
our standard authors to whom we have been accustomed to look ...
|Pitfalls To Avoid|
Very often the verb is separated from its real nominative or subject by
several intervening words and in such cases one is liable to m...
Errors in ellipsis occur chiefly with prepositions.
His objection and condoning of the boy's course, seemed to say the least,
|The Split Infinitive|
Even the best speakers and writers are in the habit of placing a
modifying word or words between the to and the remaining part of the
|Other And Another|
These are words which often give to expressions a meaning far from that
intended. Thus, "I have nothing to do with that other rascal a...
|And With The Relative|
Never use and with the relative in this manner: "That is the dog I
meant and which I know is of pure breed." This is an error quite
A participle or participial phrase is naturally referred to the nearest
nominative. If only one nominative is expressed it claims all ...
Sometimes the beginning of a sentence presents quite a different
grammatical construction from its end. This arises from the fact
It must be remembered that two negatives in the English language destroy
each other and are equivalent to an affirmative. Thus "I don'...
|First Personal Pronoun|
The use of the first personal pronoun should be avoided as much as
possible in composition. Don't introduce it by way of apology and n...
|Sequence Of Tenses|
When two verbs depend on each other their tenses must have a definite
relation to each other. "I shall have much pleasure in accepting...
These prepositions are often carelessly interchanged. Between has
reference to two objects only, among to more than two. "The money wa...
Less refers is quantity, fewer to number. "No man has less virtues"
should be "No man has fewer virtues." "The farmer had some oats an...
Further is commonly used to denote quantity, farther to denote
distance. "I have walked farther than you," "I need no further
|Each Otherone Another|
Each other refers to two, one another to more than two. "Jones and
Smith quarreled; they struck each other" is correct. "Jones, Smith ...
|Each, Every, Either, Neither|
These words are continually misapplied. Each can be applied to two
or any higher number of objects to signify every one of the number
When two singular subjects are connected by neither, nor use a
singular verb; as, "Neither John nor James was there," not were
These verbs are very often confounded. Rise is to move or pass upward
in any manner; as to "rise from bed;" to increase in value, to i...
The transitive verb lay, and lay, the past tense of the neuter verb
lie, are often confounded, though quite different in meaning. The
|Says Ii Said|
"Says I" is a vulgarism; don't use it. "I said" is correct form.
Be careful to distinguish the meaning of these two little prepositions
and don't interchange them. Don't say "He went in the room" nor...
Don't confound the two. Eat is present, ate is past. "I eat the
bread" means that I am continuing the eating; "I ate the bread" means
|Sequence Of Person|
Remember that the first person takes precedence of the second and the
second takes precedence of the third. When Cardinal Wolsey said ...
|Am Comehave Come|
"I am come" points to my being here, while "I have come" intimates that
I have just arrived. When the subject is not a person, the ver...
|Past Tensepast Participle|
The interchange of these two parts of the irregular or so-called strong
verbs is, perhaps, the breach oftenest committed by careless s...
|Prepositions And The Objective Case|
Don't forget that prepositions always take the objective case. Don't say
"Between you and I"; say "Between you and me"
Don't say "I shall summons him," but "I shall summon him." Summon is a
verb, summons, a noun.
It is correct to say "I shall get a s...
"My brother has an undeniable character" is wrong if I wish to convey the
idea that he has a good character. The expression should be ...
Very many mistakes occur in the use of the pronouns. "Let you and I go"
should be "Let you and me go." "Let them and we go" should be ...
|That For So|
"The hurt it was that painful it made him cry," say "so painful."
"Don't say, These kind; those sort. Kind and sort are each singular
and require the singular pronouns this and that. In connection wit...
|This Muchthus Much|
"This much is certain" should be "Thus much or so much is certain."
These are two separate verbs and must not be interchanged. The principal
parts of flee are flee, fled, fled; those of fly are fly,
Don't say "He is well known through the land," but "He is well known
throughout the land."
|Vocation And Avocation|
Don't mistake these two words so nearly alike. Vocation is the employment,
business or profession one follows for a living; avocation ...
In the subjunctive mood the plural form were should be used with a
singular subject; as, "If I were," not was. Remember the plural for...
|A Or An|
A becomes an before a vowel or before h mute for the sake of euphony
or agreeable sound to the ear. An apple, an orange, an heir, an
The first requisite of style is choice of words, and this comes under
the head of Diction, the property of style which has reference t...
Purity of style consists in using words which are reputable, national
and present, which means that the words are in current use by th...
Propriety of style consists in using words in their proper sense and as
in the case of purity, good usage is the principal test. Many ...
Simplicity of style has reference to the choice of simple words and
their unaffected presentation. Simple words should always be used ...
Clearness of style should be one of the leading considerations with the
beginner in composition. He must avoid all obscurity and ambig...
Strength is that property of style which gives animation, energy and
vivacity to language and sustains the interest of the reader. It ...
Harmony is that property of style which gives a smoothness to the
sentence, so that when the words are sounded their connection become...
|Expressive Of Writer|
Style is expressive of the writer, as to who he is and what he is. As a
matter of structure in composition it is the indication of wha...
|Kinds Of Style|
Style has been classified in different ways, but it admits of so many
designations that it is very hard to enumerate a table. In fact ...
Rules of grammar and rhetoric are good in their own place; their laws
must be observed in order to express thoughts and ideas in...
|Writing For Newspapers|
The newspaper nowadays goes into every home in the land; what was
formerly regarded as a luxury is now looked upon as a...
|Choice Of Words|
In another place in this book advice has been given to never use a long
word when a short one will serve the same purpose. This ...
The English language is the tongue now current in England and her colonies
throughout the world and also throughout the greater ...
|Masters And Masterpieces Of Literature|
The Bible is the world's greatest book. Apart from its character as a work
of divine revelation, it is the most perfect literatu...
Homer, Dante, Cervantes, Shakespeare and Goethe.
(The best translation of Homer for the ordinary reader is by Chapman.
|A Good Library|
Besides the works mentioned everyone should endeavor to have the following:
Plutarch's Lives, Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, Chauce...
|Masterpieces Of American Literature|
Scarlet Letter, Parkman's Histories, Motley's Dutch Republic, Grant's
Memoirs, Franklin's Autobiography, Webster's Speeches, Lowell's ...
|Ten Greatest American Poets|
Bryant, Poe, Whittier, Longfellow, Lowell, Emerson, Whitman, Lanier,
Aldrich and Stoddard.
|Ten Greatest English Poets|
Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley,
|Ten Greatest English Essayists|
Bacon, Addison, Steele, Macaulay, Lamb, Jeffrey, De Quincey, Carlyle,
Thackeray and Matthew Arnold.
|Best Plays Of Shakespeare|
In order of merit are: Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Antony and
Cleopatra, Macbeth, Merchant of Venice, Henry IV, As You Like It,
| Discussion Versus Controversy|
Many people object to discussion, but they are invariably those on the
midway rounds of the conversational ladder; people to whom th...
It seems strange that, in all the long list of brilliant dissertations
on every subject under the sun, no English essayist should ha...
| What Should Guests Talk About At Dinner?|
"Good talk is not to be had for the asking. Humors must first be
accorded in a kind of overture for prolog; hour, company, and
| The Talk Of Host And Hostess At Dinner|
Sydney Smith, by all accounts a great master of the social art, said of
himself: "There is one talent I think I have to a remarkable...
| Interruption In Conversation|
Interruption, more surely than anything else, kills conversation. The
effusive talker who, in spite of his facility for words, is in...
| Power Of Fitness Tact And Nicety In Business Words|
There is an aspect of business words which has to do with social tact.
"The social tact of business words" sounds incongruous on fir...
| Good Conversation Conclusion|
Good conversation, then, is like a well-played game of whist. Each has
to give and take; each has to deal regularly round to all the...
Punctuation is a device by which we aid words to tell their story. Words
have done this at times without such aid, and may now do so...
| The Comma|
The comma is by far the most difficult of all the punctuation marks to
use correctly. Usage varies greatly from time to time and amo...
| The Semicolon|
The semicolon is used to denote a degree of separation greater than that
indicated by the comma, but less than that indicated by the...
| The Colon|
The colon marks the place of transition in a long sentence consisting of
many members and involving a logical turn of the thought. B...
| The Period|
The period, or full stop, marks the end of a declarative sentence. As a
sign it has several other uses which will appear in the para...
| The Dash|
The dash is a very useful mark which has been greatly overworked by
careless writers. It is very easy to make in manuscript and serv...
| The Parenthesis|
The parenthesis, commonly used in pairs, encloses expressions which have
no essential connection with the rest of the sentence, but ...
| The Bracket|
Brackets are used in pairs, like the parentheses. In Job composition
either brackets or parentheses may be used, as suits the fancy ...
| The Interrogation|
The interrogation is the point that asks questions. It should always be
placed outside quotation marks unless it is a part of the qu...
| The Exclamation|
The exclamation mark is the mark of strong emotion.
_Rules for the Use of the Exclamation_
1. After every expression of great...
| The Apostrophe|
The apostrophe is primarily the sign of the possessive case, but it has
several other uses.
_Rules for the Use of the Apostroph...
| The Hyphen|
The hyphen is used to join compound words; to mark the division of a
word too long to go entirely into one line; to separate the syl...
| Quotation Marks|
Quotation marks are signs used to indicate that the writer is giving
exactly the words of another. A French printer named Morel used...
| General Remarks|
Book titles are now set without points. This fashion was introduced by
Pickering of London about 1850. This method is generally to t...
1. A comma separates clauses, phrases, and particles.
2. A semicolon separates different statements.
3. A colon is the transiti...
| The Writer Himself Or Herself|
Critical Faculty--Cultivation of Genius--Observation and
Information--Open-mindedness--Attitude Toward Life--
| The Choice Of Matter|
Selection--Sincerity--Adventure--Common Problems of Life--
Originality--Novelty and Worth--Three Elements of Fictional
| Conceptive Technique: Story Types|
Conception and Execution--Utility to Know Types--Novel and
Romance--Short Story--The Three Types--Emphasis--Three
| Conceptive Technique: Plot And Situation|
Definition of Plot--Character and Plot--Dramatic Value of
Plot--Complication--Interest--Plot as Problem--Three
| Constructive Technique Of Narration[c]|
Importance--Plot and Situation--Spiritual Values of Story--
Order of Events--Introduction--Primary and Secondary Events--
| Executive Technique Of Narration|
Mode of Narration--First Person Narration--Variation--
| Executive Technique Of Narration|
Narration Method--Story of the Commonplace--Story of the
Bizarre--Vividness--Suspense--Emphasis and Suppression--
Interest--Secondary Function of Description--Distribution--
Story of Atmosphere--Effectiveness of Distributed Description
Potency of Dialogue--Mechanical Distribution--Naturalness--
Directness--Dialect--Situation--Three Resources to Meet
| Portrayal Of Character|
The Three Modes of Characterization--Dialogue--Action--
Description or Direct Statement--Aims of Characterization--
Definition--General Atmospheric Value of Fiction--Tone of
Story--Preparation of Reader for Climax--Examples--The
| The Short Story|
Definition--Two Types--Dramatic Short Story--Atmospheric
Short Story--Origins--Assumed Unity and Singleness of Effect
| The Novel|
Novel and Romance--Romanticism and Realism--Techniques of
Novel and Romance--Incoherence of Novel Relative to Short
| Discovery Of Radio-activity|
The object of this brief treatise is to give a simple account of the
development of our knowledge of radio-activity and its bearing ...
| Properties Of The Radiations|
The activity of these radio-active bodies consists in the emission of
certain radiations which may be separated into rays and studie...
| Changes In Radio-active Bodies|
Is Radio-activity a Permanent Property?
Is this power of emitting radiations a permanent property or is it
lost with the passage ...
| Nature Of The Alpha Particle|
Disintegration of the Elements
The remarkable disintegrations related in the last chapter, in which
the heaviest known elementary...
| The Structure Of The Atom|
Properties of Radium
A study of the properties of radium will aid in throwing light upon
the question as to the building up of th...
| Radio-activity And Chemical Theory|
Influence upon Chemical Theory
It can easily be seen that the revelations of radio-activity must have
a far-reaching effect upon ...
| Organization Of The Paper|
=1. The City Room
The city room is the place where a reporter
presents himself for work the first day. It is imposs...
| The Editorial Rooms|
=4. Beginning Work
As stated in the preceding chapter, the place at
which the reporter presents himself for work the first day is the...
| The Mechanical Department|
Beyond the editorial rooms is the mechanical
department, with which every reporter should be, but rarely ever is,
| The Business Department|
=30. Divisions of the Business Department
When the paper issues from
the press, it passes into the hands of the circulation manager, ...
| What News Is|
=34. Essentials of News Writing
To write successful news stories,
four requisites are necessary: the power to estimate news values
| News Sources|
=51. Second Essential of News Writing
As explained in the preceding
chapter, the first essential in news writing is a proper apprecia...
| The Lead|
 Before reading this chapter, the student should examine
the style book in the Appendix, particularly that part
| The Body Of The Story|
=121. Inaccuracy and Dullness
If the reporter has written a strong
lead for his story, he need have small worry about what shall foll...
| The Paragraph|
=141. Paragraph a Mark of Punctuation
Discussion of the paragraph
really belongs under the head of punctuation, since its purpose is ...
| The Sentence|
 Teachers having classes sufficiently advanced may find
it advisable to pass hastily over this chapter, or may
=170. Accuracy and Interest
For words, as for sentences and stories,
the same law holds,--accuracy and interest. If one's words are a...
| Interviews Speeches Courts|
=178. Four Types of Stories
To the casual newspaper reader the
various patterns of stories seem all but limitless. To the experienced...
| Accident Crime|
=210. Accident and Crime Stories
Accident and crime stories are
grouped together because they are handled alike and because they diff...
In writing stories of athletic meets and games the
reporter will find that in matters of language he has almost complete
=253. What Society News Is
The society editor's work concerns itself
with the social and personal news of the city and county in whic...
| Follow-ups Rewrites|
=260. "Follow-ups."=--"Rewrites" and "follow-up" stories are news
stories which have appeared in print. The distinction between the tw...
| Feature Stories|
=275. What the Feature Story Is
The feature, or human interest, story
is the newspaper man's invention for making stories of little n...
| Correspondence Stories|
=285. Correspondence Work
In style and construction correspondence
stories are not different from the preceding types of news stories...
| Handling Copy|
Copy is any manuscript prepared for printing, and is
written according to the individual style rules of each newspaper...
While every well-regulated newspaper has rules of its own
governing the use of capital letters, commas, dashes, parenthese...
| Capital Letters|
=18. Proper Names
Capitalize all proper names. A proper name is one
that designates a particular person, place, or thing. In particul...
| The Period|
=35. Roman Numerals
Omit the period after roman numerals: as, Louis
XIV of France.
Place a period after abbrev...
| The Colon|
=39. Formal Quotations
A colon is used to introduce a formal
The author also makes this significant
| The Semicolon|
=43. Compound Sentences
A semicolon is used in compound sentences to
separate independent clauses that have no connective between. Th...
| The Comma|
=47. Parenthetic Expressions
Parenthetic words, phrases, and clauses,
whether used at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, ar...
| The Dash|
=65. Sudden Break in Thought
Use a dash to mark a sudden suspension
of the thought or a violent break in the construction of the sent...
=71. Political Parties
In legislative or congressional reports in
which the political affiliation of a member, or the state or county...
=73. Direct Quotations
Quotation-marks are used to set off direct
quotations printed in the same type and style as the remainder of t...
| The Apostrophe|
=80. Possessive Case
Use an apostrophe and an s to indicate the
possessive case singular, no matter whether the word ends in one or t...
| The Hyphen|
=83. Compound Words
Put a hyphen between the members of a compound
word. Words compounded with the following prefixes and suffixes ar...
=88. Abbreviations Avoided
Abbreviations should as a rule be avoided.
The coming of the typewriter into journalism has created a tend...
Observe the following rules concerning dates:
1. Write year dates always in figures: as, 1776.
2. Write month dates i...
| Marks Used In Correcting Copy|
amb = Ambiguous.
and = A bad "and" sentence. Make two